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  • 1.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    EN UTOPISK IDÉ?: Medverkan på (o)lika villkor i utvecklingspartnerskap2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A utopian idea?

    Participation Under (Dis)Similar Conditions inDevelopment Partnerships

    Maria Bogren

     

    Department of Social Sciences

    Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Östersund, Sweden

    ISSN 1652-8948, Mid Sweden University Licentiate Thesis 53;

    ISBN 978-91-86694-12-8

     

     

    Abstract

    Important societal issues nowadays do not get resolved through the care of the state; it is rather the case that solutions involve multiple actors.  Such cooperation can be organized in partnership where actors from the public sector, private companies and non-profit organizations, for example, attempt to find solutions to a current societal issue. The target group affected by the problems can also be involved in the partnership. The aim of this study is to contribute to an increased understanding regarding cooperation in partnerships and especially the target group’s participation in partnerships. An idea regarding the target group’s participation stems from the European level to the national level and finally to the local level in a development partnership. I follow the local development partner-ship for two years with a view to examining the translation process of the idea regarding the target group’s participation. Data was collected through interviews, relevant documents and observation. What is more, the significance of the institutional surroundings regarding what happens in the partnership is discussed. The idea regarding the target group’s participation manifests itself on: a) how the target group should be represented; b) how it gains influence and c) how the role of the target group’s representatives should be shaped. The study shows that ideas change and adjust over time and also that the target group participates under different conditions compared to the rest of the representatives in the partnership. A way to strengthen the target group’s participation in the partnership can be through further organizing, thus increasing the legitimization level of the target group.

     

    Keywords: translation, target group, participation, public-private partnerships

    SAMMANFATTNING

     

    Angelägna samhällsproblem får numera inte alltid sin lösning genom statens försorg utan istället involveras flera aktörer. Ett sådant samarbete kan organiseras i partner­skap där aktörer från exempelvis offentlig sektor, företag och ideella organisationer tillsammans försöker hitta lösningar på något aktuellt samhällsproblem. I partner­ska­pet kan även den målgrupp som berörs av problematiken involveras. Syftet med denna studie är att bidra till ökad förståelse när det gäller samverkan i partnerskap och speciellt när det gäller målgruppens medverkan i partnerskap. En idé om målgruppens medverkan följs från europeisk nivå, till nationell nivå och slutligen till lokal nivå i ett utvecklingspartnerskap. Jag följer det lokala utvecklings­partnerskapet under två års tid och använder dokumentstudier, intervjuer och obser­vationer för att studera översättningsprocessen av idén om målgruppens medverkan. Dessutom diskuteras den institutionella omgivningens betydelse för det som händer i partnerskapet. Idén om målgruppens medverkan tar sig uttryck i idéer om hur målgruppen ska finnas repre­sen­terad och hur den ska få inflytande samt hur rollen som målgrupps­rep­resen­tant ska utformas. Studien visar att idéerna förändras och anpassas över tid samt att målgruppen medverkar på olika villkor jämfört med övriga representanter i partnerskapet. Ett sätt att stärka målgruppens medverkan i partnerskapet kan vara genom ytterligare organisering för att på så sätt ge ökad legitimitet för målgruppen.

     

    Nyckelord: översättning, målgrupp, medverkan, privatoffentliga partnerskap

  • 2.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital for business development – developing relationships and trust in development programs for women entrepreneurs.2015In: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas. Vol. 10: The Role of Social Entrepreneurship and Social Capital in Rural Renewal / [ed] von Friedrichs, Y., Westlund, H., & Kobayashi, K., Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital for business development: Deve­lo­­ping relations and trust in development programs for women entrepreneurs2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital for the development of women´s enterprises2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital with relationships and trust – for the development of women´s businesses2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Socialt kapital - relationer och tillit - för utveckling av kvinnors företagande2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Women’s enterprises are seen as a resource in the development of both regions and countries. Despite this, however, research has shown that women’s businesses do not grow at the same extent as men's businesses. It is therefore of interest to identify the problems and obstacles women entrepreneurs face that negatively affect their companies’ growth, and how supportive efforts should best be structured. Studies have shown that a lack of access to financial capital has been a major obstacle in the development of women's businesses and also that entre­preneurship has been dominantly male-coded, where men as entrepreneurs are seen as the norm in society. In addition, studies have shown that women business owners have limited networks and do not use network contacts as efficiently as men, plus that they lack role models. Developing social capital, leading to in­creased opportunities to gain access to resources, can lead to development in women's businesses. Previous studies on social capital as a contribution to enter­prise development often focus either on relationships or trust and further studies on the development processes from which social capital evolves are therefore nee­ded. The aim of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of how the development of social capital can be understood by illustrating and analyzing the characteristics of relationships and trust, and to give examples of how this can be stimulated in deve­lopment programs for women entrepreneurs.

    This thesis consists of three studies – a case study was conducted over two years in a development program with women entrepreneurs from Norway and Sweden, a survey was conducted of women business owners in Norway and Sweden, and another survey was conducted of project managers of development projects aimed to stimulate women's entrepreneurship in Sweden.

