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  • 1.
    Albani, Giorgia
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy.
    Perelli Cippo, Enrico
    Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma (IFP-CNR), Via Cozzi 53, Milano, Italy.
    Croci, Gabriele
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy.
    Muraro, Andrea
    Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma (IFP-CNR), Via Cozzi 53, Milano, Italy.
    Schooneveld, Erik
    STFC-ISIS Facility, RAL, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Scherillo, Antonella
    STFC-ISIS Facility, RAL, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Kanaki, Kalliopi
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Höglund, Carina
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping.
    Hultman, Lars
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping.
    Birch, Jens
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping.
    Claps, Gerardo
    INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Fermi 40, Frascati, Italy.
    Murtas, Fabrizio
    INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Fermi 40, Frascati, Italy.
    Rebai, Marica
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy.
    Tardocchi, Marco
    Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma (IFP-CNR), Via Cozzi 53, Milano, Italy.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano, Italy; Istituto di Fisica Del Plasma (IFP-CNR), Via Cozzi 53, Milano, Italy.
    Evolution in boron-based GEM detectors for diffraction measurements: From planar to 3D converters2016In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 27, no 11, article id 115902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called '3He-crisis' has motivated the neutron detector community to undertake an intense R&D programme in order to develop technologies alternative to standard 3He tubes and suitable for neutron detection systems in future spallation sources such as the European spallation source (ESS). Boron-based GEM (gas electron multiplier) detectors are a promising '3He-free' technology for thermal neutron detection in neutron scattering experiments. In this paper the evolution of boron-based GEM detectors from planar to 3D converters with an application in diffraction measurements is presented. The use of 3D converters coupled with GEMs allows for an optimization of the detector performances. Three different detectors were used for diffraction measurements on the INES instrument at the ISIS spallation source. The performances of the GEM-detectors are compared with those of conventional 3He tubes installed on the INES instrument. The conceptual detector with the 3D converter used in this paper reached a count rate per unit area of about 25% relative to the currently installed 3He tube. Its timing resolution is similar and the signal-to-background ratio (S/B) is 2 times lower.

  • 2.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Bebb, R.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Berry, K.
    Instrument and Source Division, Spallation Neutron Source, United States.
    Birch, J.
    Linköping University.
    Bryś, T.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Buffet, J. -C
    Institute Laue Langevin, France.
    Clergeau, J. -F
    Institute Laue Langevin, France.
    Deen, P. P.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Ehlers, G.
    Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Spallation Neutron Source, United States.
    Van Esch, P.
    Institute Laue Langevin, France.
    Everett, S. M.
    Instrument and Source Division, Spallation Neutron Source, United States.
    Guerard, B.
    Institute Laue Langevin, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Herwig, K.
    Instrument and Source Division, Spallation Neutron Source, United States.
    Hultman, L.
    Linköping University.
    Höglund, C.
    Linköping University; European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Iruretagoiena, I.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Issa, F.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Jensen, J.
    Linköping University.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Kirstein, O.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Higuera, I. L.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Stefanescu, I.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Multi-Grid detector for neutron spectroscopy: Results obtained on time-of-flight spectrometer CNCS2017In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, no 4, article id P04030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Grid detector technology has evolved from the proof-of-principle and characterisation stages. Here we report on the performance of the Multi-Grid detector, the MG.CNCS prototype, which has been installed and tested at the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer, CNCS at SNS. This has allowed a side-by-side comparison to the performance of 3He detectors on an operational instrument. The demonstrator has an active area of 0.2 m2. It is specifically tailored to the specifications of CNCS. The detector was installed in June 2016 and has operated since then, collecting neutron scattering data in parallel to the He-3 detectors of CNCS. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of this data, in particular on instrument energy resolution, rate capability, background and relative efficiency. Stability, gamma-ray and fast neutron sensitivity have also been investigated. The effect of scattering in the detector components has been measured and provides input to comparison for Monte Carlo simulations. All data is presented in comparison to that measured by the 3He detectors simultaneously, showing that all features recorded by one detector are also recorded by the other. The energy resolution matches closely. We find that the Multi-Grid is able to match the data collected by 3He, and see an indication of a considerable advantage in the count rate capability. Based on these results, we are confident that the Multi-Grid detector will be capable of producing high quality scientific data on chopper spectrometers utilising the unprecedented neutron flux of the ESS.

  • 3.
    Birch, J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping.
    Buffet, J. -C
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Clergeau, J. -F
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Van Esch, P.
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Etxegarai, M.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Ferraton, M.
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Guerard, B.
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Hultman, L.
    Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping.
    Höglund, C.
    Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping; European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping; European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    Linköping University, Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping; European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Stefanescu, I.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Multi-Grid boron-10 detector for time-of-flight spectrometers in neutron scattering science2015In: 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, article id 7582004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Grid (MG) detector has been introduced at ILL and developed by a collaboration between ILL, ESS and Linkoping University. This detector design addresses the severely decreased availability of He3, in particular for neutron scattering instruments with large-area detectors, such as time-of-flight neutron spectrometers at ESS and other facilities. The MG detector is based on thin converter films of boron-10 carbide arranged in layers orthogonal to the incoming neutrons. The design of the detector provides position resolution, efficiency competitive with He3 and a strong gamma rejection capability. This paper presents the MG large-area (2.4m2) demonstrator and the progress made in order to meet the needs of production of B4C-coated layers, mechanical parts and assembly on a scale similar to that of the final detectors for ESS. A particular effort was made to produce aluminium detector parts with a low alpha background, successfully reducing the background rate to acceptable levels. Following the IN5 demonstrator, a compact prototype has been designed in order to finalise the electronic readout to be used at the ESS instruments equipped with the MG.

  • 4.
    Birch, J
    et al.
    Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Buffet, J-C
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Clergeau, J F
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Van Esch, P
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Ferraton, M
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Guerard, B
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Hall-Wilton, R
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund, Sweden.
    Hultman, L
    Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Höglund, C
    Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jensen, J
    Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Khaplanov, A
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Piscitelli, F
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Investigation of background in large-area neutron detectors due to alpha emission from impurities in aluminium2015In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, no 10, article id P10019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal neutron detector based on films of 10B4C have been developed as an alternative to 3He detectors. In particular, The Multi-Grid detector concept is considered for future large area detectors for ESS and ILL instruments. An excellent signal-to-background ratio is essential to attain expected scientific results. Aluminium is the most natural material for the mechanical structure of of the Multi-Grid detector and other similar concepts due to its mechanical and neutronic properties. Due to natural concentration of α emitters, however, the background from α particles misidentified as neutrons can be unacceptably high. We present our experience operating a detector prototype affected by this issue. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to confirm the background as α particles. The issues have been addressed in the more recent implementations of the Multi-Grid detector by the use of purified aluminium as well as Ni-plating of standard aluminium. The result is the reduction in background by two orders of magnitude. A new large-area prototype has been built incorporating these modifications.

  • 5.
    Cherkashyna, N.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, 221 00 Lund, Sweden .
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, 221 00 Lund, Sweden .
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, 221 00 Lund, Sweden .
    Filges, U.
    Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.
    Deen, P.
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, 221 00 Lund, Sweden .
    Herwig, K.
    Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, United States .
    Ehlers, G.
    Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, United States.
    Greene, G.
    Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, United States .
    Carpenter, J.
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, United States .
    Connatser, R.
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, 221 00 Lund, Sweden .
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ESS AB, 221 00 Lund, Sweden .
    Bentley, P. M.
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, 221 00 Lund, Sweden .
    High energy particle background at neutron spallation sources and possible solutions2014In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 528, no 1, p. Art. no. 012013-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern spallation neutron sources are driven by proton beams ∼ GeV energies. Whereas low energy particle background shielding is well understood for reactors sources of neutrons (∼20 MeV), for high energies (100s MeV to multiple GeV) there is potential to improve shielding solutions and reduce instrument backgrounds significantly. We present initial measured data on high energy particle backgrounds, which illustrate the results of particle showers caused by high energy particles from spallation neutron sources. We use detailed physics models of different materials to identify new shielding solutions for such neutron sources, including laminated layers of multiple materials. In addition to the steel and concrete, which are used traditionally, we introduce some other options that are new to the neutron scattering community, among which there are copper alloys as used in hadronic calorimeters in high energy physics laboratories. These concepts have very attractive energy absorption characteristics, and simulations predict that the background suppression could be improved by one or two orders of magnitude. These solutions are expected to be great benefit to the European Spallation Source, where the majority of instruments are potentially affected by high energy backgrounds, as well as to existing spallation sources.

