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  • 1.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engström, Ann-Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Shimizu, Kenichi
    Umeå University.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliation of MoS2 for paper based applications2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Shimizu, Kenichi
    Umeå University.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliated MoS2 for paper based supercapacitors and photodetectors2014In: Collection of Extent Abstracts, 2014, p. 437-438Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattias, Andersson
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Flexographic ink film’s resistance to inkjet ink’s solvent flow in Hybrid Printing2011In: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies: Technical Programs and Proceedings / [ed] IS&T, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2011, p. 79-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through Darcy’s permeability coefficient, K, one can evaluate the resistance of a flexographic ink film to the solvent penetration of an inkjet ink through a paper substrate. This resistance plays an important role for the print quality in hybrid printing applications where flexography and inkjet printing are combined. If this resistance is too high, K→0, the inkjet ink’s solvent would not penetrate into the substrate and ink smearing would occur resulting in poor printability.

    Paper substrates were printed in a flexographic laboratory printing press. The flexographic printing dot area was varied to evaluate the influence of the full tone and halftone areas on K. These print outs were employed as filters for pigmented inkjet water based inks in a filtration setup. The inks had different pigment’s mean particle size which allowed us to address the influence of this parameter on the filter cake build up and consequently, its impact on K. The dot area had indeed an impact in the ink’s solvent penetration as we observed that the higher the dot area, the lower the K value, meaning that the resistance for ink´s solvent flow was higher. The pigment’s mean particle size also showed influence on K, as we observed that the bigger the pigment particles, the higher the K.

     The substrates were selected after a screening based on inkjet ink absorption speed evaluated through a print rub off test and line width measurements of printed lines.

    We also printed the pre-printed flexography images using a KM 512 piezoelectric printing head and one of the inks used during filtration to evaluate the inkjet printing quality for this hybrid printing approach. We observed wider, less blurry and ragged lines with increased dot area. No ink smearing was observed for the print outs.