    The results from the four papers of this thesis show that personal networks, family, relatives and friends are perceived as supportive relationships for women entrepreneurs. Those who have a heterogeneous network exhibit a greater willing­ness to enter into new relationships than those who do not, and trust affects willing­ness to develop relationships in development programs. Homogeneity of the group of participating women in programs proves to be important initially, while heterogeneity becomes more important over time. When business identity develops, an increased professionalization of the women´s network is shown. Social activity with time spent and engagement in a development program contri­bute to the development of both relationships and trust, and the time aspect is important when it comes to trust in the program's organizers.

    Based on these results, several aspects of relationships and trust that can be sti­mu­lated in development programs have been identified. A demonstrated willing­ness to evolve can reflect how motivated and interested participants are in partici­pa­ting in a development program. When working with the composition of the group of participants, homogeneity and heterogeneity should be taken into account. Social activity by time spent and commitment shown, is something that strengthens the development of relationships and trust. A confidentiality agree­ment, which was an important symbolic document, contributes to increased trust between all involved in the program. Program organizers´ social credentials, skills and organizational affiliation are aspects that can be recognized for institutional trust as well as their social activity in the program. Stimulating the development of both relationships and trust is an important reason for revising a program´s structure and content.

    The conclusions from this thesis are that women entrepreneurs with a heterogeneous network demonstrate willingness to enter into new relationships, that both relational and trust-building processes are important for the develop­ment of social capital, and that context needs to be taken into account when designing development programs.

  • 7.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Socialt kapital för utveckling av företag och regioner2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Unexpected relations in the expected network2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore what kind of network relations women build within a supportive constructed network aimed at developing the women’s enterprises and also to discuss how such constructed networks should be organized. The research questions are concentrated around development programs and the networking development within such a program. The first two questions center on development programs with the aim to stimulate networking among women entrepreneurs: Does a development program benefit women´s networking? How should a development program be designed to support networking? The third and fourth research questions explore what happens in a development program that could be seen as a form of constructed network: What network relationships are present in a constructed network? Who are the women networking with and about what, within the constructed network? This study contribute to earlier studies by Hill et al. (1999) and Greve and Salaff (2003) in the area of network development and to Granovetter´s (1973, 1982) ideas about strong and weak ties between actors in networks. Overall this is a contribution to women’s entrepreneurship theory, especially on issues regarding the way networks develop over time with an emphasis on women entrepreneurs’ networking in constructed networks.   A qualitative approach was used to study a development program comprised of 24 women entrepreneurs. Surveying was threefold: First, a short questionnaire was handed out twice querying the entrepreneurs regarding network contacts important for business development. Second, the entrepreneurs wrote reflective answers to questions regarding their participation in mixed network groups (with participants from both countries and from different branches): did they develop new ideas about networking that they would like to test themselves or see tested by others? Finally, participant observations were made at meetings in the development program. The results show that new relations emerge over country borders and business borders as well as within and outside the program. Initially the networking was about advice and support. There were also some business relationships forged crossing the national border and within the same branches. The entrepreneurs have gradually realized the value of networking and have seen the benefits of developing their network with more professional contacts. It is not possible to organize everything around networking but we can facilitate with theoretical and practical examples in development programs.

  • 9.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    With the target groups as partners2008In: Partnership: As a Strategy for Social Innovation and Sustainable Change, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2008, p. 121-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Entrepreneurship - the creation of temporary organizations?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hernik, Joanna
    West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland.
    Martínez Jiménez, Rocío
    University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain.
    Sörensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Entrepreneurial support systems and potential entrepreneurs´ knowledge of them2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All over the world, governments are supporting entrepreneurial activity in order to develop their countries through successful businesses. There are different support systems supporting active and potential entrepreneurs in the European countries, but do all potential entrepreneurs know where to turn for information and help about starting and running a business? The aim of this study is to explore support systems in Poland, Spain and Sweden and, in addition to this, to investigate what knowledge students have of different support systems that would be of use if they want to start their own business.

     

    Previous research shows that students who have participated in entrepreneurship education programs are more likely to become entrepreneurs (Charney & Libecap, 2000; Galloway & Brown, 2002; Davidsson & Honig, 2003; Athayde, 2009). Several studies show how having parents, friends, or neighbors who run a business can inspire a person to start their own business (e g Davidsson & Honig, 2003; Krueger, 1993; Scherer et al., 1989).

     

    This explorative study was conducted in three European countries: Poland, Spain, and Sweden. Firstly, a review of existing support systems was performed in each country. Secondly, a questionnaire was distributed in May 2017 to university students in different study programs and at different levels of education. In total, 124 questionnaires were handed out and answered by 64 Spanish students, 34 Swedish students, and 26 Polish students. The questionnaire included background questions such as age and sex, but also asked if the students wanted to start a business or not. We asked if they currently run a business or have run a business in the past, and if their parents, other relatives, or friends run their own businesses. We also asked where they would go to get information and help, and what sources they would use to find information on starting a business. Finally, we asked them what kind of help they thought they would need.