  • 6.
    Christensen, M. J.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Shelly, M.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nilsson, J.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mukai, A.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Al Jebali, R.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Glasgow Univ, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Lupberger, M.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Messi, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Lund Univ, Lund.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Blum, T.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sogaard, C.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skelboe, S.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Richter, T.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Software-based data acquisition and processing for neutron detectors at European Spallation Source-early experience from four detector designs2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, no 11, article id T11002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Spallation Source (ESS) will deliver neutrons at high flux for use in diverse neutron scattering techniques. The neutron source facility and the scientific instruments will be located in Lund, and the Data Management and Software Centre (DMSC), in Copenhagen. A number of detector prototypes are being developed at ESS together with its European in-kind partners, for example: SoNDe, Multi-Grid, Multi-Blade and Gd-GEM. These are all position sensitive detectors but use different techniques for the detection of neutrons. Except for digitization of electronics readout, all neutron data is anticipated to be processed in software. This provides maximum flexibility and adaptability and allows deep inspection of the raw data for commissioning which will reduce the risk of starting up new detector technologies. But it also requires development of high performance software processing pipelines and optimized and scalable processing algorithms. This report provides a description of the ESS system architecture for the neutron data path. Special focus is on the interface between the detectors and DMSC which is based on UDP over Ethernet links. The report also describes the software architecture for detector data processing and the tools we have developed, which have proven very useful for efficient early experimentation, and can be run on a single laptop. Processing requirements for the SoNDe, Multi-Grid, Multi-Blade and Ge-GEM detectors are presented and compared to event processing rates archived so far.

  • 7.
    Croci, Gabriele
    et al.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Muraro, Andrea
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Cippo, Enrico Perelli
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Grosso, Giovanni
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Hoglund, Carina
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS AB, Lund.
    Murtas, Fabrizio
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Frascati, Italy.
    Raspino, Davide
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Robinson, Linda
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Lund.
    Rhodes, Nigel
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Rebai, Marica
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Schooneveld, Erik
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Defendi, Ilario
    TUM, Garching, Germany.
    Zeitelhack, Karl
    TUM, Garching, Germany.
    Tardocchi, Marco
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    I-BAND-GEM: a new way for improving BAND-GEM efficiency to thermal and cold neutrons2019In: The European Physical Journal Plus, ISSN 2190-5444, E-ISSN 2190-5444, Vol. 134, no 4, article id 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    .The BAND-GEM detector represents one of the novel thermal neutron detection devices that have been developed in order to fulfil the needs of high intensity neutron sources that, like ESS (the European Spallation Source), will start operation in the next few years. The first version of this detector featured a detection efficiency of about 40% for neutrons with a wavelength of 4 angstrom, a spatial resolution of about 6mm and a rate capability in the order of some MHz/cm(2). The novelty of this device is represented by an improved 3D converter cathode (10 cm thick) based on (B4C)-B-10-coated aluminum grids positioned in a controlled gas mixture volume put on top of a Triple GEM amplifying stage. The position where the neutron interacts in the converter depends on their energy and it was observed that the first version of the detector would suffer from an efficiency decrease for long (>5 angstrom) neutron wavelength. This paper describes how the new 3D cathode allowed improving the detection efficiency at long neutron wavelengths while keeping all the benefits of the first BAND-GEM version.

  • 8.
    Croci, Gabriele
    et al.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; CNR, Milan, Italy; INFN, Milan, Italy.
    Muraro, Andrea
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Cippo, Enrico Perelli
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Tardocchi, Marco
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Grosso, Giovanni
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Albani, Georgia
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Angella, Giuliano
    CNR, IENI, Milan, Italy.
    Defendi, Ilario
    Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum MLZ, Lichtenbergstr 1, Garching, Germany.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. ESS, ERIC, Lund.
    Höglund, Carina
    ESS, ERIC, Lund; Linköping Univ, Linköping.
    Raspino, Davide
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, ISIS Facil, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Rhodes, Nigel
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, ISIS Facil, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Robinson, Linda
    ESS, ERIC, Lund.
    Schmidt, Susan
    ESS, ERIC, Lund.
    Schooneveld, Erik
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, ISIS Facil, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Zeitelhack, Karl
    Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum MLZ, Lichtenbergstr 1, Garching, Germany.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy; ESS, ERIC, Lund.
    A high-efficiency thermal neutron detector based on thin 3D (B4C)-B-10 converters for high-rate applications2018In: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 123, no 5, article id 52001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    new position-sensitive thermal neutron detector based on boron-coated converters has been developed as an alternative to today's standard He-3-based technology for application to thermal neutron scattering. The key element of the development is a novel 3D (B4C)-B-10 converter which has been ad hoc designed and realized with the aim of combining a high neutron conversion probability via the B-10(n, alpha)(7) Li reaction together with an efficient collection of the produced charged particles. The developed 3D converter is composed of thin aluminium grids made by a micro-waterjet technique and coated on both sides with a thin layer of( 10)B(4)C. When coupled to a GEM detector this converter allows reaching neutron detection efficiencies close to 50% at neutron wavelengths equal to 4 angstrom. In addition, the new detector features a spatial resolution of about 5 min and can sustain counting rates well in excess of 1 MHz/cm(2). The newly developed neutron detector will enable time-resolved measurements of different kind of samples in neutron scattering experiments at high flux spallation sources and can find a use in applications where large areas and custom geometries of thermal neutron detectors are foreseen. 

  • 9.
    Deen, P. P.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Vickery, A.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersen, K. H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS AB, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    A design study of VOR: A versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer for the ESS2015In: EPJ Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences, 2015, Vol. 83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS), 30.2 m moderator to sample, and provides instantaneous access to a broad dynamic range, 1-120 meV within each ESS period. The short instrument length combined with the long ESS pulse width enables a quadratic flux increase, even at longer wavelengths, by relaxing energy resolution from ΔE/E = 1% up to ΔE/E = 7%. This is impossible both on a long chopper spectrometer at the ESS and with instruments at short pulsed sources. In comparison to current day chopper spectrometers, VOR can offer an order of magnitude improvement in flux for equivalent energy resolutions, ΔE/E = 1-3%. Further relaxing the energy resolution enables VOR to gain an extra order of magnitude in flux. In addition, VOR has been optimised for repetition rate multiplication (RRM) and is therefore able to measure, in a single ESS period, 6-14 incident wavelengths, across a wavelength band of 9 Å with a novel chopper configuration that transmits all incident wavelengths with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering.

  • 10.
    Dian, E.
    et al.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Ehlers, G.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Zagyvai, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Scattered neutron background in thermal neutron detectors2018In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 902, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inelastic neutron scattering instruments require very low background; therefore the proper shielding for suppressing the scattered neutron background, both from elastic and inelastic scattering is essential. The detailed understanding of the background scattering sources is required for effective suppression. The Multi-Grid thermal neutron detector is an Ar/CO2 gas filled detector with a (B4C)-B-10 neutron converter coated on aluminium substrates. It is a large-area detector design that will equip inelastic neutron spectrometers at the European Spallation Source (ESS). To this end a parameterised Geant4 model is built for the Multi-Grid detector. This is the first time thermal neutron scattering background sources have been modelled in a detailed simulation of detector response. The model is validated via comparison with measured data of prototypes installed on the IN6 instrument at ILL and on the CNCS instrument at SNS. The effect of scattering originating in detector components is smaller than effects originating elsewhere.

