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  • 1.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Shimizu, Kenichi
    Umeå University.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliation of MoS2 for paper based applications2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Shimizu, Kenichi
    Umeå University.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliated MoS2 for paper based supercapacitors and photodetectors2014In: Collection of Extent Abstracts, 2014, p. 437-438Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Contacting paper-based supercapacitors to printed electronics on paper substrates2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 476-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid printed electronics, in which printed structures and silicon-based components co-exist will likely be among the first commercial solutions. In this case the paper substrate acts much in the same way as circuit boards, containing conductive tracks and acting as a carrier for the electrical components. It is important to consider the contacting of the components to be able to produce low resistance electrical contacts to the conductive tracks. Supercapacitors are able to deliver a large amount of current in a short time and are a good option for short term energy storage and if the printed product is to be used only one, or a few times, it can be the only power source needed. When manufacturing printed electronics, the overall resistance of the printed tracks as well as the contact resistance of the mounted components will add up to the total resistance of the system. A high resistance will cause a voltage drop from the power source to the component. This will waste power that goes to Joule heating and also the voltage and current available to components may be too low to drive them. If the intention is to use a power supply such as batteries or solar cells this becomes a limitation. In this article have been tested several conductive adhesives used to contact paper based supercapacitors to ink jet printed silver tracks on paper. The best adhesive gives about 0.3 Ω per contact, a factor 17 better compared to the worst which gave 5 Ω. The peak power that is possible to take out from a printed system with a flexible battery and super capacitors is about 10 times higher than compared with the same system with only the battery.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of coatings applied to flexible substrates to enhance quality of ink jet printed silver nano-particle structures2012In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Part C, ISSN 1083-4400, E-ISSN 1558-1241, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 342-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of the commercial surface treatment InkAid have been evaluated as a surface treatment to enhance print quality of silver nano-particle ink structures printed on polyimide and polyethene substrate. Originally these coatings have been specified to be applied on substrates for graphical ink jet printing. On the coated polyimide and polyethene substrates lines of different widths have been printed using a Dimatix materials printer together with silver nano-particle ink manufactured by Advanced Nano Products. The prints have then been evaluated in terms of print quality and resistivity before and after sintering. The results show that the application of these coatings can improve the print quality considerably, making it possible to print lines with a good definition, which is not  otherwise possible with this type of ink on this substrate types. It has been found that the coating Semi Gloss provides the best results, both in terms of print quality as well as the lowest resistivity. The resistivity on polyethene is 3.5*10-7Ωm at best when sintered at 150°C and for polyimide  8.9*10-8Ωm sintered at 200°C. This corresponds to a conductivity of about  4.5% and  18%of bulk silver, respectively. It can be concluded that applying such PVP based coatings to polyethene and polyimide will increase the print quality quite substantially, making it possible to print patterns with requirements of smaller line widths and more details than what is possible without coating.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Dewire AB, Sundsvall 85185, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Investigation of Humidity Sensor Effect in Silver Nanoparticle Ink Sensors Printed on Paper2014In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 14, no 3, p. Art. no. 6615915-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin inkjet-printed tracks of silver nanoparticles have previously been observed to show a non-reversible decrease in resistance when exposed to a high degree of relative humidity and thus providing sensor functionality with a memory effect. This paper provides a more in-depth explanation of the observed humidity sensor effect that originates from inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle sensors on a paper substrate. It is shown that the geometry of the sensor has a large effect on the sensor's initial resistance, and therefore also on the sensor's resistive dynamic range. The importance of the sensor geometry is believed to be due to the amount of solvent from the ink interacting with the coating of the paper substrate, which in turn enables the diffusion of salts from the paper coating into the ink and thus affecting the silver ink.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH and Co. KG, Burg Gretesch, D-49086, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    The influence of paper coating content on room temperature sintering of silver nanoparticle ink2013In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 24, no 45, p. Art. no. 455203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistance of inkjet printed lines using a silver nanoparticle based ink can be very dependent on the substrate. A very large difference in resistivity was observed for tracks printed on paper substrates with aluminum oxide based coatings compared to silica based coatings. Silica based coatings are often cationized with polymers using chloride as a counter ion. It is suggested that the precipitation of silver salts is the cause of the high resistivity, since papers pretreated with salt solutions containing ions that precipitate silver salts gave a high resistance. Silver nitrate has a high solubility and paper pretreated with nitrate ions gave a low resistivity without sintering. The results obtained show that, by choosing the correct type of paper substrate, it is possible to manufacture printed structures, such as interconnects on paper, without the need for, or at least to reduce the need for, post-print sintering. This phenomenon is, of course, ink specific. Inks without or with a low silver ion content are not expected to behave in this manner. In some sensor applications, a high resistivity is desired and, by using the correct combination of ink and paper, these types of sensors can be facilitated.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Inkjet printed silver nanoparticle humidity sensor with memory effect on paper2012In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1901-1905Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the design and the manufacture of an inkjet printed resistive type humidity sensor on paper are reported. After having been exposed to humidity above a given threshold level, the resistance of the sensor decreases substantially and remains at that level even when thehumidity is reduced. It is possible to deduce the humidity level by monitoring the resistance. The main benefit of the printed sensor presented in this case is in relation to its very low production costs. It has also been shown that both the ink type and this paper combination used prove to be crucial in order to obtain the desired sensor effect. More research is required in order to fully understand the humidity sintering effect on the nano particle ink and the role of the substrate. However, the observed effect can be put to use in printed humidity sensors which possess a memoryfunction. The sensor can be used in various applications for environmental monitoring, for example, in situations where a large number of inexpensive and disposable humidity sensors are required which are able to detect whether they have been subjected to high humidity. This could be the checking of transportation conditions of goods or monitoring humidity within buildings. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of InkAid surface treatment to enhance print quality of ANP silver nano-particle ink on plastic substrates2010In: Large Area, Organic & Printed Electronics (LOPE-C) 2010, Frankfurt, 2010, p. 241-245Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Characterization of nanographite and graphene produced in a high-pressure homogenizer2014In: Graphene Week 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supercapacitor electrodes are often made of porous carbon materials such as activated carbon, but also graphene was frequently used as active electrode material. Graphene can be produced by mechanical exfoliation, chemical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition or other elaborate methods. These techniques are relatively expensive and produce small quantities only. Recently we presented a method to produce nanographite and graphene by mechanical exfoliation of graphite in a high-pressure homogenizer. In our contribution “Large-scale production of graphene” by Nicklas Blomquist we suggest to optimize the geometry of the shear zone and increase the feeding pressure to obtain a higher yield.

