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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desiree
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Uppsala Universitet.
    Moving or doing? Knowledge flow, problem solving, and change in industrial networks2006In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, scholars have put forward the idea that change in industrial networks depends on the relationships and networks themselves. However, models are still lacking that conceptualize the heterogeneity of relationships and networks and that show how this heterogeneity actually affects change. This paper puts for-ward a model suggesting that network structure-in terms of an open or closed system-and relational embeddedness together affect the ways knowledge is gained, given knowledge flow and problem solving as two sources of knowledge. Moreover, the paper proposes that this effect influences the tacitness and novelty of the knowledge gained. Additionally, network structure and gained knowledge are postulated to have an impact on two changes, the establishment of relationships and the development of technology, which take place in industrial networks. The paper advances six propositions and concludes with implications for research and practice.

  • 2.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Holmström, Christine
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The impact of international networking capabilities on the performance of international returnee ventures: Evidence from China2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Holmström Lind, Christine
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    The performance of international returnee ventures: the role of networking capability and the usefulness of international business knowledge2016In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 28, no 9-10, p. 657-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sheds light on the international new ventures led by returnee entrepreneurs and investigates the influence of networking capability and the usefulness of international knowledge for the overall performance of so-called international returnee ventures (IRVs). By integrating network theory with a capability view of firm performance, it advances six hypotheses that form a structural model, which is tested with LISREL on a sample of 194 IRVs from China. The findings show that international networking capability has a positive influence on the provision of international business knowledge, which in turn is positively related to the innovation performance, but they have a negative impact on the financial performance. Hence, this study presents a discussion of the usefulness of knowledge gained from the international network relationships of emerging market returnee entrepreneurs.

  • 4.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China; Uppsala University.
    Holmström-Lind, Christine
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala University; Dalarna University.
    Leveraging networks, capabilities and opportunities for international success: A study on returnee entrepreneurial ventures2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By integrating social capital theory with a capability-based view on performance, this paper aims to examine the extent to which returnee entrepreneurial ventures (REVs) gain international performance advantages from the founding entrepreneurs’ experience with international networks. Using data on 200 Chinese REVs, the paper proposes and tests a structural model with a focus on the link between individual entrepreneurs and the subsequent development of firm capabilities. The results provide evidence that it is important that the returnee entrepreneurs have an international social network for the REV to develop an international network capability, which, in turn, mediates the effects on opportunity knowledge and the international performance of the REVs. The findings highlight the concurrent effect of the role of entrepreneurs and organizational learning in internationalization, and they provide an understanding as to the importance of the returnee-specific advantages for the international performance of these firms. 

  • 5.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China; Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala University; Dalarna University.
    International opportunity networks2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 70, no April 2018, p. 167-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunity seeking has become increasingly important for explaining firm internationalization, but our understanding of how opportunity is mediated within international networks is limited. This study probes the concept of network-mediated opportunities and attempts to identify what drives a firm's reception of new international opportunities. Based on the notion of opportunity in the entrepreneurship literature with the network view on internationalization, we bring together the concepts of relationships, networks, capabilities, and opportunity in a structural model, where we hypothesize that network-mediated opportunity is dependent on networking capability. This, in turn, is positively influenced by network closure and relational embeddedness. We test the model on a sample of 200 Chinese firms. The analysis partly supports the model, as we find that networking capability is a mediating factor between relational embeddedness and network-mediated opportunity, but does not mediate the relationship between network closure and network-mediated opportunity; on the other hand, we find a direct relationship between network closure and network-mediated opportunity. The paper ends with a discussion of the results and suggestions for future research.

  • 6.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Martin Martin, Oscar
    Public University of Navarre.
    Returnee entrepreneur firms: A knowledge-driven model of internationalization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Martin Martin, Oscar
    Public University of Navarre.
    Returnee Entrepreneurial Firms’ Innovation Performance: The Role of Business Relationships and Resources2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala University.
    Martín Martín, Oscar
    Public University of Navarre, Navarre, Pamplona, Spain.
    Knowledge and internationalization of returnee entrepreneurial firms2017In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 652-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to answer whether and how returnee entrepreneurs’ international experience and returnee entrepreneurial firms’ international market knowledge influence these firms’ internationalization. Anchored in a framework combining an entrepreneurial and knowledge-based view, we develop a model and four hypotheses on the relations between returnee entrepreneurs’ international experience, international market knowledge, international market commitment, and level of internationalization of the returnee entrepreneurial firm. Empirical evidence of the proposed model is derived from a recent sample of Chinese returnee SMEs in knowledge-intensive and high-technology industries. The main finding is that returnee entrepreneurs’ international experience nurtures international market knowledge of returnee entrepreneurial firms, which in turn has a positive effect on these firms’ international market commitment and level of internationalization. In terms of theory, the study extends our understanding of returnee entrepreneurial firms by uncovering the role of returnee entrepreneurs’ international experience and returnee firms’ international market knowledge during their initial and early international expansion.