  • 4.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Hakan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Photoconductivity of bulk and liquid processed MoS22014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliated Layered Materials for Digital Fabrication2015In: NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2015, Vol. 1, p. 192-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduced an exfoliation method of MoS2 in a 3% solution of sodium dodecyl surfactant at high concentration (i.e. 2 g/L). The bulk MoS2 was thinned by mechanical exfoliation between sand papers and the resulting powder was used to prepare dispersions by liquid exfoliation through probe sonication. The resulting dispersion consisted of very thin MoS2 nanosheets in surfactant solution with average lateral size around 126 nm. This may be interesting for applications in inkjet printed electronics.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Matthias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norberg, Ole
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kruse, Björn
    The substrate influence on colour measurement2003In: IS&T'S NIP19: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES, 2003, p. 565-569Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The repeatable quality of color image reproduction is a growing challenge for producers of digital printing devices as well as for paper producers. The complex nature of the problem is due to the large number of factors that influence the quality. The properties of the printing substrate such as whiteness, gloss and surface roughness, the colorants and the printing procedure in different combinations together with the proper-ties of the capturing device are all factors that make objective evaluation of print quality very difficult. It is therefore imperative to develop precise methods and routines for color measurement and characterization. In this presentation, the influence of substrate properties on the final printed result will be studied by means of a flatbed digital scanner. The presentation will describe the problems associated with the influence of substrate properties on scanner calibration and will give guidelines for the use of scanners, where large-scale color management control is required. The work reported here is part of an ongoing development of a set of characterization procedures that can be applied to printing situations, consisting of a variety of different printing engines and papers.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Digital camera calibration for color measurements on prints2007In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2007, Vol. 6493, article id 64930TConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Papers with a slightly blue shade are, at least among a majority of observers, perceived as whiter than papers having a more neutral color. Therefore, practically all commercially available printing papers contain bluish dyes and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) to give the paper a whiter appearance. Furthermore, in the Paper Industry, the most frequently used measure for paper whiteness is the CIE-whiteness. The CIE Whiteness formula, does in turn, also favor slightly bluish papers. Excessive examples of high CIE-whiteness values can be observed in the office-paper segment where a high CIE-whiteness value is an important sales argument. As an effect of the FWA, spectrophotometer measurements of optical properties such as paper whiteness are sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) content of the light source used in the instrument. To address this, the standard spectrophotometers used in the Paper Industry are equipped with an adjustable filter for calibrating the UV-content of the illumination. In the Paper Industry, spectrophotometers with d/0 measurement geometry and a light source of type C are used. The Graphic Arts Industry on the other hand, typically measures with spectrophotometers having 45/0 geometry and a light source of type A. Moreover, these instruments have only limited possibilities to adjust the UV-content by the use of different weighting filters. The standard for color measurements in the Paper Industry governs that measurements should be carried out using D65 standard illumination and the 10 degrees standard observer. The corresponding standard for the Graphic Arts Industry specify D50 standard illumination and the 2 degrees standard observer. In both cases, the standard illuminants are simulated from the original light source by spectral weighting functions. However, the activation of FWA, which will impact the measured spectral reflectance, depends on the actual UV-content of the illumination used. Therefore, comparisons between measurements on substrates containing FWA from two instruments having light sources with different UV-content are complicated. In this study, the effect of FWA content in paper on color reproduction has been quantified for an office-type paper. Furthermore, examples are given on how color measurement instruments give different readings when FWA is present. For the purpose of this study and in order to ensure that only the effect of FWA was observed, a set of papers with varying additions of FWA but otherwise identical, were produced on a small-scale experimental paper machine. The pilot papers were printed in three different printers. Two spectrophotometers representative to the instruments used in the Graphic Arts Industry and the Paper Industry respectively where used to measure the printed papers. The results demonstrate how the use of spectral weighting functions for simulating standard illuminants works properly on non-fluorescent material. However, when FWA is present, disparities in UV content between the light source and the simulated illuminant will result in color differences. Finally, in many printing processes, some of the used inks are UV-blocking, which further complicates the effect of FWA in printed material. An example is shown on how different color differences are obtained for different process ink combinations when the amount of FWA added to the paper is varied.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norberg, Ole
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Color measurements on prints containing fluorescent whitening agents2007In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2007, Vol. 6493, p. Q4930-Q4950, article id 64930QConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Papers with a slightly blue shade are, at least among a majority of observers, perceived as whiter than papers having a more neutral color. Therefore, practically all commercially available printing papers contain bluish dyes and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) to give the paper a whiter appearance. Furthermore, in the Paper Industry, the most frequently used measure for paper whiteness is the CIE-whiteness. The CIE Whiteness formula, does in turn, also favor slightly bluish papers. Excessive examples of high CIE-whiteness values can be observed in the office-paper segment where a high CIE-whiteness value is an important sales argument. As an effect of the FWA, spectrophotometer measurements of optical properties such as paper whiteness are sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) content of the light source used in the instrument. To address this, the standard spectrophotometers used in the Paper Industry are equipped with an adjustable filter for calibrating the UV-content of the illumination. In the Paper Industry, spectrophotometers with d/0 measurement geometry and a light source of type C are used. The Graphic Arts Industry on the other hand, typically measures with spectrophotometers having 45/0 geometry and a light source of type A. Moreover, these instruments have only limited possibilities to adjust the UV-content by the use of different weighting filters. The standard for color measurements in the Paper Industry governs that measurements should be carried out using D65 standard illumination and the 10 degrees standard observer. The corresponding standard for the Graphic Arts Industry specify D50 standard illumination and the 2 degrees standard observer. In both cases, the standard illuminants are simulated from the original light source by spectral weighting functions. However, the activation of FWA, which will impact the measured spectral reflectance, depends on the actual UV-content of the illumination used. Therefore, comparisons between measurements on substrates containing FWA from two instruments having light sources with different UV-content are complicated. In this study, the effect of FWA content in paper on color reproduction has been quantified for an office-type paper. Furthermore, examples are given on how color measurement instruments give different readings when FWA is present. For the purpose of this study and in order to ensure that only the effect of FWA was observed, a set of papers with varying additions of FWA but otherwise identical, were produced on a small-scale experimental paper machine. The pilot papers were printed in three different printers. Two spectrophotometers representative to the instruments used in the Graphic Arts Industry and the Paper Industry respectively where used to measure the printed papers. The results demonstrate how the use of spectral weighting functions for simulating standard illuminants works properly on non-fluorescent material. However, when FWA is present, disparities in UV content between the light source and the simulated illuminant will result in color differences. Finally, in many printing processes, some of the used inks are UV-blocking, which further complicates the effect of FWA in printed material. An example is shown on how different color differences are obtained for different process ink combinations when the amount of FWA added to the paper is varied.

