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  • 1. Aue, T.
    et al.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Scherer, K.R.
    First Evidence for Differential and Sequential Efferent Effects of Goal Relevance and Goal Conduciveness Appraisal.: Poster presented at ISRE 2005, Bari, Italy.2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2. Aue, Tatjana
    et al.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    First Evidence for Differential and Sequential Efferent Effects of stimulus relevance and goal conduciveness appraisal2007In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 347-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of a memory task, participants were presented with pictures displaying biological and cultural threat stimuli or neutral stimuli (goal relevance manipulation) with superimposed symbols signaling monetary gains or losses (goal conduciveness manipulation). Results for heart rate and facial electromyogram show differential efferent effects of the respective appraisal outcomes and provide first evidence for sequential processing, as postulated by Scherer's Component Process Model of emotion. It is suggested that different physiological variables can serve as markers of different underlying processes, with activity over the brow region (M. Corrugator supercilii) signaling cognitive processing, heart rate changes representing response mobilization for action preparation, and activity over the cheek region (M. Zygomaticus major) serving communicative purposes.

  • 3. Berhardsson, J
    et al.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Visual search with schematic faces: Perceptual artifactsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 4. Bjärtå, Anna
    et al.
    Bernhardsson, Jensbe
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, L.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Potenial biological threats, fear, and perceptual factors.2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flykt, Anders
    Department of Social Work and Psychology, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Sweden .
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effect of using different distractor sets in visual search with spiders and snakes on spider-sensitive and non-fearful participants.2013In: Swiss Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1421-0185, E-ISSN 1662-0879, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two visual search experiments, the impact of distractor sets on fear relevant stimuli was investigated.  A search set with spiders, snakes, flowers, and mushrooms was compared to a search set with spiders, snakes, rabbits, and turtles. Speeded responses to spider and snake targets were found when flowers and mushrooms served as distractors, but no such effect occurred with rabbit and turtle distractors. In Experiment 2, spider sensitive individuals were compared to non-fearful individuals. Spider sensitive individuals responded faster to spider targets than did non-fearful individuals, but only in the set with flowers and mushrooms.  When using rabbit and turtle distractors, spider sensitive individuals did not show any speeded responses to their feared animal. These results indicate that behavioural expressions of the visual search task depends not only on the individual’s relationship to the stimuli included in a search set, but also on the context in which feared or fear relevant objects are presented.

  • 6. Dan, E.S.
    et al.
    Aue, T.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Scherer, K.R.
    ON USING RT AND FACIAL EMG TO EXAMINE THETEMPORAL SEQUENCE OF NOVELTY AND VALENCE APPRAISAL: Presentation at the SPR-meeting2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Esteves, Francisco
    et al.
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL).
    Arriaga, Patricia
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL).
    Carneiro, Paula
    Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL).
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Emotional responses (verbal and psychophysiological) to pictures of food stimuli2010In: Psicologia, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 89-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional processing of food-related pictures was studied in four experiments, comparing participants who revealed unhealthy attitudes toward food, dieting and body shape with control groups. All subjects were female and responses to pictures of low and of high calorie foods were compared to responses to other emotional stimuli. The first three experiments measured verbal and autonomic responses and Experiment 4 was a classical conditioning study. In Experiments 2-4, pictures were presented backward masked in order to observe automatic, non-conscious responses. The results showed that, in general, food pictures were processed in the same way as other emotional material, both verbally and psychophysiologically. Although there were some results indicating a difference between groups, the general pattern was that participants selected for being more worried about food and dieting did not show higher reactivity to food cues.