  • 9.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desiree
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Kao Tsung, Pao
    Uppsala universitet.
    Internationalisation into emerging markets as a strategy process2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kao, Pao T
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    From outsider to insider: Opportunity development in foreign market networks2015In: Journal of International Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1570-7385, E-ISSN 1573-7349, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 337-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By applying the network position concept, we untangle the firm's recognition and exploitation of opportunities during the internationalisation process. We view the transition of network position from outsidership to insidership, in terms of the strength and number of relationships in the foreign market network. Departing from the revised Uppsala model, we argue that opportunity development in the business network consists of recognition and exploitation. Path dependence impacts how a firm exploits opportunity in the network as well as the next opportunity to be recognised, as they are contingent on the network position. Four opportunities are identified from a historical case study of Elekta, a Swedish medical device manufacturer that entered China between 1980 and 2010. We analyse the initial network position of the firm, its opportunity recognition and exploitation, and the network position of the firm in return. Based on the cases we demonstrate that outsidership tends to lead to discovery, while insidership results in creation. The insidership enables direct and indirect relationships, which are involved in the exploitation of the opportunity.

  • 11.
    Chetty, Sylvie
    et al.
    Univ Otago, Sch Business, Ctr Entrepreneurship, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Martin Martin, Oscar
    Univ Publ Navarra, Dept Business Adm, Pamplona 31006, Navarre, Spain.
    Speed of Internationalization: Conceptualization, Measurement and Validation2014In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 633-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better manage and understand the speed at which firms internationalize, managers and scholars need an appropriate conceptualization and a reliable and valid measure of speed of internationalization. The literature, however, adopts a limited temporal perspective and usually conceptualizes and measures it as the time it takes the firm to start to internationalize. This unidimensional view neglects the central aspects of internationalization that create speed. Our purpose is, therefore, to propose a new, theory-driven – embedded in the main concepts of the original Uppsala model – and multidimensional conceptualization and operationalization. The main contribution is that we develop this conceptualization and measure.

  • 12.
    Hallén, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johanson, Martin
    Integration of relationships and business network development in the Russian transition economy2004In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 158-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transistion to market economy in Russia in the 1980s and 1990s is analysed in terms of fragmented and and integrated relationships in business networks. A longitudinal case study of the relationships of a Russian company shows that integrated relationships are replacing fragmented ones, that is, relationships which only include either exchange connections or resource use dependence are phased out in favour of relationships which include both these dimensions. This development towards a network of integrated relationships is driven by the pressure of change generated by the incompleteness of fragmented relationships but slowed down by the complexity of multilateral use dependence.

  • 13.
    Hallén, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johanson, Martin
    Sudden death: Dissolution of relationships in the Russian transition economy2004In: Journal of marketing management, ISSN 0267-257X, Vol. 20, no 9/10, p. 941-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of a printing house in Russia is used to analyse relationship dissolution after the Russian transition to market economy in 1992, when many customer-supplier relationships inherited from the plan-governed economy were dissolved. The thin networks around the relationships, together with mutual lack of knowledge and weak interdependence between firms, made the relationships fragile and easily dissolved when exposed to shifts in demand and supply and to the new rights of the firms to choose their customers and suppliers

  • 14.
    Hallén, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johanson, Martin
    Uppsala universitet.
    Vad är regionala strategiska nätverk?2009In: Regionala strategiska nätverk i praktiken, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hallén, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johanson, Martin
    Uppsala universitet.
    Klint, Mats B.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Ulf
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    En modell för analys av regionala strategiska nätverk2009In: Regionala strategiska nätverk i praktiken, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hallén, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johanson, MartinUppsala universitet.Roxenhall, TommyMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Regionala strategiska nätverk i praktiken2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Framgångsrika näringslivsregioner består ofta av dynamiska miljöer med täta företagskontakter som har växt fram under lång tid. För att åstadkomma liknande resultat i regioner som behöver stöd satsar EU:s regionala fonder, statliga myndigheter som Nutek och Vinnova samt länsstyrelser och kommuner stora resurser på så kallade klusterinitiativ, nätverksåtgärder eller regionala strategiska nätverk för att få företag att höja sin kompetens och samverka så att den regionala ekonomiska tillväxten stärks.