  • 9.
    Edström, Per
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Avramidis, Stefanos
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Geometry Related Inter-Instrument Differences in Spectrophotometric Measurements2010In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 221-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The L&W Elrepho d/0 and the Spectrolino 45/0 instruments are examined using paper samples with different properties. External factors that influence the measurements such as the sample background, the instrument calibration and the sample inhomogeneity are studied, and a methodology for their minimization is presented. Experimental measurements show that such external factors, if not minimized by proper routines, affect the inter-instrument differences far more (up to 4-5 Delta E-ab(star)) than the instrument geometry (the effect of which is small and of order 0.1 Delta E-ab(star)). The DORT2002 radiative transfer model is used to simulate differences caused by instrument geometry. The simulated and measured differences are found to agree in magnitude, and the differences are mapped against sample properties. It is observed that the 45/0 instrument detects higher reflectance from paper samples with negligible absorption and transmittance. When there is considerable absorption (dyed samples) or transmittance (thin samples), the d/0 instrument detects higher reflectance. The physical mechanism behind this behavior is studied and explained using DORT2002, and the instrument differences are shown to depend on the anisotropy of the reflected light. The model/measurement agreement is satisfactory as the characteristic behavior is captured in almost all cases studied. This new understanding is important for facilitating accurate data exchange between the paper and graphic arts industries, but also for interpretation of reflectance measurements in general.

  • 10.
    Fagerholm, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Design.
    Information Visualization and Design2018In: VINCI '18 Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction / [ed] Karsten Klein, Yi-Na Li, and Andreas Kerren, New York: ACM Publications, 2018, p. 112-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been an increase of data visualizations and in the diversity of forms. In parallel, design research has developed over the last decades. However, there have been few academic publications in the area of design specifically focusing on visualization research. In this poster, we present an overview of design research within the field of visualization in order to investigate key research areas and possible directions for future work.

  • 11.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Joakim, Bäckström
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliated MoS2 in Water without Additives2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 0154522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many solution processing methods of exfoliation of layered materials have been studied during the last few years; most of them are based on organic solvents or rely on surfactants andother funtionalization agents. Pure water should be an ideal solvent, however, it is generallybelieved, based on solubility theories that stable dispersions of water could not be achievedand systematic studies are lacking. Here we describe the use of water as a solvent and thestabilization process involved therein. We introduce an exfoliation method of molybdenumdisulfide (MoS2) in pure water at high concentration (i.e., 0.14±0.01 g L−1). This was achieved by thinning the bulk MoS2by mechanical exfoliation between sand papers and dis-persing it by liquid exfoliation through probe sonication in water. We observed thin MoS2nanosheets in water characterized by TEM, AFM and SEM images. The dimensions of thenanosheets were around 200 nm, the same range obtained in organic solvents. Electropho-retic mobility measurements indicated that electrical charges may be responsible for the sta-bilization of the dispersions. A probability decay equation was proposed to compare thestability of these dispersions with the ones reported in the literature. Water can be used as asolvent to disperse nanosheets and although the stability of the dispersions may not be ashigh as in organic solvents, the present method could be employed for a number of applications where the dispersions can be produced on site and organic solvents are not desirable.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Determination of quantum efficiency in fluorescing turbid media2011In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 50, no 17, p. 2784-2792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed to estimate the optical parameters in a fluorescing turbid medium with strong absorption for which traditional Kubelka–Munk theory is not applicable, using a model for the radiative properties of optically thick fluorescent turbid media of finite thickness proposed in 2009[J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26, 1896 (2009)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.26.001896]. The method is successfully applied to uncoated papers with different thicknesses. It is found that the quantum efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) is nearly independent of the fiber type, FWA type, FWA concentration, and filler additive concentration used in this study. The results enable an estimation of the model parameters as function of the FWA concentration and substrate composition. This is necessary in order to use the model for optimizing fluorescence in the paper and textile industries.