  • 8. Esteves, Fransisco
    et al.
    Carneiro, P
    Ferreira, P A
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Skin conductance responses and heart rate changes to food-related stimuli: Meeting abstract2002In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2002, Vol. 45, no 1-2, p. 163-163Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Emotion drives automatized motor activity: Responding to the snake in the grass.2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Preparedness for action: Responding to the snake in the grass2006In: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 29-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a visual search study by Öhman, Flykt, and Esteves (2001) shorter reaction times (RTs) were shown to snake and spider targets than to flower and mushroom targets. The current study investigated if preparation for action to potential threats could explain this difference. In this study two main changes were made to the paradigm. All possible combinations of target and distractors were used to disentangle the effects of targets and distractors, and the responses had to be withheld until after detection. The results suggest that the shorter RTs to snakes and spiders than flowers and mushrooms were due to preparation for faster action to potential threats than to non-threats.

  • 11.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Preparedness to act on fear-relevant stimuli: Meeting abstract2004In: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD , 2004, Vol. 41, no Suppl1, p. S19-S19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the participants in a visual search experiment have the task to detect if there is an item that belongs to another category among the distractors, or not, they show shorter reaction times (RTs) for fear-relevant target stimuli (snakes and spiders) when compared to fear-irrelevant target stimuli (flowers and mushrooms). This could be concluded to mirror a faster detection of the fear-relevant target stimuli. However, when the participants in this type of visual search task are requested to withhold their responses and respond to a probe presented at a fixed point in time after the search arrays, the difference in RTs between fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant target stimuli still remained. Over time the impact on RTs of fear-relevant distractors became stronger. This indicates a motor response preparation to potential biological threats and that it is building up over time. The notion that effect of distractors occur later in time is supported by a visual search experiment with heart rate measure, and that the shorter RTs to fear-relevant target stimuli are caused by a motor response preparation is supported by the time and location of an ERP component in another experiment. There are indications that the advantage in responding in relation to fear-relevance is caused by the possibility to automatize the responding. When the probe that followed the search arrays was randomized to different positions in time the effect disappeared, and a disadvantage was indicated. Other studies with randomized probe presentations also indicate a disadvantage caused by threat stimuli.

  • 12.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Visual search with biological threat stimuli: Accuracy, reaction times, and heart rate changes.2005In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 349-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-four participants were given a visual search task of deciding whether all the pictures in 3x3 search arrays contained a target picture from a deviant category, and heart rate was measured. The categories were: snakes, spiders, flowers, and mushrooms. Shorter reaction times (RT) were observed for fear-relevant (snake and spider) targets than for fear-irrelevant/neutral (flower and mushroom) targets. This difference was most pronounced for the participants presented with a grey-scale version of the search arrays. The first interbeat interval (IBI), after the search array onset, showed an effect of the target, while the second IBI also showed an effect of the distractors. The results suggest that controlled processing of the task operates together with automatic processing.

  • 13.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bjärtå, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The time course of resource allocation in spider fearful participants during fear reactions2008In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 1381-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The difference in dynamics of resource allocation to pictures of spiders and pictures of other animals in spider fearful participants was investigated. The tasks of the participants were to respond rapidly and accurately to various probe stimuli superimposed on pictures of different animals. These were supposedly fear-relevant (spiders, snakes, and wolfs) and fear-irrelevant (beetles, turtles, and rabbits). The probes were exposed at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) from picture onset to address the dynamics of resource allocation. The results showed a larger allocation of resources to spider pictures than to pictures of other animals and the resource allocation showed differences depending on task and dependent measure.

  • 14.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindeberg, Sofie
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Intensity of vocal responses to spider and snake pictures in fearful individuals2017In: Australian journal of psychology, ISSN 0004-9530, E-ISSN 1742-9536, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Strong bodily responses have repeatedly been shown in participants fearful of spiders and snakes when they see pictures of the feared animal. In this study, we investigate if these fear responses affect voice intensity, require awareness of the pictorial stimuli, and whether the responses run their course once initiated.

    Method

    Animal fearful participants responded to arrowhead-shaped probes superimposed on animal pictures (snake, spider, or rabbit), presented either backwardly masked or with no masking. Their task was to say ‘up’ or ‘down’ as quickly as possible depending on the orientation of the arrowhead. Arrowhead probes were presented at two different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA), 261 or 561 ms after picture onset. In addition to vocal responses, electrocardiogram, and skin conductance (SC) were recorded.