    Den här boken handlar om satsningar på regionala strategiska nätverk.

    Boken behandlar tankarna bakom satsningarna, processerna som dessa satsningar ger upphov till och möjligheterna att bedöma resultaten. Flera praktiska exempel ger en bakgrund till de regionala strategiska nätverkens existens och karaktär, och deras operativa verksamhet i form av engagemang, kommunikation och lärande analyseras. Författarna ägnar speciell uppmärksamhet åt nätverksnavens och universitetens och högskolornas roll samt åt de problem som är kopplade till att utvärdera verksamheten.

    Boken är ett resultat av ett forskningsprojekt vid Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall som bedrivits i samverkan med forskare vid andra lärosäten. Den vänder sig till beslutsfattare och praktiker som arbetar med strategiska nätverk eller utvärderar sådana satsningar och till forskare med intresse för marknader och näringspolitik. Den lämpar sig också som kursbok i universitetens och högskolornas ekonomutbildningar.

     

  • 17.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Speed of SME globalization and performance2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Sch Business & Econ, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala Univ, Dept Business Studies, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Speed of SME internationalization and performance2016In: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 67-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the performance consequences of the speed of SME internationalization. The authors identify three research gaps: few studies treat speed as an independent variable; most studies analyze speed only until internationalization starts; and, finally, studies have paid little attention to the multidimensionality of the speed concept. The authors seek to address these gaps and to contribute to the literature on the dynamics of internationalization by developing three measures of internationalization speed, which capture its multidimensionality. Building on the theories of learning advantage of newness and time compression diseconomies, the study presents three hypotheses on speed’s effect on performance, and the theoretically derived research model is tested on a sample of 183 SMEs visited on site. The analysis demonstrates that the speed of a firm’s increase in the breadth of its international markets has a positive but curvilinear effect on firm performance. It also demonstrates that the speed of a firm’s increase in commitment of foreign resources has a negative but curvilinear effect on the performance of the firm. These results have implications both for scholars interested in the dynamics of firm internationalization and for SME managers

  • 19.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Speed of SME Internationalization and Performance2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs universitet.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Helene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Papaioannou, Stylianos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Time, Temporality, and Internationalization: The Relationships among Point in Time, Time to, and Speed of International Expansion2017In: Journal of International Marketing, ISSN 1069-031X, E-ISSN 1547-7215, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 22-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed of internationalization is a multidimensional concept with performance consequences, but little is known about the interrelatedness between different time-related concepts. The authors address this deficiency by developing three hypotheses, which are confronted with a dataset collected on-site at 203 SMEs. The analysis reveals that (i) the longer the time to internationalization, the lower the speed of international expansion, (ii) the earlier the point in time of start of internationalization, the lower the speed of international expansion, and (iii) there is an antagonistic interaction effect revealing that the negative effect on the speed of international expansion caused by a longer time to internationalization is moderated by the point in time of internationalization start. The study contributes to theory by examining the interrelatedness between temporal concepts in the internationalization literature and by showing how the underlying mechanisms influencing internationalization speed changes over time. For managers, insights into the importance of time and temporality for successful international expansion are provided.

  • 21.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs universitet.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    An International Opportunity Typology2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Papaioannou, Stylianos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    International opportunity experience, opportunity scouting and international opportunity innovativeness2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The innovativeness of an opportunity indicates its profit potential for firms. Extant research has shown that a systematic search for, and a well-developed experience ofinternational opportunity development, increases the likelihood that the firm will develop new opportunities. To this point however, the literature falls short in examining how experience and search behaviour influence the degree of opportunity innovativeness. This study analyses 192 international opportunities developed by Swedish SMEs over the last seven years. Our analysis reveal that the more developed the prior experience from opportunity development and the more systematically the SME search for new opportunities, the lower the innovativeness of the developed opportunity. Thus, our results show that prior experience andsystematic search behaviour may hamper the SME from developing innovative international opportunities.