  • 13.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kinnunen, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Math & Phys, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
    Limitations of the efficiency of fluorescent whitening agents in uncoated paper2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluorescence efficiency of one fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) inuncoated and unfilled paper was characterised at different FWA concentrations. An extendedKubelka-Munk model proposed earlier by several authors was applied to quantify the effect onCIE whiteness of absorption of the FWA in the visible spectrum . At high FWA concentration,chemical interactions slightly modify the emission spectrum of the FWA, and the quantumefficiency depends on the FWA concentration. This effect has however a negligible effect onthe CIE whiteness for FWA concentrations used in practice. The overlap of the absorption andemission bands of the FWA is shown to be the main cause of greening (a shift of thechromaticity towards green) and saturation of the fluorescence effect. With increasing FWAconcentration, the positive effect of fluorescence is neutralised by the reduction of thereflectance factor in the violet-blue region of the spectrum induced by a significant absorptionof the FWA in that region.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Fluorescence model for multi-layer papers using conventional spectrophotometers2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 418-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an extension of a Kubelka-Munk based fluorescence model in which we introduce an apparent scattering (SUV) and absorption (KUV) coefficient for all wavelengths below 400 nm. We describe a method for modelling the total radiance factor of multi-layer papers and for estimating the optical parameters (S, K and Q) of each layer. Assuming that the fluorescent whitening agent only absorbs below 400 nm, we are able to determine SUV, KUV and the apparent quantum efficiency, Q(UV,l) for 400 nm<l<700 nm, from spectral radiance measurements in the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We test the proposed method on different layered constructions made of three individual pilot paper layers. The proposed method allows the papermaker to determine the illumination independent fluorescence characteristics of single- and multilayer paper layers using a conventional single-monochromator spectrophotometer operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and also to predict the radiance factor of fluorescing layered papers.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    et al.
    Norwegian Colour and Visual Computing Laboratory, Gjøvik University College, Gjøvik, Norway.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norberg, Ole
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindberg, S.
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impact of illumination spectral power distribution on radiance factor of fluorescing materials2013In: 2013 Colour and Visual Computing Symposium, CVCS 2013, 2013, p. Art. no. 6626275-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral radiance factor and thereby the appearance of fluorescing material is known to depend strongly on the spectral power distribution (SPD) of the illumination in the fluorophore's excitation wavelength band. The present work demonstrates the impact of the SPD in the fluorescence emission band on the total radiance factor. The total radiance factor of a fluorescing paper is measured in three different illuminations. The presence of peaks in the SPD of fluorescent light tubes dramatically decreases the luminescent radiance factor. This effect will impact the appearance of fluorescing media under illuminations with large variation in SPD, which includes recent LED illuminations. © 2013 IEEE.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Angular variations of reflectance and fluorescence from paper - the influence of fluorescent whitening agents and fillers2012In: Final Program and Proceedings - IS and T/SID Color Imaging Conference, Springfield, USA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2012, p. 236-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has earlier been shown that light reflected from the bodyof paper exhibit anisotropic behavior. On the other hand, fluores-cence emission is often assumed to be distributed in a Lambertianmanner. The angular behavior of light reflected and fluorescedfrom paper is examined using measurements from a spectral go-niophotometer. The angular dependency of the radiance factorswas measured for a range of excitation wavelengths. Moreover,the influence of fillers and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA)on the anisotropy was studied. The measurements show that theanisotropy of the total radiance factor of paper decreases whenan increasing amount of FWA is added to the paper. The sameeffect was also observed when an increased amount of filler wasadded to the paper. In addition, it was shown that the presenceof fillers reduce the effect of the FWA. The results show that incomparison to the anisotropy of the total radiance factor from thepaper samples, the anisotropy of the fluorescence alone is negligi-ble. Hence, for paper samples containing FWA evenly distributedin the bulk, the fluorescence alone should not induce significantdifferences between color measuring instruments of different mea-surement geometries.