    Results

    No fear-specific effects emerged to masked stimuli, thereby providing no support for the notion that fear responses can be triggered by stimuli presented outside awareness. For the unmasked pictures, voice intensity was stronger and SC response amplitude was larger to probes superimposed on the feared animal than other animals, at both SOAs. Heart rate changes were greater during exposure to feared animals when probed at 561 ms, but not at 261 ms, which indicates that a fear response can change its course after initiation.

    ConclusionExposure to pictures of the feared animal increased voice intensity. No support was found for responses without awareness. Observed effects on heart rate may be due to change in parasympathetic activation during fear response.

  • 15.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Caldara, Roberto
    Tracking fear in snake and spider fearful participants during visual search: A multi-response domain study2006In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1075-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual search tasks snake or spider fearful participants showed shorter reaction times (RTs) to respond to their feared animal (e.g., snake) than to the nonfeared animal (i.e., spider) (Öhman, Flykt, & Esteves, 2001). Here we used this paradigm with heart rate (HR), RTs, and event-related potential (ERP) measures, to investigate the nature of the responses to the feared animal, a nonfeared (but fear-relevant) animal, and fear-irrelevant target stimuli with snake fearful, spider fearful and non-fearful participants. Fearful participants showed shorter RTs and evoked larger amplitudes on a late positive potential (LPP; 500-700 ms) for their feared compared to the nonfeared and the fear-irrelevant targets. No relevant significant differences were found on early ERP components and HR measures. These findings do not support an involvement of early information processing in the detection of the feared animal in fearful participants, they favor instead a more elaborated analysis of these complex stimuli to achieve the detection.

  • 16.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Dan, Elise S
    Scherer, Klaus R
    Using a probe detection task to assess the timing of intrinsic pleasantness appraisals2009In: Swiss Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1421-0185, E-ISSN 1662-0879, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence and timing of emotion-antecedent appraisal checks are difficult to assess. We report an attempt to estimate the time window of the intrinsic pleasantness check using a dual-task probe paradigm. In three experiments, participants viewed negative and positive pictures. Their other task was speeded response on a probe superimposed on the pictures with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). Longer probe-reaction times were observed for negative than for positive pictures. This effect appeared at SOA 300 ms or 350 ms, suggesting that the intrinsic pleasantness appraisal check yields a differential behavioral outcome around 300 ms after stimulus onset, and seems to continue unless attention to picture content is inhibited. This paradigm might be successfully used for the mental chronography of appraisal processes.

  • 17.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Karolinska Institutet; ISCTE, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Skin Conductance Responses to Masked Conditioned stimuli: Phylogenetic/Ontogenetic Factors versus direction of threat?2007In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 328-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionarily old threat stimuli are likely to require less conscious information processing than threat stimuli of a more recent date. To test this proposal two differential conditioning experiments, with biological threat stimuli (e.g. snakes) in half the groups and cultural threat stimuli (e.g. guns) in the other half, were conducted. The conditioned (CS+) and the control (CS−) stimuli were backward masked during the extinction phase to prevent conscious recognition. The differential skin conductance responding for both biological and cultural threat stimuli survived the masking procedure when the conditioned stimuli were directed towards the participants (Experiment 1), but for neither type of CS when stimuli were not directed towards the participants (Experiment 2). These findings are discussed in relation to the previous finding by Öhman and co-workers and in relation to imminence of threat.