  • 23.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Papaioannou, Stylianos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Take-off Time, Take-off Strategies and Speed of international Expansion2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Papaioannou, Stylianos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Thyr, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Business networks, firm strategy, opportunity development and strategic outcomes: A conceptualization of the initial phase of firm internationalization2015In: Handbook on International Alliance and Network Research / [ed] Larimo, Jorma, Nummela, Niina and Mainela, Tuija, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 171-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hilmersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Papaioannou, Stylianos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    International Learning Strategy, Speed of Learning and Speed of SME Internationalization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Hohenthal, J.
    et al.
    Johanson, J.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Market discovery and the international expansion of the firm2003In: International Business Review, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 659-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to formulate a theoretical framework for studies of antecedents and consequences of discoveries during international expansion. By introducing market discovery it seems to be possible to offer a richer understanding of the pattern and pace of the international expansion of a firm. Market discovery is the result of both exploration and exploitation activities, but in order to exploit market discovery, a firm must learn to handle the discovered opportunity. A discovery, usually made while a firm is conducting daily activities, occurs in connection with search, planning, routine, and improvisation. The resulting learning can lead to changes in pace, orientation, and extension of the international expansion of the firm. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Hohenthal, J.
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Box 513, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johanson, J.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Box 513, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Network knowledge and business-relationship value in the foreign market2014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 4-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the key assumptions that firms are opportunity seeking and that they gain critical knowledge operating in a network of relationships, this paper focuses on early expansion in foreign market networks. In particular, the paper examines the relation between experience and business-relationship value in a foreign market. While experience and experiential knowledge are central concepts in international business, little has been written about their effects on the value of business relationships. The paper formulates a set of interrelated hypotheses on the effects of international experience, experiential network knowledge and importance of customer and competitor knowledge on the value of business relationships in a foreign market. They are combined in a structural model, which is tested on a sample through LISREL. The main conclusion drawn from the study is that experiential network knowledge and knowledge about the importance of customers and competitors in the network influence the value of business relationships in a foreign market in different ways. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 28.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Jan
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Network Knowledge and Business-Relationship Value in the Foreign Market2015In: Knowledge, Networks and Power: The Uppsala School of International Business / [ed] Mats Forsgren, Ulf Holm, Jan Johanson, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 187-224Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several studies it has been observed that single business relationships can play a critical role in the early international expansion of SME firms (Chetty and Blankenburg Holm, 2000; Child et al., 2002; Ellis, 2000; Hilmersson and Jansson, 2011; Johanson and Vahlne, 2003; Sharma and Blomstermo, 2003). It has also been shown that network constructs can be used fruitfully for understanding and explaining SME internationalisation (Coviello and Munro, 1995; Hadley and Wilson, 2003; Oviatt and McDougall, 2005). Against this background, a purpose of this paper is to study how networks influence business relationships in foreign markets.

  • 29. Johanson, Jan
    et al.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Turbulence, Speed and Synchronization in Networks: A New Perspective on Time and Internationalization2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Johanson, Martin
    Uppsala Univ.
    Conducting Processual Studies in Transition Economies: Reflections on a Case Study2011In: Rethinking the Case Study: Towards Greater Pluralism in International Business Research / [ed] Rebecca Piekkari and Catherine Welch, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Institutions, exchange and trust: A study of the Russian transition to a market economy2008In: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, E-ISSN 1873-0620, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 46-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental element of planned economies is the idea that exchange between units and firms should be planned by authorities remote from the performance of the exchange. The institutions, where plan governance is the main mechanism, are therefore assumed to affect how trust is developed and maintained in an economy. However, when the planned economy undergoes institutional changes and plan governance erodes, trust is likely to play a different role. The paper proposes a model for analysis of development of trust depending on the institutions involved and the exchange characteristics. The model suggests that both inter-unit exchanges and inter-firm exchanges contain three dimensions, which are influenced by the degree of plan governance: knowledge use, interaction, and dynamics. Depending on the plan governance, the use of the knowledge produced takes different forms, but the plan governance also influences the interaction in the exchanges. Moreover, it is proposed that plan governance has an effect on the exchange dynamics. A 10-year longitudinal one-firm case study from the Russian printing industry is divided into two periods: the planned economy between 1987 and 1991 and the transition economy from 1992 to 1997. It shows that plan governance in various degrees influenced the exchanges, which, in turn, gave a different level of importance to the role of trust in the economy.