    In this study we evaluated the influence of these process optimizations on the structural and electrical properties of the nanographite-graphene mixture. The produced dispersions were characterized in terms of particle size and shape by using a particle size analyzer, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). In order to analyze the performance of the produced material as electrodes for supercapacitors, electrodes were produced by vacuum filtration. The electrodes were studied by sheet-resistance and capacitance measurements. Furthermore, the structure of the electrode surface and the cross section of the electrode were visualized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Comparisons with previously produced nanographite-graphene dispersions showed an increase in yield of the exfoliated nanomaterials. The optimized shear zone increased the production of nanosized particles and flakes and enhanced the material quality.

  • 10.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Inexpensive production of graphene by mechanical treatment of graphite2014In: Graphene Study 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cellulose-based binder systems for electrochemical electrodes2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Electrode Mass Balancing as an Inexpensive and Simple Method to Increase the Capacitance of Electric Double-Layer Capacitors2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1-12, article id e0163146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) have equal masses of the same active material in both electrodes. However, having equal electrode masses may prevent the EDLC to have the largest possible specific capacitance if the sizes of the hydrated anions and cations in the electrolyte differ because the electrodes and the electrolyte may not be completely utilized. Here we demonstrate how this issue can be resolved by mass balancing. If the electrode masses are adjusted according to the size of the ions, one can easily increase an EDLC's specific capacitance. To that end, we performed galvanostatic cycling to measure the capacitances of symmetric EDLCs with different electrode mass ratios using four aqueous electrolytes-Na2SO4, H2SO4, NaOH, and KOH (all with a concentration of 1 M)-and compared these to the theoretical optimal electrode mass ratio that we calculated using the sizes of the hydrated ions. Both the theoretical and experimental values revealed lower-than-1 optimal electrode ratios for all electrolytes except KOH. The largest increase in capacitance was obtained for EDLCs with NaOH as electrolyte. Specifically, we demonstrate an increase of the specific capacitance by 8.6% by adjusting the electrode mass ratio from 1 to 0.86. Our findings demonstrate that electrode mass balancing is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the capacitance of EDLCs. Furthermore, our results imply that one can reduce the amount of unused material in EDLCs and thus decrease their weight, volume and cost.