  • 18.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lunds Universitet.
    Karlsson, Jens
    SLU.
    Lipp, Ottmar V.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Fear of Wolves and Bears: Physiological Responses and Negative Associations in a Swedish Sample2013In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 416-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human fear is important in wildlife management, but self-reported fear provides only partial information about fear reactions. Thus, eye movements, skin conductance, and changes in heart rate were assessed during picture viewing, visual search, and implicit evaluation tasks. Pictures of bears, wolves, moose, and hares were presented to participants who self-reported as fearful of bears (n = 8), fearful of bears and wolves (n = 15), or not fearful of bears or wolves (n = 14). The feared animal was expected to elicit strong physiological responses, be dwelled upon, and be associated with negative words. Independent of fearfulness, bear pictures elicited the strongest physiological responses, and wolf pictures showed the strongest negative associations. The bear-fearful group showed stronger physiological responses to bears. The bear- and wolf-fearful group showed more difficulty in associating bears with good words. Presence of a feared animal in the search task, resulted in prolonged response time.

  • 19.
    Flykt, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindeberg, Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Derakshan, Nazanin
    University of London, UK.
    Fear makes you stronger: Responding to feared animal targets in visual search2012In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 1437-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate whether fear affects the strength with which responses are made, 12 animal-fearful individuals (five snake fearful and seven spider fearful) were instructed to decide as quickly as possible whether an animal target from a deviant category was present in a 3 × 4 item (animal) search array. The animal categories were snakes, spiders, and cats. Response force was measured, in newtons. The results showed that the strength of the response was greater when the feared animal served as the target than when it served as the distractors. This finding was corroborated by evoked heart rate changes to the stimuli. Our findings strengthen the argument that focused attention on a single, feared animal can lead to increases in manual force.

  • 20.
    Frank, Jens
    et al.
    SLU.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lunds Universitet.
    Flykt, Anders
    Gävle Högskola.
    Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves2015In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on human fear of large carnivores has mainly been based on self-reports in which individual survey items and the objects of fear are measured, so whether a person fears attacks on humans or livestock and pets has not been identified. The objectives of this study were to differentiate between the objects of fear as well as capturing attitudes towards implementation of management actions and the potential for conflict index (PCI). These concern the implementation of a limited number of management actions currently used or discussed in Sweden that are aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears/wolves. 391 persons living in areas with either brown bear (n = 198) or wolf (n = 193) in Sweden responded to a questionnaire. The degree of self-reported fear varied between residents in brown bear areas and residents in wolf areas. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was stronger than fear of attacks on humans in both brown bear and wolf areas. In brown bear areas, fear was strongest for livestock, while in wolf areas fear was strongest for pets. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was significantly stronger in wolf areas, while the fear of attacks on humans was strongest in brown bear areas. In both brown bear and wolf areas, there was little acceptance of implementation of management actions that would allow people to carry pepper spray or a gun outdoors. Management actions aimed at setting a population cap for bear/wolf populations, information on how to act when encountering a bear/wolf, and providing information on local presence of bear/wolf had relatively high acceptability. This was especially true for respondents expressing high fear of attacks on humans.