  • 11.
    Dian, E.
    et al.
    Hungaritm Acad Sci, Ctr Energy Res, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Zagyvai, P.
    Hungaritm Acad Sci, Ctr Energy Res, Budapest, Hungary.
    Czifrus, Sz.
    Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Inst Nucl Tech, Budapest, Hungary.
    Neutron activation and prompt gamma intensity in Ar/CO2-filled neutron detectors at the European Spallation Source2017In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 128, p. 275-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP6.1 were performed to study the effect of neutron activation in Ar/CO2 neutron detector counting gas. A general MCNP model was built and validated with simple analytical calculations. Simulations and calculations agree that only the Ar-40 activation can have a considerable effect. It was shown that neither the prompt gamma intensity from the Ar-40 neutron capture nor the produced Ar-41 activity have an impact in terms of gamma dose rate around the detector and background level.

  • 12.
    Dian, E.
    et al.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Zagyvai, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Suppression of intrinsic neutron background in the Multi-Grid detector2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id P01021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key requirements for neutron scattering instruments is the Signal-toBackground ratio (SBR). This is as well a design driving requirement for many instruments at the European Spallation Source (ESS), which aspires to be the brightest neutron source of the world. The SBR can be effectively improved with background reduction. The Multi-Grid, a large-area thermal neutron detector with a solid boron carbide converter, is a novel solution for chopper spectrometers. This detector will be installed for the three prospective chopper spectrometers at the ESS. As the Multi-Grid detector is a large area detector with a complex structure, its intrinsic background and its suppression via advanced shielding design should be investigated in its complexity, as it cannot be naively calculated. The intrinsic scattered neutron background and its effect on the SBR is determined via a detailed Monte Carlo simulation for the Multi-Grid detector module, designed for the CSPEC instrument at the ESS. The impact of the detector vessel and the neutron entrance window on scattering is determined, revealing the importance of an optimised internal detector shielding. The background-reducing capacity of common shielding geometries, like side-shielding and end-shielding is determined by using perfect absorber as shielding material, and common shielding materials, like B4C and Cd are also tested. On the basis of the comparison of the effectiveness of the different shielding topologies and materials, recommendations are given for a combined shielding of the Multi-Grid detector module, optimised for increased SBR.

  • 13.
    Dian, Eszter
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Kanaki, Kalliopi
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Khaplanov, Anton
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kittelmann, Thomas
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Budapest, Hungary.
    Shielding optimization study for 10b-based large area neutron detectors with detailed geant4 model2017In: 2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, NSS/MIC/RTSD 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, Vol. 2017-January, article id 8069784Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) sets the scope on replacing 3He tube detectors where it is reasonably achievable, consequently advanced neutron detectors require a signal-To-noise (S/N) ratio high enough to be competitive with 3He tubes and satisfy scientific requirements. Advanced local shielding could provide the improved S/N. The objective of the current study is to create a tool that can be used during the shielding optimization process. The study is performed with Monte-Carlo simulations using a Geant4 version extended with NXSG4, that is capable to handle the crystal structure of specific materials, therefore the effects of neutron absorption, coherent and incoherent scattering were simulated. Validation of the extended Geant4 code, developed at ESS is also part of the current study by comparing the simulated results with analytical calculations. A detailed and realistic model of the state-of-The-Art Multi-Grid detector has been implemented, as it is almost the only prototype with published data on scattering effects. Simulations were performed for appropriate shielding materials with various monoenergetic neutron beams.A robust tool has been developed that could be effectively used to arise the S/N via optimizing the detector shielding for specific setups and requirements for all inelastic instruments.

  • 14.
    Dijulio, D. D.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Lund.
    Cherkashyna, N.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Scherzinger, J.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; CERN, Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Cooper-Jensen, C. P.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Fissum, K. G.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Kirstein, O.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
    Ehlers, G.
    Quantum Condensed Matter Division, ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.
    Gallmeier, F. X.
    Instrument and Source Division, ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.
    Hornbach, D. E.
    Instrument and Source Division, ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.
    Iverson, E. B.
    Instrument and Source Division, ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.
    Newby, R. J.
    Instrument and Source Division, ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Bentley, P. M.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Characterization of the radiation background at the Spallation Neutron Source2016In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 746, no 1, article id 012033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey of the radiation background at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA during routine daily operation. A broad range of detectors was used to characterize primarily the neutron and photon fields throughout the facility. These include a WENDI-2 extended range dosimeter, a thermoscientific NRD, an Arktis 4He detector, and a standard NaI photon detector. The information gathered from the detectors was used to map out the neutron dose rates throughout the facility and also the neutron dose rate and flux profiles of several different beamlines. The survey provides detailed information useful for developing future shielding concepts at spallation neutron sources, such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden.

  • 15.
    Galgoczi, G.
    et al.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Budapest, Hungary; Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Varga, D.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Investigation of neutron scattering in the Multi-Blade detector with Geant4 simulations2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, article id P12031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is the world's next generation spallation-based neutron source. The research conducted at ESS will yield in the discovery and development of new materials including the fields of manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, engines, plastics, energy, telecommunications, transportation, information technology and biotechnology. The spallation source will deliver an unprecedented neutron flux. In particular, the reflectometers selected for construction, ESTIA and FREIA, have to fulfill challenging requirements. Local incident peak rate can reach 10(5) Hz/mm(2). For new science to be addressed, the spatial resolution is aimed to be less than 1 mm with a desired scattering of 10(-4) (peak-to-tail ratio). The latter requirement is approximately two orders of magnitude better than the current state-of-the-art detectors. The main aim of this work is to quantify the cumulative contribution of various detector components to the scattering of neutrons and to prove that the respective effect is within the requirements set for the Multi-Blade detector by the ESS reflectometers. To this end, different sets of geometry and beam parameters are investigated, with primary focus on the cathode coating and the detector window thickness.

  • 16.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund SE 22100, Sweden .
    Theroine, C.
    Institut Laue-Langevin ILL, Grenoble, France .
    Status of the European Spallation Source ESS AB, the instrument selection process, and a fundamental physics beamline at the ESS2014In: Physics Procedia, 2014, p. 8-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general introduction to the status of the European Spallation Source ESS AB is given. As well as a general overview, the status of instruments and instrument design is presented. Particular attention is given to the instrument selection process, and how a proposal for a fundamental neutron physics beamline should be submitted. The contents of this presentation closely reflect the recently completed Technical Design Report for the ESS.

  • 17.
    Höglund, C.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Alling, B.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jensen, J.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, L.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Birch, J.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Growth and oxidization stability of cubic Zr1-xGdxN solid solution thin films2015In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, no 19, article id 195301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report Zr1-xGdxN thin films deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. We show a solid solubility of the highly neutron absorbing GdN into ZrN along the whole compositional range, which is in excellent agreement with our recent predictions by first-principles calculations. An oxidization study in air shows that Zr1-xGdxN with x reaching from 1 to close to 0 fully oxidizes, but that the oxidization is slowed down by an increased amount of ZrN or stopped by applying a capping layer of ZrN. The crystalline quality of Zr0.5Gd0.5N films increases with substrate temperatures increasing from 100 degrees C to 900 degrees C. (C) 2015 Author(s).