  • 13.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Enhanced electrical and mechanical properties of nanographite electrodes for supercapacitors by addition of nanofibrillated cellulose2014In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 251, no 12, p. 2581-2586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene and porous carbon materials are widely used as electrodes in supercapacitors. In order to form mechanically stable electrodes, binders can be added to the conducting electrode material. However, most bindersdegrade the electrical performance of the electrodes. Here we show that by using nanofibrillated cellulose(NFC) as binder the electrical properties, such as capacitance, were enhanced. The highest capacitance was measured at a NFC content of approximately 10% in ratio to the total amount of active material. NFC is a good ionconductor and improves the access of ions in the electrodes. Thus, electrodes made of a mixture of nanographite and NFC achieved larger capacitances in supercapacitors than electrodes with nanographite only. In addition to electrical properties, NFC enhanced the mechanical stability and wet strength of the electrodes significantly. Furthermore, NFC stabilized the aqueous nanographite dispersions, which improved the processability. Galvanostatic cycling was performed and an initial transient behaviour of the supercapacitors during the first cycles was observed. However, stabilized supercapacitors showed efficiencies of 98–100 %.

  • 14.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Enhanced electrical and mechanical properties of nanographite electrodes for supercapacitors by addition of nanobrillated cellulose2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene and other porous carbon materials are widely used as electrodes in supercapacitors. In order to form mechanically stable electrodes, binders can be added to the conducting electrode material. However, most binders degrade the electrical performance of the electrodes. Here we show that by using nanobrillated cellulose (NFC) as binder the electrical properties, such as sheet-resistance, were enhanced. NFC is a good ion conductor and improves the access of ions to the electrodes. Thus electrodes made of a mixture of nanographite and NFC achieved larger capacitances in supercapacitors than electrodes with nanographite only. The lowest sheet-resistance and the highest capacitance were measured at NFC contents of 10{15% in ratio to the total amount of active material. Furthermore, NFC formed a network that improved the mechanical stability of the electrodes signicantly. Beside the mechanical stability, NFC stabilized the aqueous nanographite dispersion that was used to prepare the electrodes. NFC avoids the restacking of the delaminated graphene akes by forming a ber network between the graphene layers.

  • 15.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of Electrode Mass Ratio on Capacitance of Supercapacitors2015In: Abstract Book, ISEECap 2015, 2015, p. 132-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Andres, Britta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Vilches, Ana Paola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Supercapacitors with graphene coated paper electrodes2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 481-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper based supercapacitors are prepared by stacking a paper between two graphene electrodes and soaking these in an aqueous electrolyte. We demonstrate that supercapacitors can easily be manufactured by using proven paper technologies. Several different electrode materials were compared and two types of contacting material, silver and graphite foil were tested. The influence of the paper used as separator was also investigated. The supercapacitors with a graphene-gold nanoparticle composite as electrodes showed a specific capacitance of up to 100 F/g and an energy density of 1.27 Wh/kg. The energy density can further be increased by using other electrolytes. The silver contacts showed a pseudo capacitance, which the graphite contacts did not. The papers tested had a minor effect on the capacitance, but they have an influence on the weight and the volume of the supercapacitor.