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of finite-sized detection solid angle on bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurements2014In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 1212-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with limitations and often overlooked sources of error introduced in compact double-beam goniophotometers. It is shown that relative errors in measured radiance factor, comparable to the total measurement uncertainty, can be introduced if recommended corrections are not carried out. Two different error sources are investigated, both related to the size of the detection solid angle. The first is a geometrical error that occurs when the size of the illuminated area and detector aperture are comparable to the distance between them. The second is a convolution error due to variations in radiant flux over the detector aperture, which is quantified by simulating the full 3D bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of a set of samples with different degrees of anisotropic reflectance. The evaluation is performed for a compact double-beam goniophotometer using different detection solid angles, and it is shown that both error sources introduce relative errors of 1%–3%, depending on viewing angle and optical properties of the sample. Commercially available compact goniophotometers, capable of absolute measurements, are becoming more and more common, and the findings in this paper are therefore important for anyone using or planning to use this type of instrument.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Separation of surface and bulk reflectance by absorption of bulk scattered light2013In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 52, no 19, p. 4749-4754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed for separating light reflected from turbid media with a rough surface into a bulkand a surface component. Dye is added to the sample, thereby increasing absorption and canceling bulkscattering. The remaining reflected light is surface reflectance, which can be subtracted from the totalreflectance of an undyed sample to obtain the bulk component. The method is applied to paper wherethe addition of dye is accomplished by inkjet printing. The results show that the bulk scattered light isefficiently canceled, and that both the spectrally neutral surface reflectance and the surface topographyof the undyed paper is maintained. The proposed method is particularly suitable for characterization ofdielectric, highly randomized materials with significant bulk reflectance and rough surfaces, which aredifficult to analyze with existing methods. A reliable separation method opens up for new ways of analyzing,e.g., biological tissues and optical coatings, and is also a valuable tool in the development of morecomprehensive reflectance models.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The inverse radiative transfer problem - considerations for optically thick mediaArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Neuman, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Coppel, Ludovic
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Norberg, Ole
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Angular Variations of Color in Turbid Media – the Influence of Bulk Scattering on Goniochromism in Paper2010In: 5th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and 12th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science 2010, CGIV 2010/MCS'10, 2010, p. 407-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The angular variations of color of a set of paper samples are  experimentally assessed using goniophotometric measurements.  The corresponding simulations are done using a radiative transfer based simulation tool, thus considering only the contribution  of bulk scattering to the reflectance. It is seen that measurements  and simulations agree and display the same characteristics, with  the lightness increasing and the chroma decreasing as the observation  polar angle increases. The decrease in chroma is larger  the more dye the paper contains. Based on previous results about  anisotropic reflectance from turbid media these findings are explained.  The relative reflectance in large polar angles of wavelengths  with strong absorption is higher than that of wavelengths  with low absorption. This leads to a loss of chroma and color information  in these angles. The increase in lightness is a result  of the anisotropy affecting all wavelengths equally, which is the  case for transmitting media and obliquely incident illumination.  The only case with no color variations of this kind is when a nonabsorbing,  non-transmitting medium is illuminated diffusely. The  measured and simulated color differences are clearly large, and  it is an open issue how angle resolved color should be handled  in standard color calculations.