  • 18.
    Höglund, Carina
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Zeitelhack, Karl
    Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum MLZ, FRM 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Kudejova, Petra
    Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum MLZ, FRM 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Birch, Jens
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, Thin Film Phys Div, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Stability of (B4C)-B-10 thin films under neutron radiation2015In: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, ISSN 0969-806X, E-ISSN 1879-0895, Vol. 113, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of (B4C)-B-10 have shown to be very suitable as neutron-converting material in the next generation of neutron detectors, replacing the previous predominantly used He-3. In this contribution we show under realistic conditions that (B4C)-B-10 films are not damaged by the neutron irradiation and interactions, which they will be exposed to under many years in a neutron detector. 1 mu m thick (B4C)-B-10 thin films were deposited onto Al or Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. As-deposited films were exposed to a cold neutron beam with fluences of up to 1.1 x 10(14) cm(-2) and a mean wavelength of 6.9 angstrom. Both irradiated and as-deposited reference samples were characterized with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. We show that only 1.8 ppm of the B-10 atoms were consumed and that the film composition does not change by the neutron interaction within the measurement accuracy. The irradiation does not deteriorate the film adhesion and there is no indication that it results in increased residual stress values of the as-deposited films of 0.095 GPa. From what is visible with the naked eye and down to atomic level studies, no change from the irradiation could be found using the above-mentioned characterization techniques. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • 19.
    Imam, Mewlude
    et al.
    Linköping university; European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Höglund, Carin
    Linköping university; European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping university; European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; IHI Ionbond AG, Olten, Switzerland.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University.
    Plasma CVD of hydrogenated boron-carbon thin films from triethylboron2018In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 148, no 3, article id 034701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of B - C thin films is of importance for neutron voltaics and semiconductor technology. The highly reactive trialkylboranes, with alkyl groups of 1-4 carbon atoms, are a class of precursors that have been less explored for low-temperature CVD of B - C films. Herein, we demonstrate plasma CVD of B - C thin films using triethylboron (TEB) as a single source precursor in an Ar plasma. We show that the film density and B/C ratio increases with increasing plasma power, reaching a density of 2.20 g/cm3 and B/C = 1.7. This is attributed to a more intense energetic bombardment during deposition and more complete dissociation of the TEB molecule in the plasma at higher plasma power. The hydrogen content in the films ranges between 14 and 20 at. %. Optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma shows that BH, CH, C2, and H are the optically active plasma species from TEB. We suggest a plasma chemical model based on β-hydrogen elimination of C2H4 to form BH3, in which BH3 and C2H4 are then dehydrogenated to form BH and C2H2. Furthermore, C2H2 decomposes in the plasma to produce C2 and CH, which together with BH and possibly BH3-x(C2H5)x are the film forming species. 

  • 20.
    Imam, Mewlude
    et al.
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol., Linköping; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol., Linköping; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol., Linköping; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Ivanov, Ivan G.
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Trimethylboron as Single-Source Precursor for Boron-Carbon Thin Film Synthesis by Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition2016In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, no 38, p. 21990-21997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron carbon (BxC) thin films are potential neutron converting layers for B-10-based neutron detectors. However, as common material choices for such detectors do not tolerate temperatures above 500 degrees C, a low temperature deposition route is required. Here, we study trimethylboron B(CH3)(3) (TMB) as a single-source precursor for the deposition of BxC thin films by plasma CVD using Ar plasma. The effect of plasma power, TMB/Ar flow ratio and total pressure, on the film composition, morphology, chemical bonding, and microstructures are investigated. Dense and boron-rich films (B/C = 1.9) are achieved at high TMB flow under a low total pressure and high plasma power, which rendered an approximate substrate temperature of similar to 300 degrees C. Films mainly contain B-C bonds with the presence of B-O and C-C, which is attributed to be the origin of formed amorphous carbon in the films. The high H content 15 +/- 5 at. %) is almost independent of deposition parameters and contributed to lower the film density (2.16 g/cm(3)). The plasma compositional analysis shows that the TMB molecule decomposes to mainly atomic H, C-2, BH, and CH. A plasma chemical model for the decomposition of TMB with BH and CH as the plausible film depositing species in the plasma is proposed.

  • 21.
    Imam, Mewlude
    et al.
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Souqui, Laurent
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Herritsch, Jan
    Philipps Univ Marburg, Fachbereich Chem & Mat Sci Ctr, Marburg, Germany.
    Stegmueller, Andreas
    Philipps Univ Marburg, Fachbereich Chem & Mat Sci Ctr, Marburg, Germany.
    Hoglund, Carina
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Tonner, Ralf
    Philipps Univ Marburg, Fachbereich Chem & Mat Sci Ctr, Marburg, Germany.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Gas Phase Chemistry of Trimethylboron in Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition2017In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, no 47, p. 26465-26471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkylboranes, such as trimethylboron (TMB) and triethylboron (TEB), are promising alternative precursors in low temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of boron-containing thin films. In this study, CVD growth of B-C films using TMB and quantum-chemical calculations to elucidate a gas phase chemical mechanism were undertaken. Dense, amorphous, boron-rich (B/C 1.5-3) films were deposited at 1000 degrees C in both dihydrogen and argon ambients, while films with crystalline B4C and B25C inclusions were deposited at 1100 degrees C in dihydrogen. A script-based automatization scheme was implemented for the quantum-chemical computations to enable time efficient screening of thousands of possible gas phase CVD reactions. The quantum-chemical calculations suggest TMB is mainly decomposed by an unimolecular alpha-H elimination of methane, which is complemented by dihydrogen-assisted elimination of methane in dihydrogen.

  • 22.
    Issa, F.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Llamas, I.
    Inst Energy Technol, Kjeller, Norway.
    Riktor, M. Dalseth
    Inst Energy Technol, Kjeller, Norway.
    Brattheim, S. R.
    Inst Energy Technol, Kjeller, Norway.
    Perrey, H.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Characterization of thermal neutron beam monitors2017In: PHYSICAL REVIEW ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS, ISSN 2469-9888, Vol. 20, no 9, article id 092801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron beam monitors with a wide range of efficiencies, low. sensitivity, and high time and space resolution are required in neutron beam experiments to continuously diagnose the delivered beam. In this work, commercially available neutron beam monitors have been characterized using the R2D2 beamline at IFE (Norway) and using a Be-based neutron source. For the. sensitivity measurements different. sources have been used. The evaluation of the monitors includes, the study of their efficiency, attenuation, scattering, and sensitivity to.. In this work we report the results of this characterization.

  • 23.
    Issa, F.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Llamas, I.
    Institute for Energy Technology.
    Dalseth Riktor, M.
    Institute for Energy Technology.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Characterization of neutron beam monitors for the European spallation source2017In: 2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, NSS/MIC/RTSD 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, Vol. 2017-January, article id 8069754Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Spallation Source aspires to become the world's leading neutron source for the studies of materials during the next decade. At ESS 16 different instruments will be built. These instruments will require neutron beam monitors with high precision, low gamma sensitivity, high time and space resolution. Such neutron beam monitors are essential in various neutron experiments to continuously diagnose the delivered beam. In this work different types of neutron beam monitors from different suppliers have been characterized using the R2D2 beamline at IFE in Norway and using a Be-based neutron source. For the gamma sensitivity measurements different gamma sources have been used. The evaluation of these monitors includes the study of their efficiency, attenuation, uniformity, stability, and their sensitivity to gamma. In this work we report the results of this characterization.