  • 17.
    Balliu, Enkeleda
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Laser-assisted reduction of graphene oxide for paper based large area flexible electronics2016In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2016, Vol. 9736, article id 973610Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a promising method for fabrication of conductive tracks on paper based substrates by laser assisted reduction of Graphene Oxide (GO). Printed electronics on paper based substrates is be coming more popular due to lower cost and recyclability. Fabrication of conductive tracks is of great importance where metal, carbon and polymer inks are commonly used. An emerging option is reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), which can be a good conductor. Here we have evaluated reduction of GO by using a 532 nm laser source, showing promising results with a decrease of sheet resistance from >100 M Ω/Sqr for unreduced GO down to 126 Ω/Sqr. without any observable damage to the paper substrates.

  • 18.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Large-Scale Production of Nanographite by Tube-Shear Exfoliation in Water2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, article id e0154686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of applications based on graphene, few-layer graphene, and nanographite is rapidly increasing. A large-scale process for production of these materials is critically needed to achieve cost-effective commercial products. Here, we present a novel process to mechanically exfoliate industrial quantities of nanographite from graphite in an aqueous environment with low energy consumption and at controlled shear conditions. This process, based on hydrodynamic tube shearing, produced nanometer-thick and micrometer-wide flakes of nanographite with a production rate exceeding 500 gh-1 with an energy consumption about 10 Whg-1. In addition, to facilitate large-area coating, we show that the nanographite can be mixed with nanofibrillated cellulose in the process to form highly conductive, robust and environmentally friendly composites. This composite has a sheet resistance below 1.75 Ω/sq and an electrical resistivity of 1.39×10-4 Ωm and may find use in several applications, from supercapacitors and batteries to printed electronics and solar cells. A batch of 100 liter was processed in less than 4 hours. The design of the process allow scaling to even larger volumes and the low energy consumption indicates a low-cost process.

  • 19.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. STT Emtec AB, Sundsvall.
    Wells, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Metal-free supercapacitor with aqueous electrolyte and low-cost carbon materials2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 39836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SCs) are fast energy storage devices with high pulse efficiency and superior cyclability, which makes them useful in various applications including electronics, vehicles and grids. Aqueous SCs are considered to be more environmentally friendly than those based on organic electrolytes. Because of the corrosive nature of the aqueous environment, however, expensive electrochemically stable materials are needed for the current collectors and electrodes in aqueous SCs. This results in high costs for a given energy-storage capacity. To address this, we developed a novel low-cost aqueous SC using graphite foil as the current collector and a mix of graphene, nanographite, simple water-purification carbons and nanocellulose as electrodes. The electrodes were coated directly onto the graphite foil by using casting frames and the SCs were assembled in a pouch cell design. With this approach, we achieved a material cost reduction of greater than 90% while maintaining approximately one-half of the specific capacitance of a commercial unit, thus demonstrating that the proposed SC can be an environmentally friendly, low-cost alternative to conventional SCs.

  • 20.
    Dahlström, Christina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Coating Uniformity and its Effect on Supercapacitor Capacitance2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Engqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andreasson, B
    Karlsson, O
    Lund University.
    Interactions between single latex particles and silica surfaces studied with AFM2007In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 302, no 1-3, p. 197-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spreading of single styrene-acrylic latex particles on silicon oxide surfaces was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three latexes with different glass transition temperature (Tg) were used and the effects of temperature, time and preparation method were investigated. Particle sizes and shape were measured with AFM and the contact angles were calculated. The observed rate for the spreading of latex particles was low and it took several days before the particles reached steady state, even at temperatures well above their Tg. The experimental particle spreading results deviated with two orders of magnitude from predictions using the WLF equation for polymer diffusion. The deviation could be attributed to polymer-surface interactions that slowed down the particle spreading. The work of adhesion was calculated using two models. The results from using the regular Young-Dupré equation and a modified version of this equation that also included the mechanical properties (E-modulus and Poisson�s ratio) of the latexes, were compared. For soft latex particles the results from the two models agreed well and were of the order of 75 J/m2, but for glassy latexes the Young-Dupré equation underestimated the work of adhesion.