  • 21.
    Johansson, M.
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, Lund University, Lund.
    Støen, O. -G
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resources Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exposure as an Intervention to Address Human Fear of Bears2016In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: People who live in brown bear areas often fear encounters with these animals. This article evaluated the potential effect of exposure to bears and their habitats on human fear of brown bears using the modeling of appropriate behavior when close to bears. In a within-subject design, 25 persons who reported to be fearful of brown bears participated in a guided walk approaching approximately 50 m of a brown bear in its daybed and in a guided forest walk in bear habitat. The presentation order was reversed for half of the group. The participants reported significantly reduced feelings of fear after the bear walk, but not after the forest walk. There were no corresponding significant effects for the experimental measures of fear-related responses. The results partially support the notion that exposure to the object of fear, such as a bear habitat with presence of a bear, might be a feasible intervention to reduce peoples’ feeling of fear, but the design of the intervention must be developed further before it can be used in practice.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Ferreira, Ines A.
    Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and the Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Støen, Ole-Gunnar
    Department of Natural Resources and Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, NO, Norway .
    Frank, Jens
    Wildlife Damage Centre, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden .
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Targeting human fear of large carnivores — Many ideas but few known effects2016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 201, p. 261-269Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the peer-reviewed scientific literature on interventions aimed to reduce human fear of large carnivores in human-large carnivore conflicts. Based on psychological theories, a wide definition of fear was adopted, including fear as an emotion, as a perception and as an attitude. Four major categories of interventions were identified: information and education, exposure to animal and habitat, collaboration and participation, and financial incentives. Each of these categories may have a potential to reduce fear responses. The scientific literature on the effect of interventions addressing human fear of large carnivores is scarce and partly contradictory, which makes it difficult for wildlife managers to rely on current research when designing appropriate interventions.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Frank, Jens
    SLU, Riddarhyttan.
    Støen, Ole-Gunnar
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim, Norway.
    Controlled exposure reduces fear of brown bears2019In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 363-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fear of large carnivores such as brown bears may restrict people’s outdoor activities regardless of experts’ estimated risk of attack. This research study empirically examined three exposure interventions in the form of guided walks intended to give people living in brown bear areas tools for coping with their fear. All interventions significantly reduced fear, decreased people’s perceived vulnerability, and increased their social trust in wildlife management authorities. The walk including an encounter with a radio-collared bear in a wild bear habitat resulted in the largest reduction in fear, followed by the walk in the wild bear habitat only and then the walk in a park with captive bears. The wild bear habitat walk was the intervention best suited for further development as it may be used in any area where bears occur and without affecting animal welfare. 

  • 24.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Frank, Jens
    SLU.
    Støen, Ole-Gunnar
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An Evaluation of Information Meetings as a Tool for Addressing Fear of Large Carnivores2017In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 281-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing authorities in Scandinavia arrange public information meetings when members of the public express fear because wolves or brown bears approach human settlements. This study aimed to increase the understanding of the potential effect of information meetings on self-reported fear of wolves and brown bears. In total, 198 participants completed questionnaires before and after the information meetings. Nine follow-up interviews were held 1 year later. The quantitative analyses revealed that participants who found the information credible reported a significant increase in social trust and a decrease in vulnerability and fear. The qualitative analyses pointed to the importance of information content and meta-communication, for example, nonverbal cues. It is proposed that, among participants who find the information credible, information meetings may change the appraisal of wolves and brown bears, and therefore they might prove useful as an intervention to address fear of these animals.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Karlsson, Jens
    SLU.
    Pedersen, Eja
    Lunds Universitet.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Factors Governing Human Fear of Brown Bear and Wolf2012In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 58-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes people's subjectively experienced fear in areas with presence of brown bear or wolf. Departing from the Human-Environment Interaction Model (Küller, 1991Küller, R. 1991. “Environmental assessment f.rom a neuropsychological perspective”. In Environment, cognition, and action, Edited by: ärling, T. G and Evans, G. W. 78–95. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.), a hypothetical model of environmental and individual antecedents of fear was tested using structural equation modeling of survey data (n = 391). In the model of fear of brown bear, the main predictor was the appraisal of the species as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable. In the model of fear of wolf, the greater experience with the species and a stronger appraisal of wolf as dangerous, uncontrollable, and unpredictable led to low social trust and this, together with the appraisal of wolf as dangerous/uncontrollable and unpredictable, increased the likelihood of fear. Efforts to reduce human fear of wolves should focus on building trust between the public and authorities, whereas efforts to reduce fear of brown bear should focus on the individual's appraisal of the species.

  • 26.
    Parra, Cristina
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zeeland.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Portugal.
    Flykt, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öhman, Arne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Pavlovian conditioning to social stimuli: Backward masking and the dissociation of implicit and explicit cognitive processes.1997In: European Psychologist, ISSN 1016-9040, E-ISSN 1878-531X, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 106-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    24 university students (average age 22.1 yrs) were conditioned to pictures of angry faces with a mild electric shock unconditioned stimulus/stimuli (UCS). They were then tested with backward masking conditions preventing conscious recognition of the facial stimuli. In the 1st experiment, a shock followed a particular nonmasked angry face exposed among many other faces. Although the Ss did not rate this face as familiar in a subsequent test when it was presented masked among other masked and nonmasked faces, it elicited larger skin conductance responses than did nonshocked control faces. This dissociation between explicit recognition and implicit skin conductance differentiation was replicated in the 2nd experiment, in which the Ss rated their shock expectancy. Although conditioning resulted in much better differentiation between conditioned and control faces during nonmasked than masked test trials, skin conductance differentiation did not differ between the 2 masking conditions.