  • 24.
    Jebali, R.
    et al.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Scherzinger, J.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Annand, J. R. M.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland.
    Chandra, R.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Davatz, G.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fissum, K. G.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Friederich, H.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Gendotti, U.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS AB, Detector Grp, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hakansson, E.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Detector Grp, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Lundin, M.
    Lund Univ, MAX Lab 4, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Murer, D.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Nilsson, B.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Detector Grp, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Rosborg, A.
    Lund Univ, MAX Lab 4, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, H.
    Lund Univ, MAX Lab 4, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    A first comparison of the responses of a He-4-based fast-neutron detector and a NE-213 liquid-scintillator reference detector2015In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 794, p. 102-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A first comparison has been made between the pulse-shape discrimination characteristics of a novel He-4-based pressurized scintillation detector and a NE-213 liquicl-scintillator reference detector using an Am/Be mixed-field neutron and gamma-ray source and a high-resolution scintillation-pulse digitizer. In particular, the capabilities of the two fast neutron detectors to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays were investigated. The NE-213 liquicl-scintillator reference cell produced a wide range of scintillation-light yields in response to he gamma-ray field of the source. In stark contrast, clue to the size and pressure of the He-4 gas volume, the He-4-based detector registered a maximum scintillation-light yield of 750 keV(ee) to the same gamma-ray field. Pulse-shape discrimination for particles with scintillation-light yields of more than 750 keV(ee) was excellent in the case of the He-4-based detector. Above 750 keV(ee) its signal was unambiguously neutron, enabling particle identification based entirely upon the amount of scintillation light produced. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 25.
    Kanaki, K.
    et al.
    Science Department, European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Birch, J.
    Linköping University, Sweden .
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Science Department, European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Höglund, C.
    Science Department, European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Hultman, L.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jackson, A.
    Science Department, European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Kirstein, O.
    Science Department, European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Kittelmann, T.
    Science Department, European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Kolya, S.
    Science Department, European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Piscitelli, F.
    Institut Laue-Langevin, University of Perugia, Italy.
    An alternative small angle neutron scattering detector2013In: IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. Art. no. 6829478-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative detector design for Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) applications is currently under development at the European Spallation Source (ESS). Given the unavailability and high price of 3He, this detector design utilizes gaseous detectors with 10B as neutron converter and is ideally suited for a SANS instrument at the ESS. The novel aspects of the geometry, exploiting the properties of the converting material, in combination with the performance of the detector are addressed by means of analytical calculations, as well as detailed Monte Carlo simulations using a customized version of Geant4. Last but not least, the progress on the conceptual prototype design is presented. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 26.
    Kanaki, K.
    et al.
    Science Direct., European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Science Direct., European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersen, K. H.
    Science Direct., European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Anevski, D.
    Maths Department, Lunds Tekniska Hogskola, Sweden.
    Birch, J.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Thin Film Physics Division, Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Cai, X. X.
    Institutt for Energiteknikk, Norway .
    Hoglund, C.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Thin Film Physics Division, Linkoping University, Sweden .
    Hultman, L.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Thin Film Physics Division, Linkoping University, Sweden .
    Jansa Llamas, I.
    Science Direct., European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden .
    Keiderling, U.
    Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, Germany .
    Khaplanov, A.
    SDN, Institut Laue-Langevin, France .
    Kirstein, O.
    University of Newcastle, Australia .
    Schulz, C.
    Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, Germany .
    Wilpert, T.
    Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, Germany .
    Statistical energy determination in neutron detector systems for neutron scattering science2013In: IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. Art. no. 6829644-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy determination of thermal and cold neutrons could revolutionize the field of neutron scattering science and transform the instrument design for future facilities. This contribution evaluates the feasibility and potential of a statistical determination of the neutron energy in the new generation of neutron detectors. In particular, the novel technology of multi-layer 10B thin film detectors present a unique opportunity of exploiting this possibility by using the various neutron penetration depths to extract energy information. A statistical mathematical model for doing so is being developed. To this end, measurements of absorption profiles on boron carbide have been performed at the Institutt for Energiteknikk, Norway and the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Germany. The results of the data analysis allow for a preliminary estimate on the feasibility and the potential of this method. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 27.
    Kanaki, K.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Klausz, M.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Albani, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Cippo, E. Perelli
    Assoc EURATOM ENEA CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Jackson, A.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Lund Univ, Lund.
    Jaksch, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum, Garching, Germany.
    Nielsen, T.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zagyvai, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Detector rates for the Small Angle Neutron Scattering instruments at the European Spallation Source2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, article id P07016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building the European Spallation Source (ESS), the most powerful neutron source in the world, requires significant technological advances at most fronts of instrument component design. Detectors are not an exception. The existing implementations at current neutron scattering facilities are at their performance limits and sometimes barely cover the scientific needs. At full operation the ESS will yield unprecedented neutron brilliance. This means that one of the most challenging aspects for the new detector designs is the increased rate capability and in particular the peak instantaneous rate capability, i.e. the number of neutrons hitting the detector per channel, pixel or cm(2) at the peak of the neutron pulse. This paper focuses on estimating the incident and detection rates that are anticipated for the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) instruments planned for ESS. Various approaches are applied and the results thereof are presented.

  • 28.
    Kanaki, Kalliopi
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Kittelmann, Thomas
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Cai, Xiao Xiao
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Klinkby, Esben
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Knudsen, Erik B.
    Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Willendrup, Peter
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Simulation tools for detector and instrument design2018In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 551, p. 386-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high performance requirements at the European Spallation Source have been driving the technological advances on the neutron detector front. Now more than ever is it important to optimize the design of detectors and instruments, to fully exploit the ESS source brilliance. Most of the simulation tools the neutron scattering community has at their disposal target the instrument optimization until the sample position, with little focus on detectors. The ESS Detector Group has extended the capabilities of existing detector simulation tools to bridge this gap. An extensive software framework has been developed, enabling efficient and collaborative developments of required simulations and analyses – based on the use of the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit, but with extended physics capabilities where relevant (like for Bragg diffraction of thermal neutrons in crystals). Furthermore, the MCPL (Monte Carlo Particle Lists) particle data exchange file format, currently supported for the primary Monte Carlo tools of the community (McStas, Geant4 and MCNP), facilitates the integration of detector simulations with existing simulations of instruments using these software packages. These means offer a powerful set of tools to tailor the detector and instrument design to the instrument application. 

  • 29.
    Khaplanov, A.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Bentley, P. M.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Kirstein, O.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund; University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Nilsson, E.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Stefanescu, I.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Sutton, I.
    European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund.
    Neutron beam monitors for the European spallation source2015In: 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, article id 7581906Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, will house a suite of 16 user instruments for neutron scattering experiments. The spallation source of the ESS will emit relatively long, 2.8 ms, neutron pulses with an integrated flux that will greatly exceed that of current facilities. This leads to both large advancements in instrument performance as well as to increased length and complexity of the beam delivery systems. The instruments will each be equipped with neutron beam monitors used for data normalisation and analysis, as well as commissioning and diagnostics. In this paper we present the requirements for beam monitors for the ESS and the strategy to meet these in a standardised approach. A large range of specifications in efficiency, dynamic range, time and position resolution, compatible materials are needed. A new feature for neutron beam monitors for some locations, is the ability to measure time profile of each source pulse individually. In general, event mode readout will be used for monitors, similarly to other neutron detectors at the facility. A selection of detectors based on different technologies will be available. Monitors will be integrated with beam lines and choppers in a way that allows to freely choose the type of monitor based on final requirements of an instrument. For this end, space for a standardised module, housing a monitor will be provided in conjunction with chopper assemblies and elsewhere on each beam line.

  • 30.
    Kirstein, O.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Stefanescu, I.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Etxegarai, M.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Fissum, K.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Gulyachkina, A.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Imam, M.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Kolya, S.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Nilsson, B.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Ortega, L.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Ramos, J. F.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Scherzinger, J.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Neutron position sensitive detectors for the ESS2014In: Proceedings of Science, Proceedings of Science (PoS) , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden will become the world's leading neutron source for the study of materials. It will be a long pulse source, with an average beam power of 5 MW delivered to the target station. The ESS is in the construction phase, which started in 2013 with the completion of the Technical Design Report (TDR). The instruments are being selected from conceptual proposals submitted by groups from around Europe. These instruments present numerous challenges for detector technology in the absence of the availability of Helium-3, which is the default choice for detectors for instruments built until today and due to the extreme rates expected across the ESS instrument suite. Additionally a new generation of source requires a new generation of detector technologies to fully exploit the opportunities that this source provides. To meet this challenge at a green-field site, the detectors will be sourced from partners across Europe through numerous in-kind arrangements; a process that is somewhat novel for the neutron scattering community. This contribution presents briefly the current status of detectors for the ESS, and outlines the timeline to completion. For a conjectured instrument suite based upon instruments recommended for construction, a recently updated snapshot of the current expected detector requirements is presented. A strategy outline as to how these requirements might be tackled by novel detector developments is shown. In terms of future developments for the neutron community, synergies should be sought with other disciples, as recognized by various recent initiatives in Europe, in the context of the fundamentally multi-disciplinary nature of detectors. This strategy has at its basis the in-kind and collaborative partnerships necessary to be able to produce optimally performant detectors that allow the ESS instruments to be world-leading. This foresees and encourages a high level of collaboration and interdependence at its core, and rather than each group being all-rounders in every technology, the further development of centres of excellence across Europe for particular technologies and niches.