  • 22.
    Fjellström, Helena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Inhibition of light-induced brightness reversion of high-yield pulps: the UV-screening properties of coating layers containing kaolin or calcium carbonate pigments2007In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 350-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A newly developed method making it possible to study the reflectance/transmittance of thin coating layers and to link this to the inhibition of the light-induced yellowing, was used to describe the photo-stabilising properties of different types of commercial kaolin and calcium carbonate pigments. A base paper produced from a hydrogen-peroxide-bleached birch chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) was used throughout the study.The transmittance of the coating layers in the UV-region (300-385 nm) was found to be very low (below 1.0% at coat weights < 5g/m2) for all of the tested pigments, it strongly depends on the coat weight especially for coat weights below 10 g/m2. The kaolin pigments examined were found to be better in inhibiting the brightness reversion compared to the calcium carbonate pigments, even though the differences between the pigment types were only a few brightness units. The coating layer was, however, able to conceal some of the colour formed through the light-induce brightness reversion. For example, a coating layer consisting of kaolin pigments (coat weight of 15.6 g/m2) could conceal about 30% of the discoloration of the CTMP base paper.

  • 23.
    Fjellström, Helena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Paulsson, Martin
    Rundlöf, Mats
    A novel method of studying the ability of coating layer to retard the photo-yellowing of the base paper2007In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 343-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed which made it possible to study the reflectance/transmittance of thin coating layers and to link this to the inhibition of the light-induced yellowing. The ability of a coating layer to retard the photo-yellowing of a hydrogen-peroxide-bleached birch chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) is exemplified using this method. It is shown that the repeatability of the model system is excellent, even for coat weights below 10 g/m2. Furthermore, the transmittance in the UV-region is strongly correlated with the coating layers ability to protect the birch CTMP against photo-yellowing.

  • 24.
    Fjellström, Helena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Paulsson, M
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of coating formulation on light-induced brightness stability of mechanical and chemimechanical pulp sheets2005In: International Mechanical Pulping Conference: IMPC 2005, Oslo, Norway, 7-9 June 2005, 2005, p. 339-343Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The light-induced brightness reversion of different types of high-yield pulps has been studied under accelerated and long-term ambient ageing conditions. It was found that accelerated ageing (xenon lamp used as light source) overestimates the yellowing tendencies of hardwood pulps, whereas it was possible to predict the yellowing characteristics of softwood pulps. The lignin content of the pulps was found to be correlated to the degree of photo-yellowing for long-term ambient ageing. A model system was developed which made it possible to study the reflectance/transmittance of thin coating layers and to link this to the inhibition of the light-induced yellowing. The yellowing characteristics of a coated birch CTMP is exemplified using the evolved model system.

  • 25.
    Fjellström, Helena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    A novel method for studying the photo-stabilising properties of coating layers2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new model system was developed which made it possible to study the reflectance and transmittance of thin coating layers (<10 g/m2) in a reproducible way, and to link this to the inhibition of the light-induced yellowing (Figure 1). The UV/VIS-screening properties of coatings of different coat weights containing common pigments such as kaolin, calcium carbonate (ground or precipitated) and titanium dioxide will be reported. The ability of a coating layer to protect a birch CTMP from light-induced discoloration will be exemplified using the evolved model system. An estimation of the contribution of different wavelength regions of the illuminating light to the photo-yellowing of various types of materials will also be shown. The developed method is a valuable tool for future photo-yellowing studies as well as for optimisation of the pigment coating formulation for various paper grades.

  • 26.
    Fjellström, Helena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    The UV-screening properties of coating layers: The influence of pigments, binders and additives2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 206-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of coating colours to obstruct ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the 300-385 nm region was examined with the aim of finding the best photo-stabilising formulation to inhibit discoloration of high-yield pulps. The influence of pigment type, bleaching of the pigments, pigment size, pigment size distribution, type of binder and addition of U-V-absorbing compounds were examined using a newly developed method for studying the reflectance and transmittance properties of thin coating layers.