  • 21.
    Norberg, Ole
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kruse, Björn
    The influences of paper properties on color reproduction and color management2003In: IS&T'S NIP19: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES, 2003, p. 836-840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characterization of the transfer function of a printing device is a complex procedure involving not only the device itself but also the paper and its properties. The work reported here is an ongoing development of building a library of characterization procedures. These procedures can be applied to printing situations with different combinations of printing engines and paper grades. An example of a building block is color separation with respect to halftoning techniques and available inks or toners. Another is the characterization of the physical properties of the paper substrate. The most common characterization procedure is through the ICC-profile. Device ICC-profiles contain the data needed for a color management system (CMS) to do color separation and the color mapping. In this study special emphasis is put on the influence of the paper properties and on how they affect the profile. Gloss, surface roughness, whiteness and light scattering are all measurable paper properties that certainly will affect the color reproduction. Ink and paper interaction and especially ink penetration is also a phenomena that affect the color reproduction and thus the ICC profile.

  • 22.
    Norberg, Ole
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Colour Gamuts - Is size the only thing that matters?2006In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2006, Vol. 2006, p. 273-281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's Inkjet printers are capable of producing colour images of very high quality. However, in inkjet printing, the substrate has a large influence on the quality of a printed image. In addition, the large variety of inkjet substrates increases the complexity of the colour reproduction in inkjet printers. Even when high-quality substrates are used, colour management is required when the input data is represented in any of the RGB colour spaces used today. Moreover, colour gamut transformations are inherent as the colour gamut of colour reproduction systems differ in size and shape. In this study, three colour rendering attributes associated with image quality - colour gradation, colour gamut volume and sharpness have been varied prior to printing in a set of test images. In real life, variations in these colour rendition attributes can be caused by different substrate properties, inappropriate printer settings for a specific substrate or the result of shortcomings in colour management. Whatever the cause may be, the effects of these variations can be observed in inkjet-printed images. The colour gamut volume, colour gradation and sharpness were varied simultaneously according to a statistical experimental design thus producing a subset of modified versions for each image in the test set. Furthermore, a visual assessment study was carried out in order to study the effect of the modifications on the perceived impression of the colour rendition in the printed images. Finally, the data from the visual assessment study was analysed in order to reveal how the different attributes influenced the perceived colour rendition.

  • 23.
    Norberg, Ole
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Focusing on Paper Properties in Color Characterization of Printing Situations2002In: NIP18: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, 2002, p. 774-776Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    procedure involving not only the paper itself but also the various printers used. In a situation where the number of printing devices grows rapidly, there is a need for an efficient characterization procedure. The work reported here is an ongoing development of building a library of characterization procedures. These procedures can be applied to printing situations with different combinations of paper grades and printing engines. Special emphasis is put on the influence of the paper properties. Color characterization of printing devices is normally performed using color charts based on different combinations of process colors. These charts are often adapted to certain printing technologies. For an example, the IT8 color chart works well for offset printing but is certainly not optimal in all digital printing situations. The starting point in this development is the selection of a set of equidistant percepts from a homogenous color space. An example of a building block is color separation with respect to halftoning techniques and available inks or toners. Another is the characterization of the physical properties of the paper substrate.

    The result of the new procedure for color characterization of printing papers correlates with existing methods. It has also contributed to a deeper understanding of the large influence paper has on the final print quality.