  • 31.
    Kittelmann, T.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Klinkby, E.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Cai, X. X.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Tech Univ Denmark, DTU Nutech, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Cooper-Jensen, C. P.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Uppsala.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Using Backscattering to Enhance Efficiency in Neutron Detectors2017In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 1562-1573, article id 7903709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of using strongly scattering materials to recover efficiency in detectors for neutron instruments, via backscattering of unconverted thermal neutrons, is discussed in general. The feasibility of the method is illustrated through Geant4-based simulations involving thermal neutrons impinging on a specific setup with a layer of polyethylene placed behind a single-layered boron-10 thin-film gaseous detector. The results show that detection efficiencies can be as much as doubled in the most ideal scenario, but with associated adverse contributions to spatial and timing resolutions of, respectively, centimeters and tens of microseconds. Potential mitigation techniques to contain the impact on resolution are investigated and are found to alleviate the issues to some degree, at a cost of reduced gain in efficiency.

  • 32.
    Margato, L. M. S.
    et al.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Fis, LIP Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004516 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Morozov, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Blanco, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Fonte, P.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Coimbra Polytech ISEC, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Fraga, F. A. F.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Guerard, B.
    ILL Inst Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund; Linköping Univ, Linköping.
    Mangiarotti, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund; IHI Ionbond AG, Olten, Switzerland.
    Zeitelhack, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Garching, Germany.
    Boron-10 lined RPCs for sub-millimeter resolution thermal neutron detectors: Feasibility study in a thermal neutron beam2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, no 1, article id P01017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of an experimental feasibility study of a position sensitive thermal neutron detector based on a resistive plate chamber (RPC) are presented. The detector prototype features a thin-gap (0.35 mm) hybrid RPC with an aluminium cathode and a float glass anode. The cathode is lined with a 2 mu m thick (B4C)-B-10 neutron converter enriched in B-10. A detection efficiency of 6.2% is measured at the neutron beam (lambda = 2.5 angstrom) for normal incidence. A spatial resolution better than 0.5 mm FWHM is demonstrated.

  • 33.
    Mauri, G.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Univ Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Messi, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Lund Univ, Lund.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Arnold, T.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Glavic, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Linköping Univ, Linköping.
    Ilves, T.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Higuera, I. Lopez
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Pazmandi, P.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Budapest, Hungary.
    Raspino, D.
    ISIS Neutron & Muon Source, Oxon, England.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; IHI Ionbond AG, Olten, Switzerland.
    Svensson, P.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Varga, D.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Neutron reflectometry with the Multi-Blade B-10-based detector2018In: Proceedings of the Royal Society. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, ISSN 1364-5021, E-ISSN 1471-2946, Vol. 474, no 2216, article id 20180266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Blade is a boron-10-based gaseous detector developed for neutron reflectometry instruments at the European Spallation Source in Sweden. The main challenges for neutron reflectometry detectors are the instantaneous counting rate and spatial resolution. The Multi-Blade has been tested on the CRISP reflectometer at the ISIS Neutron and Muon Source in the UK. A campaign of scientific measurements has been performed to study the Multi-Blade response in real instrumental conditions. The results of these tests are discussed in this paper.

  • 34.
    Mauri, G.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund; Univ Perugia, Dept Phys, Perugia, Italy.
    Messi, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund; Lund University, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Karnickis, E.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Fast neutron sensitivity of neutron detectors based on Boron-10 converter layers2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, no 3, article id P03004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years many detector technologies for thermal neutron detection have been developed in order to face the shortage of He-3, which is now much less available and more expensive. Moreover the He-3-based detectors can not fulfil the requirements in performance, e.g. the spatial resolution and the counting rate capability needed for the new instruments. The Boron-10-based gaseous detectors have been proposed as a suitable choice. This and other alternative technologies are being developed at ESS. Higher intensities mean higher signals but higher background as well. The signal-to-background ratio is an important feature to study, in particular the gamma-ray and the fast neutron contributions. This paper investigates, for the first time, the fast neutrons sensitivity of B-10-based thermal neutron detector. It presents the study of the detector response as a function of energy threshold and the underlying physical mechanisms. The latter are explained with the help of theoretical considerations and simulations.

  • 35.
    Messi, F.
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund; European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Mauri, G.
    University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Fissum, K.
    Lund University, Lund; European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund; Linköping University, Linköping.
    Kanari, K.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Karnickis, E.
    Lund University, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Pazmandi, P.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Perrey, H.
    Lund University, Lund.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Scherzinger, J.
    Lund University, Lund; European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund.
    Varga, D.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Gamma- and Fast Neutron- Sensitivity of 10B- Based Neutron Detectors at ESS2017In: 2017 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2017 - Conference Proceedings, 2017, article id 8533095Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), presently under construction in Lund, Sweden, is designed to be the world's brightest neutron source. When it will be in operation, ESS will deliver an instantaneous neutron flux on detectors that will be without precedent. A down side of the high brightness will be the increase of background, especially from gamma-rays and fast-neutrons.Considering that scattering cross-sections of many samples tend to be relatively low and that the gamma- and fast-neutronbackgrounds tend to be considerable high at spallation facilities [Che +14], the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement needs to be maximised. The sensitivity of a thermal-neutron detector to gamma-rays and to fast-neutrons is a very important characteristic, as it defines the best achievable signal-to-noise ratio for the measurement. It is therefore crucial to measure the gamma- and fast-neutron- sensitivities of all detectors that will be installed on the instruments at ESS.

  • 36.
    Muraro, Andrea
    et al.
    Assoc EURATOM ENEA CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Croci, Gabriele
    Assoc EURATOM ENEA CNR, Milan, Italy; Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Cippo, Enrico Perelli
    Assoc EURATOM ENEA CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Grosso, Giovanni
    Assoc EURATOM ENEA CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping Univ, Linköping; European Spallat Source, Lund.
    Albani, Giorgia
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source, Lund.
    Kanaki, Kalliopi
    European Spallat Source, Lund.
    Murtas, Fabrizio
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy.
    Raspino, Davide
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, Oxon, England.
    Robinson, Linda
    European Spallat Source, Lund.
    Rodhes, Nigel
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, Oxon, England.
    Rebai, Marica
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping Univ, Linköping; European Spallat Source, Lund.
    Schooneveld, Erik
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, Oxon, England.
    Tardocchi, Marco
    Assoc EURATOM ENEA CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Performance of the high-efficiency thermal neutron BAND-GEM detector2018In: Progress in Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0079-6468, E-ISSN 2050-3911, no 2, article id 023H01Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Newhigh-count-rate detectors are required for future spallation neutron sources where large-area and high-efficiency (>50%) detectors are envisaged. In this framework, Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is one of the detector technologies being explored, since it features good spatial resolution (<0.5 cm) and timing properties, has excellent rate capability (MHz/mm(2)) and can cover large areas (some m(2)) at low cost. In the BAND-GEM (boron array neutron detector GEM) approach a 3D geometry for the neutron converter cathode was developed that is expected to provide an efficiency >30% in thewavelength range of interest for small angle neutron scattering instruments. A system of aluminum grids with thin walls coated with a 0.59 mu m layer of (B4C)-B-10 has been built and positioned in the first detector gap, orthogonally to the cathode. By tilting the grid system with respect to the beam, there is a significant increase of effective thickness of the borated material crossed by the neutrons. As a consequence, both interaction probability and detection efficiency are increased. This paper presents the results of the performance of the BAND-GEM detector in terms of efficiency and spatial resolution.

  • 37.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    et al.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Resnati, F.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Birch, J.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Etxegarai, M.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hoglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hultman, L.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Llamas-Jansa, I.
    Inst Energy Technol IFE, NO-2007 Kjeller, Norway.
    Oliveri, E.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Oksanen, E.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Ropelewski, L.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Streli, C.
    Vienna Univ Technol, A-1040 Vienna, Austria.
    Thuiner, P.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    First measurements with new high-resolution gadolinium-GEM neutron detectors2016In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, article id P05011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Spallation Source instruments like the macromolecular diffractometer (NMX) require an excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities, time resolution, and an unprecedented spatial resolution in the order of a few hundred micrometers over a wide angular range of the incoming neutrons. For these instruments solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are a promising option. A GEM detector with gadolinium converter was tested on a cold neutron beam at the IFE research reactor in Norway. The mu TPC analysis, proven to improve the spatial resolution in the case of B-10 converters, is extended to gadolinium based detectors. For the first time, a Gd-GEM was successfully operated to detect neutrons with a measured efficiency of 11.8% at a wavelength of 2 angstrom and a position resolution better than 250 mu m.