    The pigment type and coat weight was found to be the most important factors for reducing the transmittance of UV-radiation. Kaolin clays were more effective than calcium carbonate pigments and are therefore a better coating pigment for photostability reasons. Bleaching of the pigments, resulted in an overall minor decrease in transmittance for both kaolin and ground calcium carbonate (GCC) pigments, especially at low coat weights. Bleaching of the pigments changed the particle size distribution somewhat, which probably alters the structure in the coating layer. Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) pigments have a higher UV-screening potential compared to GCC pigments and should therefore be a better choice among the calcium carbonates. It was further concluded that a narrow pigment size distribution was beneficial for reducing the amount of transmitted UV-radiation that reaches the base paper. Styrene butadiene latex and polyvinylpyrrolidone were better in reducing the transmittance in the UV-region than polyvinyl alcohol.

    Adding a fluorescent whitening agent to a coating colour decreased the transmittance in the UV-region when the pigment was of the GCC type, and increased the transmittance when kaolin pigment was used. Addition of titanium dioxide (3 parts) to a coating colour containing kaolin pigment blocked about 90% of the UV-radiation at a coat weight of 10 g/m(2), which is a common coat weight for a single coated paper. Another possibility is to double coat to increase the coat weight, which turns the transmittance factor closed to zero.

  • 27.
    Forsberg, Sven
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Paper-based supercapacitors2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Forsberg, Sven
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kumar, Vinay
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Maristiina, Nurmi
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Martti, Toivakka
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Effect of calendering and coating formulations on conductivity in paper-based electrodes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Fredriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wood Fibre Composites with High Fibre Content2005Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Henshaw Osong, Sinke
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Development of CTMP-based nanofibrillated Cellulose /nanographite composites for paper applications2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kumar, V.
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nurmi, M.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Toivakka, M.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Conductive carbon-nanocellulose coatings on paper2017In: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon 2017: Renew, Rethink, Redefine the Future, TAPPI Press , 2017, p. 26-35Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kumar, Vinay
    et al.
    Åbo Akad Univ, Turku, Finland.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nurmi, Maristiina
    Åbo Akad Univ, Turku, Finland.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Toivakka, Martti
    Åbo Akad Univ, Turku, Finland.
    Conductive nanographite-nanocellulose coatings on paper2017In: Flexible And Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 2, no 3, article id aa728eArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper products with active and functional coatings have attracted interest in recent years to counter the stagnating demand for traditional graphic paper grades. Conductive coatings have potential uses in various energy generation and storage applications, e.g. in batteries, supercapacitors, and photovoltaics. The current work aims to demonstrate large-scale production of flexible low-cost nanographite coatings on paper-based substrate. The large aspect ratio of graphene present in the suspension limits solids content to very low values, which makes it challenging to create thick coating layers required for high conductivity. The use of nanocellulose binder together with a custom-built slot-coating device enables roll-to-roll coating of thick conductive coatings on paper. The rheological and water-retention properties of nanographite-nanocellulose suspensions are reported. The influence of coat weight, carbon black addition, and calendering on coating structure and the resulting conductivity of the coatings is investigated. Impact of humidity and bending/creasing of coated samples on their electrical performance is explored as well. The lowest surface resistances obtained were in the range 1-2 Ohm/square, for 15 g m(-2) coat weight. Increasing the coat weight and calendering nip load resulted in higher conductivity of coatings. Carbon black addition deteriorated the conductivity somewhat, probably due to increased porosity of coatings. Moisture and creasing did not affect significantly the conductivity of high coat weight and calendered samples. The results reported are very encouraging for future research on further improving the electrical performance of such carbon coatings.

  • 33.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Karlsson, Ola
    Changes with aging in the surface hydrophobicity of coated paper2010In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 40-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-dependent changes in the surface properties of coated papers were studied as the evolution of surface hydrophobicity of laboratory and commercially coated papers. We measured the apparent contact angles on the papers during several weeks post-production. Hydrophobicity upon aging increased for all samples made from traditional coating colors on mechanical base stock and on base stock made from cotton linters. Accelerated aging by heat treatment intensified the increase of the apparent contact angles and accelerated the time-dependent behavior. A key mechanism in these changes may be the spreading of latex particles in a coating.