  • 32.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Nätverk och internationalisering2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Olika sätt att se på nätverk och relationer samt deras betydelse för internationalisering har under de senaste åren blivit en viktig del i forskningsaktiviteterna inom CER, där ett sådant forskningsprojekt  pågår  sedan  2013  under  ledning  av  Martin  Johanson. Det  går  under  namnet  "Network,  opportunity  and  turbulence"  och  ambitionen  är  att  öka  kunskapen  om  nätverkens  betydelse  för  internationaliserande små  och  medelstora  företag.  Delresultat  har  tidigare publicerats  i  den internationella tidskriftsartikeln ”Network knowledge and businessrelationship value in the foreign market” (Hohenthal, Johanson och Johanson, 2014).

  • 33.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Johanson, J.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    From anonymity to identity: Network transformation in economies and industries in transition from plan to market2016In: Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms / [ed] Thilenius, P; Pahlberg, C; Havila, V, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 41-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Jan
    Uppsala University; Mälardalen University.
    Turbulence, discovery and foreign market entry: A longitudinal study of an entry into the Russian market2006In: MIR: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, E-ISSN 1861-8901, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 179-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms entering transition markets are typically ignorant about those markets, and the markets, owing to the transition from a planned to a market economy, are typically turbulent. Consequently the entry process involves discoveries that could not have been predicted in advance. This position is supported by a longitudinal study in real-time of a Swedish firm's entry into the Russian market between 1987 and 1993. ■ The paper distinguishes between three types of activity that form part of the entry process, namely search, routines and improvisation, and it discusses how they relate to operative and strategic discoveries made and the characteristics of the entry process.

  • 35.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Kalinic, Igor
    Leeds University Business School University of Leeds Leeds, UK.
    Acceleration and Deceleration in the Internationalization Process of the Firm2016In: MIR: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, E-ISSN 1861-8901, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 827-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By adopting a processual and dynamic view on internationalization, we develop the concepts of acceleration and deceleration, providing analytical tools to enhance our understanding of the non-linearity and multidimensionality of internationalization. We argue that acceleration and deceleration are embedded in the internationalization process and are a consequence of the firm’s capability to absorb and integrate acquired knowledge, and to find and exploit opportunities. In addition, we advance the idea that changes in speed are further influenced by how the firm integrates and coordinates the resources it has deployed within and across various internationalization dimensions. Thus, it emerges that the overall evolution of commitment to internationalization is more complex than received theories tend to present; therefore, empirical studies should aim to include a wide set of international activities and processes embedded in time.

  • 36.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kao, P T
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Networks in internationalisation2010In: Progress in International Business Research, Vol. 5, p. 119-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of literature that analyses the internationalisation of the firm, through the function and role of networks. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 23 papers (published between 1988 and 2008) explicitly using network as a research framework to study the internationalisation process of the firm were selected. They have been analysed according to a range of factors, including the author, journal, time frame in which they were published, type of focal firm, country of origin of focal firms, market entered, methods applied in the studies, theories adopted and research topic. Findings: Networks have emerged as one of the dominant frameworks used to explain the phenomenon of internationalisation. Having originally been applied in studies of firms from developed countries entering similar markets, network theories are now as popular in studies of firms both originating in and entering emerging markets. This review also finds that both qualitative and quantitative methods have been adopted in the studies; however, few papers have tried to combine the two. Furthermore, the network approach has been used for comparative analysis with findings from FDI theory, as well as to supplement international new venture (INV) and born global theories. Lastly, this review highlights topics that have been explored in previous studies and suggests areas for further research. Originality/value: This is the first review paper on this subject and as such it contributes to the growing body of knowledge on the network approach and assists in understanding the internationalisation phenomenon of the firm.