  • 27. Robalo, S
    et al.
    Frere, C
    Carneiro, P
    Ferreira, P
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Esteves, Fransisco
    Emotional responses to food-related pictures in young female subjects.2003In: Abstracts of the IIIrd Congress of the Spanish Society of Psychophysiology, 2003, p. 51-51Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28. Scherer, Klaus
    et al.
    Dan, Elise
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    What Determines a Feeling's Position in Affective Space?: A case for appraisal2006In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 92-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is suggested that the location of verbally reported feelings in a three-dimensional affective space is determined by the results of appraisal processes that elicit the respective states. One group of participants rated their evaluation of the content of 59 systematically selected pictures from the International Affect Picture System on a profile of nine appraisal criteria. Another group of participants rated their affective reactions or feelings produced by the same picture set on the classic dimensions of affective meaning (valence, arousal, and potency). The ratings on the affect dimensions correlate differentially with specific appraisal ratings. These results can be plausibly interpreted as showing that the reactions to the IAPS pictures are predictably produced through appraisal of picture content. The relevance of the findings for emotion induction paradigms and for emotion theory in general is discussed.

  • 29. Scherer, K.R.
    et al.
    Roesch, E.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Using Computational models to disambiguate emotion theories.: presentation at ISRE 2005, Bari, Italy.2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Soares, Sandra C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Esteves, Francisco
    ISCTE, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Fear, but not fear-relevance, modulates reaction times in visual search with animal distractors2009In: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 136-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research aimed at examining attentional selectivity in a visual search paradigm using pictures of animals that have provided a recurrent threat in an evolutionary perspective (i.e., snakes and spiders) and pictures of animals that have supposedly posed no such threat (i.e., cats and fish). Experiment 1 showed no advantage of fear-relevant stimuli over non-fear-relevant animal stimuli. However, an attentional capture seemed to emerge as a delay in the disengagement of attention, specifically when there was a massive presentation of fear-relevant stimuli in the array. The results from Experiment 2, where participants were selected based specifically on their fear of either snakes or spiders (but not both), showed a preferential processing of the congruent feared stimulus, when compared with non-fearful participants, which strengthens the notion that fear significance may be an important factor drawing attention to a particular spatial location.

  • 31.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Soares, J J F
    Gateways to consciousness: Emotion, attention, and electrodermal activity1993In: Progress in electrodermal research: NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Electrodermal Activity: From Physiology to Psychology, New York: Plenum Press , 1993Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32. Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the grass2001In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, ISSN 0096-3445, Vol. 130, no 3, p. 466-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants searched for discrepant fear-relevant pictures (snakes or spiders) in grid-pattern arrays of fear-irrelevant pictures belonging to the same category (flowers or mushrooms) and vice versa. Fear-relevant pictures were found more quickly than fear-irrelevant ones. Fear-relevant, but not fear-irrelevant, search was unaffected by the location of the target in the display and by the number of distractors, which suggests parallel search for fear-relevant targets and serial search for fear-irrelevant targets. Participants specifically fearful of snakes but not spiders (or vice versa) showed facilitated search for the feared objects but did not differ from controls in search for nonfeared fear-relevant or fear-irrelevant, targets. Thus, evolutionary relevant threatening stimuli were effective in capturing attention, and this effect was further facilitated if the stimulus was emotionally provocative.

  • 33. Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Unconscious emotion: Evolutionary perspectives, psychophysiological data, and neuropsychological mechanisms2000In: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 33 of 33
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