  • 34.
    Osong, Sinke Henshaw
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nanofibrillated cellulose/nanographite composite films2016In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 2487-2500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though research into nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has recently increased, few studies have considered co-utilising NFC and nanographite(NG) in composite films, and, it has, however been a challenge to use high-yield pulp fibres (mechanical pulps) to produce this nanofibrillar material. It is worth noting that there is a significant difference between chemical pulp fibres and high-yield pulp fibres, as the former is composed mainly of cellulose and has a yield of approximately 50 % while the latter is consist of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and has a yield of approximately 90 %. NFC was produced by combining TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethypiperidine-1-oxyl)-mediated oxidation with the mechanical shearing of chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) and sulphite pulp (SP); the NG was produced by mechanically exfoliating graphite. The different NaClO dosages in the TEMPO system differently oxidised the fibres, altering their fibrillation efficiency. NFC-NG films were produced by casting in a Petri dish. We examine the effect of NG on the sheet-resistance and mechanical properties of NFC films. Addition of 10 wt% NG to 90 wt% NFC of sample CC2 (5 mmol NaClO CTMP-NFC homogenised for 60 min) improved the sheet resistance, i.e. from that of an insulating pure NFC film to 180 Omega/sq. Further addition of 20 (CC3) and 25 wt% (CC4) of NG to 80 and 75 wt% respectively, lowered the sheet resistance to 17 and 9 Omega/sq, respectively. For the mechanical properties, we found that adding 10 wt% NG to 90 wt% NFC of sample HH2(5 mmol NaClO SP-NFC homogenised for 60 min) improved the tensile index by 28 %, tensile stiffness index by 20 %, and peak load by 28 %. The film's surface morphology was visualised using scanning electron microscopy, revealing the fibrillated structure of NFC and NG. This methodology yields NFC-NG films that are mechanically stable, bendable, and flexible.

  • 35. Wågberg, Lars
    et al.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, A
    Juntti, P
    Engineering of fibre surface properties by application of the polyelectrolyte multilayer concept: Part I: Modification of paper strength2002In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consecutive layers of cationic polyallylamine and anionic polyacrylic acid have been deposited on both unbeaten and beaten fully bleached cellulosic fibres. By preparing sheets of these fibres and by forming 5-10 layers of these polyelectrolytes on the unbeaten fibres, it was possible to develop the same strength as can be achieved by conventional beating. Experiments show that considerable strength improvement can be achieved with this type of treatment also on beaten fibres. Atomic force microscopy investigations of multilayers of the polylectrolytes formed on silicon oxide surfaces showed that the thickness of 10 layers of polyelectrolytes was 52 nm. Since the strength improvement was significant with 5 layers, it is suggested that a 26 nm thick multilayer of polyelectrolytes is sufficient to create a strong joint between fibres. The structure of the polyelectrolyte multilayers formed on the fibres was not determined.

  • 36.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Thermally reduced kaolin-graphene oxide nanocomposites for gas sensing2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, p. Art. no. 7676-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly sensitive graphene-based gas sensors can be made using large-area single layer graphene, but the cost of large-area pure graphene is high, making the simpler reduced graphene oxide (rGO) an attractive alternative. To use rGO for gas sensing, however, require a high active surface area and slightly different approach is needed. Here, we report on a simple method to produce kaolin-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites and an application of this nanocomposite as a gas sensor. The nanocomposite was made by binding the GO flakes to kaolin with the help of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The GO flakes in the nanocomposite were contacting neighboring GO flakes as observed by electron microscopy. After thermal annealing, the nanocomposite become conductive as showed by sheet resistance measurements. Based on the conductance changes of the nanocomposite films, electrical gas sensing devices were made for detecting NH3 and HNO3. These devices had a higher sensitivity than thermally annealed multilayer GO films. This kaolin-GO nanocomposite might be useful in applications that require a low-cost material with large conductive surface area including the demonstrated gas sensors.

  • 37.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Sverker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Soap-film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, p. Art. no. 1477-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology.