  • 37.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kao, Pao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Nilsson, Olga
    Uppsala University.
    Thyr, Aron
    Business is pleasure and pleasure is business: a study on how Swedish managers build and sustain personal and business ties during firms' market entry into Russia2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Kao, Pao T
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Box 513, Kyrkogårdsgatan 10C, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Emerging Market Entry and Institutional Change: Three Swedish Manufacturing Firms in China between 1980 and 20102015In: Management & Organizational History, ISSN 1744-9359, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 189-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms enter emerging markets to capture untapped opportunity and pursue high growth potential. Yet emerging markets are also characterized by unstable institutions that may affect firms' market entry behavior. Although most existing studies have taken a rather short-term and static perspective to addressing foreign market entry, we specifically draw on the Uppsala internationalization process model and use a long-term approach to examine the China market entry of three Swedish firms in terms of their market knowledge and market commitment. We argue that the relation between institutional change in the host market and the market entry behavior of a particular firm evolves over time. The findings also show that the type of institutional change, as well as the accumulated market knowledge and commitments firms have made, can influence the relation between them.

  • 39.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kao Tsung, Pao
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Network and internationalisation: A Review of more than 20 Years of Research2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kao Tsung, Pao
    Uppsala universitet.
    Redekop, Will
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    How do Market-Leading Foreign Subsidiaries in China Overcome Changes in Laws and Regulations and Sustain Their Success?: Cases of Swedish Manufacturing Firms2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lundberg, HeléneUppsala Universitet.
    Network strategies for regional growth2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many regions the current focus of the state is to initiate and stimulate the emergence of inter-firm networks in order to produce growth. This book takes a management perspective on the operations and processes in these networks and describes and analyzes how and why geographical proximity influences inter-firm networks   The last twenty years have seen a change in the economic policies pursued in many countries. The focus is not on specific firms or on the market in general any longer, but instead specific relationships and networks between firms residing in a region are the object for policy-makers' priorities. A vast amount of public resources are now pooled into projects and programmes that follow these ideas. The state initiates and stimulates the emergence of inter-firm networks in order to produce growth in a specific region.    Both authorities' and firms' strategies are scrutinized as it displays how economic policy guides the inter-firm networks. These strategies do often differ, which make the networks difficult to manage for the actors involved, which makes this book an essential tool for those involved in these types of regional networks.

  • 42.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The impact of geographical proximity and technology on firms´ R&D-operations2006In: IMP Milano, 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Why expatriates’ private relations matter2016In: Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms / [ed] Thilenius, P., Pahlberg, C., Havila, V., Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 99-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Papaioannou, Stylianos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Thyr, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Strategy and SME internationalisation: Network, turbulence and foreign market opportunity development.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Papaioannou, Stylianos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Vasileiadi, Dimitra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Failure and success in the internationalization of SME's2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Thyr, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Why social networks of expatriates matter: A qualitative study from Russia.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala Univ, Dept Business Studies, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Martin Martin, Oscar
    Univ Publ Navarra, Dept Business Adm, Pamplona 31006, Navarre, Spain.
    The Incremental Expansion of Born Internationals: A Comparison of New and Old Born Internationals2015In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 476-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not much is known about the characteristics of “early internationalizers” in their later life and there is scant empirical literature – and an acute need for quantitative studies – about the features of Born Internationals (BIs) after their first years of operation. In this context, we aim to describe the later life of BIs and determine whether some of the critical aspects of internationalization are visible in their post-birth features. This study contributes to the literature on internationalization by providing quantitative evidence on key post-birth characteristics of BIs. Guided by five research hypotheses, it explores changes in the BIs’ profile and tests whether or not there are differences between newer BIs and older ones in a sample of SMEs. The results support the basic cumulative dynamics proposed by the incremental school in terms of international business experience, international commitment, and level of internationalization, which implies that these factors can to some extent be viewed as driving forces in the internationalization process of BIs.

  • 48.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nätverksinitiativ - en ifrågasatt väg till affärsutveckling2008In: Marknadsorientering: Myter och möjligheter, Malmö: Liber, 2008, p. 291-308Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    et al.
    SHV, företagsekonomi Sundsvall.
    Johanson, Martin
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Business Studies, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Network Strategies for Regional Growth2011In: Network Strategies for Regional Growth / [ed] Johanson, Martin & Lundberg, Heléne, Eastbourne: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, 1, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50. Lundström, Robert
    et al.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    A comparison of traditional and unconventional construction project procurement methods2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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