  • 38.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Resnati, F.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Birch, J.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Höglund, C.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, L.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Iakovidis, G.
    CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Oliveri, E.
    CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Oksanen, E.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Ropelewski, L.
    CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Thuiner, P.
    CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    The mu TPC method: improving the position resolution of neutron detectors based on MPGDs2015In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, article id P04004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the He-3 crisis, alternatives to the standard neutron detection techniques are becoming urgent. In addition, the instruments of the European Spallation Source (ESS) require advances in the state of the art of neutron detection. The instruments need detectors with excellent neutron detection efficiency, high rate capabilities and unprecedented spatial resolution. The Macromolecular Crystallography instrument (NMX) requires a position resolution in the order of 200 mu m over a wide angular range of incoming neutrons. Solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are proposed to meet the new requirements. Charged particles rising from the neutron capture have usually ranges larger than several millimetres in gas. This is apparently in contrast with the requirements for the position resolution. In this paper, we present an analysis technique, new in the field of neutron detection, based on the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept. Using a standard Single-GEM with the cathode coated with (B4C)-B-10, we extract the neutron interaction point with a resolution of better than sigma = 200 mu m.

  • 39.
    Piscitelli, F.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, POB 176, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;ILL Grenoble, 71 Ave Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble, France.;Univ Perugia, Dept Phys, Piazza Univ 1, I-06123 Perugia, Italy..
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, POB 176, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;ILL Grenoble, 71 Ave Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble, France..
    Devishvili, A.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, POB 176, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Hoglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, POB 176, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Birch, J.
    Linkoping Univ, Thin Film Phys Div, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Dennison, A. J. C.
    ILL Grenoble, 71 Ave Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble, France.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, BP 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gutfreund, P.
    ILL Grenoble, 71 Ave Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble, France..
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, POB 176, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.;Mid Sweden Univ, S-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Van Esch, P.
    ILL Grenoble, 71 Ave Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble, France..
    Neutron reflectometry on highly absorbing films and its application to (B4C)-B-10-based neutron detectors2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, ISSN 1364-5021, E-ISSN 1471-2946, Vol. 472, no 2185, article id 20150711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool used for studies of surfaces and interfaces. The absorption in the typical studied materials is neglected and this technique is limited only to the reflectivity measurement. For strongly absorbing nuclei, the absorption can be directly measured by using the neutron-induced fluorescence technique which exploits the prompt particle emission of absorbing isotopes. This technique is emerging from soft matter and biology where highly absorbing nuclei, in very small quantities, are used as a label for buried layers. Nowadays, the importance of absorbing layers is rapidly increasing, partially because of their application in neutron detection; a field that has become more active also due to the He-3-shortage. We extend the neutron-induced fluorescence technique to the study of layers of highly absorbing materials, in particular (B4C)-B-10. The theory of neutron reflectometry is a commonly studied topic; however, when a strong absorption is present the subtle relationship between the reflection and the absorption of neutrons is not widely known. The theory for a general stack of absorbing layers has been developed and compared to measurements. We also report on the requirements that a (B4C)-B-10 layer must fulfil in order to be employed as a converter in neutron detection.

  • 40.
    Piscitelli, F.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Mauri, G.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund; Univ Perugia, Dept Phys, Perugia, Italy.
    Messi, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund; Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund..
    Arnold, T.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Glavic, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Neutron Scattering & Imaging, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hoglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund; Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Ilves, T.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Higuera, I. Lopez
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Pazmandi, P.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Dept High Energy Phys, Budapest, Hungary.
    Raspino, D.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, Sci & Technol Facil Council, ISIS Neutron & Muon Facil, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund; IHI Ionbond AG, Olten, Switzerland.
    Svensson, P.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Varga, D.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Dept High Energy Phys, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Characterization of the Multi-Blade 10B-based detector at the CRISP reflectometer at ISIS for neutron reflectometry at ESS2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, no 5, article id P05009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Blade is a Boron-10-based gaseous thermal neutron detector developed to face the challenge arising in neutron reflectometry at neutron sources. Neutron reflectometers are challenging instruments in terms of instantaneous counting rate and spatial resolution. This detector has been designed according to the requirements given by the reflectometers at the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Sweden. The Multi-Blade has been installed and tested on the CRISP reflectometer at the ISIS neutron and muon source in U.K.. The results on the detailed detector characterization are discussed in this manuscript.

  • 41.
    Piscitelli, F.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Messi, F.
    Lund University, Lund.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Bryś, T.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Chicken, F.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Dian, E.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Fuzi, J.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Kiss, G.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Orban, J.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Pazmandi, P.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Rosta, L.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Varga, D.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Zsiros, T.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    The Multi-Blade Boron-10-based neutron detector for high intensity neutron reflectometry at ESS2017In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, no 3, article id P03013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Blade is a Boron-10-based gaseous detector introduced to face the challenge arising in neutron reflectometry at pulsed neutron sources. Neutron reflectometers are the most challenging instruments in terms of instantaneous counting rate and spatial resolution. This detector has been designed to cope with the requirements set for the reflectometers at the upcoming European Spallation Source (ESS) in Sweden. Based on previous results obtained at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in France, an improved demonstrator has been built at ESS and tested at the Budapest Neutron Centre (BNC) in Hungary and at the Source Testing Facility (STF) at the Lund University in Sweden. A detailed description of the detector and the results of the tests are discussed in this manuscript.

  • 42.
    Rofors, E.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Perrey, H.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Al Jebali, R.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Armand, J. R. M.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Boyd, L.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Clemens, U.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Desert, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Engels, R.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Fissum, K. G.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Frielinghaus, H.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Gheorghe, C.
    Integrated Detector Elect AS, Oslo, Norway.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Jaksch, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Jalgen, A.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Kemmerling, G.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Maulerova, V
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Mauritzson, N.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Montgomery, R.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Scherzinger, J.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy; INFN, Pisa, Italy.
    Seitz, B.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Response of a Li-glass/multi-anode photomultiplier detector to alpha-particles from Am-2412019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 929, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of a position-sensitive Li-glass scintillator detector to alpha-particles from a collimated Am-241 source scanned across the face of the detector has been measured. Scintillation light was read out by an 8 x 8 pixel multi-anode photomultiplier and the signal amplitude for each pixel has been recorded for every position on a scan. The pixel signal is strongly dependent on position and in general several pixels will register a signal (a hit) above a given threshold. The effect of this threshold on hit multiplicity is studied, with a view to optimize the single-hit efficiency of the detector.

  • 43.
    Scherzinger, J.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Al Jebali, R.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Annand, J. R. M.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Bala, A.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Fissum, K. G.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS AB, Lund.
    Hamilton, D.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland..
    Mauritzson, N.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Messi, F.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys,Lund.
    Perrey, H.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Rofors, E.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Tagging fast neutrons from a Cf-252 fission-fragment source2017In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 128, p. 270-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coincidence and time-of-flight measurement techniques are employed to tag fission neutrons emitted from a Cf-252 source sealed on one side with a very thin layer of Au. The source is positioned within a gaseous He-4 scintillator detector. Together with a particles, both light and heavy fission fragments pass through the thin layer of Au and are detected. The fragments enable the corresponding fission neutrons, which are detected in a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector, to be tagged. The resulting continuous polychromatic beam of tagged neutrons has an energy dependence that agrees qualitatively with expectations. We anticipate that this technique will provide a cost-effective means for the characterization of neutron-detector efficiency in the energy range 1-6 MeV.