  • 38.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Sverker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kalsson, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms using soap-film coating2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms using soap-film coating

    Renyun Zhang, Henrik A. Andersson, Mattias Andersson, Britta Andres, Per Edström, Sverker Edvardsson, Sven Forsberg, Magnus Hummelgård, Niklas Johansson, Kristoffer Karlsson, Hans-Erik Nilsson, Martin Olsen, Tetsu Uesaka, Thomas Öhlund & Håkan Olin

    Department of Applied Science and Design, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden

    Email: renyun.zhang@miun.se or hakan.olin@miun.se

    Coating1 of thin films is of importance for making functionalized surfaces with applications in many fields from electronics to consumer packaging. To decrease the cost, large scale roll-to-roll2 coating techniques are usually done at high speed, for example, ordinary printing paper is coated at a speed of tens of meters per second by depositing micrometer thick layers of clay. However, nanometer thin films are harder to coat at high speed by wet-chemical methods, requiring special roll-to-roll vacuum techniques3 with the cost of higher complexity.

    Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for high-speed coating of films down to molecular thicknesses, called soap-film coating (SFC)4. The technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. In the simplest laboratory version, the films can be deposited by a hand-coating procedure set up in a couple of minutes. The method is quite general molecules or nanomaterials or sub-micrometer materials (Figure 1) with thicknesses ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. The applications of soap-film coating is quite wide an we will show solar cells, electrochromic devices, optical nanoparticle crystals, and nano-film devices. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology.

    Fig. 1. Soap film coating of nanoparticles, layered materials, nanowires, and molecules. a sub-monolayer 240 nm silica nanoparticle (scale bar 2 µm) b monolayer c double layer. d monolayer gold nanoparticles. e single layer TiO2 nanoparticles. f sub-monolayer polystyrene (scale 2 µm), g monolayer of polystyrene. h triple-layer of polystyrene. i monolayer of Ferritin.  j AFM image of <1.5 layer GO film (3 µm x 2 µm). k clay on glass (scale 2 µm). l SFC coated nanocellulose. m Absorbance spectra Rhodamine B on a glass slide. AFM of SDS layers n (2 µm x 1.5 µm) and o (20 µm x 15 µm).

    References

    1. Tracton, A. A. Coating Technology Handbook (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006).

    2. Ohring, M. Materials science of thin films. (Academic press., 2001).

    3. Charles, B. Vacuum deposition onto webs, films and foils. (William Andrew, 2011).

    Zhang, R. Y., Andersson, H. A., Andersson, M., Andres, B., Edström, P., Edvardsson, S., Forsberg, S., Hummelgård, M., Johansson, N., Karlsson, K., Nilsson, H.-E., Olsen, M., Uesaka, T., Öhlund, T., Olin H. Soap film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms. Submitted.

  • 39.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schuppert, Anna
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings2015In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, p. 64841-64849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet-printed metal films are important within the emerging field of printed electronics. For large-scale manufacturing, low-cost flexible substrates and low temperature sintering is desired. Tailored coated substrates are interesting for roll-to-roll fabrication of printed electronics, since a suitable tailoring of the ink-substrate system may reduce, or remove, the need for explicit sintering. Here we utilize specially designed coated papers, containing chloride as an active sintering agent. The built-in sintering agent greatly assists low-temperature sintering of inkjet-printed AgNP films. Further, we examine the effect of variations in coating pore size and precoating type. Interestingly, we find that the sintering is substantially affected by these parameters.

  • 40.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Paper Surfaces for Metal Nanoparticle Inkjet Printing2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 259, p. 731-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread usage of paper and board offer largely unexploited possibilities for printed electronics applications. Reliability and performance of printed devices on comparatively rough and inhomogenous surfaces of paper does however pose challenges.Silver nanoparticle ink has been deposited on ten various paper substrates by inkjet printing. The papers are commercially available, and selected over a range of different types and construction. A smooth nonporous polyimide film was included as a nonporous reference substrate. The substrates have been characterized in terms of porosity, absorption rate, apparent surface energy, surface roughness and material content. The electrical conductivity of the resulting printed films have been measured after drying at 60°C and again after additional sintering at 110°C. A qualitative analysis of the conductivity differences on the different substrates based on surface characterization and SEM examination is presented. Measurable parameters of importance to the final conductivity are pointed out, some of which are crucial to achieve conductivity. When certain criteria of the surfaces are met, paper media can be used as low cost, but comparably high performance substrates for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

1 - 40 of 40
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