  • 24. Solli, M
    et al.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lenz, R
    Kruse, B
    Color measurements with a consumer digital camera using spectral estimation techniques2005In: IMAGE ANALYSIS, PROCEEDINGS, Berlin, 2005, p. 105-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of spectrophotometers for color measurements on printed substrates is widely spread among paper producers as well as within the printing industry. Spectrophotometer measurements are precise, but time-consuming procedures and faster methods are desirable. The rapid development of digital cameras has opened the possibility to use consumer digital cameras as substitutes for spectrophotometers for certain applications such as production control. Two methods for estimating the reflectance properties of objects from camera RGB measurements using linear estimation techniques combined with linear and non-linear constraints are presented. In the experiments, we have investigated if these techniques can be used to measure the reflectance properties of flat objects such as printed pages of paper. Reflectances were converted to CIELAB color values, and the minimization of color errors were evaluated with CIE color difference formulas. Our experiments show that a consumer digital camera can be used as a fast and inexpensive alternative to spectrophotometers for color measurements on printed substrates.

  • 25.
    Solli, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kruse, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Lenz, Reiner
    Linköping University.
    Digital camera characterization for color measurements2005In: 2005 Beijing International Conference on Imaging: Technology and Applications for the 21st Century, Science Press, 2005, p. 278-279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of spectrophotometers for color measurements on printed substrates is widely spread among paper producers as well as within the printing industry. Spectrophotometer measurements are precise, but time-consuming procedures and faster methods are desirable. Colorimetrically calibrated flatbed scanners have been proved to provide a fast and fairly accurate alternative to spectrophotometers. Moreover, the rapid development of digital cameras has made it possible to transfer successfully implemented methods for color calibration of flatbed scanners to a camera-based system. Earlier presented methods for color calibration of trichromatic devices have been implemented in the camera-based system and improving modifications are proposed. Furthermore, the performance of the calibration can further be enhanced if the spectral sensitivities of the color filters in the camera sensor can be characterized. Methods for filter characterization are presented together with methods that utilize the camera characteristics to enable color measurements. The findings of this study show how a moderately priced consumer digital camera can be used as a fast and inexpensive alternative to spectrophotometers for color measurements on printed substrates.

  • 26.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Thermally reduced kaolin-graphene oxide nanocomposites for gas sensing2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, p. Art. no. 7676-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly sensitive graphene-based gas sensors can be made using large-area single layer graphene, but the cost of large-area pure graphene is high, making the simpler reduced graphene oxide (rGO) an attractive alternative. To use rGO for gas sensing, however, require a high active surface area and slightly different approach is needed. Here, we report on a simple method to produce kaolin-graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites and an application of this nanocomposite as a gas sensor. The nanocomposite was made by binding the GO flakes to kaolin with the help of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The GO flakes in the nanocomposite were contacting neighboring GO flakes as observed by electron microscopy. After thermal annealing, the nanocomposite become conductive as showed by sheet resistance measurements. Based on the conductance changes of the nanocomposite films, electrical gas sensing devices were made for detecting NH3 and HNO3. These devices had a higher sensitivity than thermally annealed multilayer GO films. This kaolin-GO nanocomposite might be useful in applications that require a low-cost material with large conductive surface area including the demonstrated gas sensors.

  • 27.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Sverker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Soap-film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, p. Art. no. 1477-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology.

  • 28.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Sverker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kalsson, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms using soap-film coating2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms using soap-film coating

    Renyun Zhang, Henrik A. Andersson, Mattias Andersson, Britta Andres, Per Edström, Sverker Edvardsson, Sven Forsberg, Magnus Hummelgård, Niklas Johansson, Kristoffer Karlsson, Hans-Erik Nilsson, Martin Olsen, Tetsu Uesaka, Thomas Öhlund & Håkan Olin

    Department of Applied Science and Design, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden

    Email: renyun.zhang@miun.se or hakan.olin@miun.se

    Coating1 of thin films is of importance for making functionalized surfaces with applications in many fields from electronics to consumer packaging. To decrease the cost, large scale roll-to-roll2 coating techniques are usually done at high speed, for example, ordinary printing paper is coated at a speed of tens of meters per second by depositing micrometer thick layers of clay. However, nanometer thin films are harder to coat at high speed by wet-chemical methods, requiring special roll-to-roll vacuum techniques3 with the cost of higher complexity.

    Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for high-speed coating of films down to molecular thicknesses, called soap-film coating (SFC)4. The technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. In the simplest laboratory version, the films can be deposited by a hand-coating procedure set up in a couple of minutes. The method is quite general molecules or nanomaterials or sub-micrometer materials (Figure 1) with thicknesses ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. The applications of soap-film coating is quite wide an we will show solar cells, electrochromic devices, optical nanoparticle crystals, and nano-film devices. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology.

    Fig. 1. Soap film coating of nanoparticles, layered materials, nanowires, and molecules. a sub-monolayer 240 nm silica nanoparticle (scale bar 2 µm) b monolayer c double layer. d monolayer gold nanoparticles. e single layer TiO2 nanoparticles. f sub-monolayer polystyrene (scale 2 µm), g monolayer of polystyrene. h triple-layer of polystyrene. i monolayer of Ferritin.  j AFM image of <1.5 layer GO film (3 µm x 2 µm). k clay on glass (scale 2 µm). l SFC coated nanocellulose. m Absorbance spectra Rhodamine B on a glass slide. AFM of SDS layers n (2 µm x 1.5 µm) and o (20 µm x 15 µm).

    References

    1. Tracton, A. A. Coating Technology Handbook (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006).

    2. Ohring, M. Materials science of thin films. (Academic press., 2001).

    3. Charles, B. Vacuum deposition onto webs, films and foils. (William Andrew, 2011).

    Zhang, R. Y., Andersson, H. A., Andersson, M., Andres, B., Edström, P., Edvardsson, S., Forsberg, S., Hummelgård, M., Johansson, N., Karlsson, K., Nilsson, H.-E., Olsen, M., Uesaka, T., Öhlund, T., Olin H. Soap film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms. Submitted.

  • 29.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Effect of Paper Properties on Electrical Conductivity and Pattern Definition for Silver Nanoparticle Inkjet Ink2012In: Proceedings of LOPE-C 2012, 2012, p. 115-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, electrical conductivity and print pattern definition isstudied for silver nanoparticle ink, printed on ten commerciallyavailable paper substrates. Interrelations and correlations betweenelectrical conductivity, print pattern definition and a set ofmeasured paper properties are analyzed with a multivariatestatistical method. The papers are characterized in terms ofabsorption rate, porosity, apparent surface energy, surfaceroughness and surface material content. The statistical analysisshows that electrical conductivity and print pattern definition arecorrelated. Conductivity and print definition are correlatedpositively with absorption rate and negatively with surfaceroughness. A model based on projection to latent structures (PLS) isbuilt from the measurement data, showing adequate values of modelfit and predictive ability. This suggests that the chosen propertiesand methods for surface characterization are relevant in estimatingoverall performance of inkjet-printed conductors on paper.Additionally, a qualitative examination of the nanoparticle layercharacteristic is conducted with SEM cross section microscopy.Some of the properties and mechanisms of importance to theconductivity of the printed conductors are highlighted, of whichsome are crucial for achieving conductivity. Physical characteristicsof a suitable paper surface should ideally include large absorptioncapability for the ink carrier, but most importantly, a characteristicpore size and surface roughness amplitude that are both smallcompared to the dry ink layer thickness. If these criteria are met,paper media can be a low cost, comparably high performancealternative for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

  • 30.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schuppert, Anna
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings2015In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, p. 64841-64849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet-printed metal films are important within the emerging field of printed electronics. For large-scale manufacturing, low-cost flexible substrates and low temperature sintering is desired. Tailored coated substrates are interesting for roll-to-roll fabrication of printed electronics, since a suitable tailoring of the ink-substrate system may reduce, or remove, the need for explicit sintering. Here we utilize specially designed coated papers, containing chloride as an active sintering agent. The built-in sintering agent greatly assists low-temperature sintering of inkjet-printed AgNP films. Further, we examine the effect of variations in coating pore size and precoating type. Interestingly, we find that the sintering is substantially affected by these parameters.

1 - 30 of 30
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