  • 44.
    Scherzinger, J.
    et al.
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University; Detector Group, European Spallation Source ERIC, SE-221 00 Lund.
    Al Jebali, R.
    SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Scotland.
    Annand, J. R. M.
    SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Scotland.
    Fissum, K. G.
    Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University; Detector Group, European Spallation Source ERIC, SE-221 00 Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Detector Group, European Spallation Source ERIC, SE-221 00 Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    Detector Group, European Spallation Source ERIC, SE-221 00 Lund.
    Lundin, M.
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University.
    Nilsson, B.
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University; Detector Group, European Spallation Source ERIC, SE-221 00 Lund.
    Perrey, H.
    Detector Group, European Spallation Source ERIC, SE-221 00 Lund; Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University.
    Rosborg, A.
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University.
    Svensson, H.
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University; Sweflo Engineering.
    The light-yield response of a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector measured using 2–6 MeV tagged neutrons2016In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 840, p. 121-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector has been measured using tagged neutrons from 2 to 6 MeV originating from an Am/Be neutron source. The neutron energies were determined using the time-of-flight technique. Pulse-shape discrimination was employed to discern between gamma-rays and neutrons. The behavior of both the fast (35 ns) and the combined fast and slow (475 ns) components of the neutron scintillation-light pulses were studied. Three different prescriptions were used to relate the neutron maximum energy-transfer edges to the corresponding recoil-proton scintillation-light yields, and the results were compared to simulations. The overall normalizations of parametrizations which predict the fast or total light yield of the scintillation pulses were also tested. Our results agree with both existing data and existing parametrizations. We observe a clear sensitivity to the portion and length of the neutron scintillation-light pulse considered.

  • 45.
    Scherzinger, J.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Al Jebali, R.
    University of Glasgow, Scotland.
    Annand, J. R. M.
    University of Glasgow, Scotland.
    Fissum, K. G.
    Lund University.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Koufigar, S.
    Lund University.
    Mauritzson, N.
    Lund University.
    Messi, F.
    Lund University.
    Perrey, H.
    Lund University.
    Rofors, E.
    Lund University.
    A comparison of untagged gamma-ray and tagged-neutron yields from 241AmBe and 238PuBe sources2017In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 127, p. 98-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Untagged gamma-ray and tagged-neutron yields from 241AmBe and 238PuBe mixed-field sources have been measured. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements from 1 to 5 MeV were performed in an open environment using a CeBr3 detector and the same experimental conditions for both sources. The shapes of the distributions are very similar and agree well with previous data. Tagged-neutron measurements from 2 to 6 MeV were performed in a shielded environment using a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector for the neutrons and a YAP(Ce) detector to tag the 4.44 MeV gamma-rays associated with the de-excitation of the first-excited state of 12C. Again, the same experimental conditions were used for both sources. The shapes of these distributions are also very similar and agree well with previous data, each other, and the ISO recommendation. Our 238PuBe source provides approximately 2.6 times more 4.44 MeV gamma-rays and 2.4 times more neutrons over the tagged-neutron energy range, the latter in reasonable agreement with the original full-spectrum source-calibration measurements performed at the time of their acquisition.

  • 46.
    Scherzinger, J.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Annand, J. R. M.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland.
    Davatz, G.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fissum, K. G.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Gendotti, U.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS AB, Detector Grp, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Håkansson, E.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Jebali, R.
    Arktis Radiat Detectors Ltd, CH-8045 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Detector Grp, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Lundin, M.
    Lund Univ, MAX IV Lab, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, B.
    Lund Univ, MAX IV Lab, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Rosborge, A.
    Lund Univ, MAX IV Lab, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Svensson, H.
    Lund Univ, MAX IV Lab, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Tagging fast neutrons from an 241Am/9Be source2015In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 98, p. 74-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shielding, coincidence, and time-of-flight measurement techniques are employed to tag fast neutrons emitted from an 241Am/9Be source resulting in a continuous polychromatic energy-tagged beam of neutrons with energies up to 7MeV. The measured energy structure of the beam agrees qualitatively with both previous measurements and theoretical calculations.

  • 47.
    Schmidt, S.
    et al.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Höglund, C.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Jensen, J.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Hultman, L.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Birch, J.
    Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Low-temperature growth of boron carbide coatings by direct current magnetron sputtering and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering2016In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 51, no 23, p. 10418-10428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B4C coatings for 10B-based neutron detector applications were deposited using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) processes. The coatings were deposited on Si(001) as well as on flat and macrostructured (grooved) Al blades in an industrial coating unit using B4C compound targets in Ar. The HiPIMS and DCMS processes were conducted at substrate temperatures of 100 and 400 °C and the Ar pressure was varied between 300 and 800 mPa. Neutron detector-relevant coating characterization was performed and the coating properties were evaluated with regard to their growth rate, density, level of impurities, and residual coating stress. The coating properties are mainly influenced by general process parameters such as the Ar pressure and substrate temperature. The deposition mode shows only minor effects on the coating quality and no effects on the step coverage. At a substrate temperature of 100 °C and an Ar pressure of 800 mPa, well-adhering and functional coatings were deposited in both deposition modes; the coatings showed a density of 2.2 g/cm3, a B/C ratio of ~3.9, and the lowest compressive residual stresses of 180 MPa. The best coating quality was obtained in DCMS mode using an Ar pressure of 300 mPa and a substrate temperature of 400 °C. Such process parameters yielded coatings with a slightly higher density of 2.3 g/cm3, a B/C ratio of ~4, and the compressive residual stresses limited to 220 MPa.

  • 48.
    Stefanescu, I.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Christensen, M.
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Fenske, J.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Henry, P. F.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Kirstein, O.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund; University Drive, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
    Müller, M.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Nowak, G.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany.
    Pooley, D.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Raspino, D.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Rhodes, N.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Šaroun, J.
    Nuclear Physics Institute, Czech Republic.
    Schefer, J.
    Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.
    Schooneveld, E.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Sykora, J.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Schweika, W.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany.
    Neutron detectors for the ESS diffractometers2017In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, no 1, article id P01019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambitious instrument suite for the future European Spallation Source whose civil construction started recently in Lund, Sweden, demands a set of diverse and challenging requirements for the neutron detectors. For instance, the unprecedented high flux expected on the samples to be investigated in neutron diffraction or reflectometry experiments requires detectors that can handle high counting rates, while the investigation of sub-millimeter protein crystals will only be possible with large-area detectors that can achieve a position resolution as low as 200 μm. This has motivated an extensive research and development campaign to advance the state-of-the-art detector and to find new technologies that can reach maturity by the time the ESS will operate at full potential. This paper presents the key detector requirements for three of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) diffraction instrument concepts selected by the Scientific Advisory Committee to advance into the phase of preliminary engineering design. We discuss the detector technologies commonly employed at the existing similar instruments and their major challenges for ESS. The detector technologies selected by the instrument teams to collect the diffraction patterns are also presented. Analytical calculations, Monte-Carlo simulations, and real experimental data are used to develop a generic method to estimate the event rate in the diffraction detectors. We apply this method to make predictions for the future diffraction instruments, and thus provide additional information that can help the instrument teams with the optimisation of the detector designs.

  • 49.
    Vitucci, G.
    et al.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Minniti, T.
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Berks, England.
    Angella, G.
    IENI CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Croci, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Muraro, A.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Hoglund, C.
    Linköping Univ, Linköping; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Lai, C. C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Cippo, E. Perelli
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Albani, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Robinson, Linda
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Grosso, G.
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Tardocchi, M.
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Gorini, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Measurement of the thickness of B4C layers deposited over metallic grids via multi-angle neutron radiography2019In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 30, no 1, article id 015402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the present time, different kinds of thermal neutron detectors are under development at the European Spallation Source research facility, in order to overcome the well-known problem of the He-3 shortage. One of these new systems relies on the use of a 3D neutron convener cathode that consists of a stack of aluminum grids, covered by a 0.9 mu m B-10 enriched boron carbide layer ((B4C)-B-10). As the conversion efficiency is a function of the boron thickness and the mean free path of the charged particles produced in the neutron induced reaction, the characterization of the boron carbide layer uniformity over the grids becomes crucial. In this work, a non-destructive method to map the thickness distribution of the converter layer over the grids is shown. The measurements exploit the white-beam neutron radiography technique where the specimen is irradiated at different angles. This experiment has been performed at the IMAT beamline operating at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). The results confirm that this non-destructive, wide-ranging technique allows a reliable and fast sample characterization and that it may be exploited in similar analyses where equivalent requirements are requested.

1 - 49 of 49
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