     

    The results show that there are valuable support systems for entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs in all three countries. We found more similarities than differences among the support options offered. However, the answers from the potential entrepreneurs show that there is a lack of knowledge about existing support systems. It seems that potential entrepreneurs would rather use their private network, such as family, friends and active entrepreneurs, before turning to consultants in various support system organizations.

     

    This study highlights the connection between available support systems and potential entrepreneurs, and is a valuable implication for governments and supporting organizations, focusing on how to reach out with their offered support. 

     

  • 12.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Mørkved, Britt Paula
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Den kvinnelige entreprenøren - utvikling av foretakeridentitet2013In: Kvinnors företag och företagande kvinnor: Tillväxtentreprenörer i Skandinavien / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs & Øystein Rennemo, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 109-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Rennemo, Øystein
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag.
    Widding, Øystein
    NTNU.
    Nettverkets betydning for utvikling og vekst i kvinners entreprenørskap2013In: Kvinnors företag och företagande kvinnor: Tillväxtentreprenörer i Skandinavien / [ed] Yvonne von Friedrichs & Øystein Rennemo, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, 1, p. 155-179Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Sörensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Creating tourism experiences from food products2018In: Destination Dynamics 2018: Abstract book, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastronomy is nowadays seen as an important part of tourism. Different kind of food producers are creating places where tourists want to travel to experience the food (e g product) at a certain place (often the production site). Food producers are therefore becoming important tourism producers and they try to find new ways to attract tourists and/or the tourists demand to experience the place where the products are produced. Due to that, the food producers themselves can become a travel reason. The aim with this paper is to discuss how food producers creates tourism experiences. This is further examined by the following research questions: How do food producers create tourism experiences based on high quality products? What are the key values in creating tourism food experiences? The study was conducted as a qualitative multiple case study with eight cases selected by recommendation from local researchers: four cases from northern Europe (two cheese producers in Jämtland, Sweden, and two distilleries in Tröndelag, Norway) and four cases from southern Europe (two olive oil producers and two wine producers from Andalusia, Spain). Data was collected by observations, semi-structured interviews and documentary studies. The results show that food producers creates different products as well as different types of experiences. This can be explained by a theoretical model in three steps namely products (1), tourism visits (2) and tourism experiences (3). When the first step, the basic needs, is fulfilled, the producer can climb higher to the next step. Thereafter, they continue to climb up in the model by providing different types of visits and tourism experiences. The model is also highly dependent on three surrounding influences; from the place, product quality and value in use. When it comes to quality, this is valued in all three steps of the model. This theoretical model can be useful for food producers that would like to expand their products into tourism.

  • 15.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Sörensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Diversified nature based businesses: how and why do entrepreneurs create tourism businesses?2018In: NCSB, Luleå, Sweden, May 23-25, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Arranging for social capital within development projects for women entrepreneurs2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Managing business network processes in women´s entrepreneurship – a challenging task2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social capital in women´s entrepreneurship: designing projects for business growth2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Trust building processes in women’s entrepreneurship2016In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 70-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Social capital is perceived as an important driver for entrepreneurship. To support development of social capital in women's entrepreneurship, the Swedish government supports development projects with the aim of stimulating business growth. Recent studies show that trust is an essential ingredient when designing such projects. The purpose of this paper is to further develop a theoretical model of trust-building processes by developing and trying out questions regarding trust elements and to study how projects have addressed these various trust-building elements. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory approach was used, and a survey was conducted. A questionnaire about trust was sent to the project leaders of all 165 development projects in a Swedish government-funded programme with a response rate of 73 per cent. The data were analysed in SPSS. Findings – The results show that contextual and relational aspects should be taken into account in the trust model, and that some of the questions regarding trust elements need to be elaborated more. Originality/value – This paper further develops the construction of a proposed theoretical model of trust-building processes.

  • 20.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Rennemo, Øystein
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag, Norway.
    Widding, Lars Øystein
    Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Norway.
    Networking women entrepreneurs: fruitful for business growth2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 60-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the kinds of contacts and networks women find supportive in their role as business leaders, and which also support their willingness to grow their business. The approach is to investigate the context of women entrepreneurs and the kinds of supporting social networks of which they are part. This is seen in relation to their willingness to grow.

    Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaires were sent to women entrepreneurs in mid-Sweden and mid-Norway, relating to supportive assets and willingness for growth.

    Findings – The results show: that personal networks are seen as a more supportive asset than business networks; that personal contacts with other entrepreneurs are regarded as valuable; and that women entrepreneurs who are positive towards new networks already have a more heterogenic network than those who do not express this willingness.

    Practical implications – Without a relational attitude and a willingness to put oneself into a relational interplay, women entrepreneurs will have a hard time succeeding in growing their businesses.

    Originality/value – This study is unique in three ways: first, it combines different theoretical perspectives, above all a variety of network perspectives seen in an entrepreneurial context. Second, from a huge set of data containing women entrepreneurs, the paper presents valid findings about social network configurations among this group. Third, it introduces the term “willingness”, and discusses the effects related to this and to network expansion and business growth. These dimensions help us to increase the understanding of networking and growth in women-owned enterprises.

  • 21.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Rennemo, Øystein
    North Trøndelag University College.
    Widding, Øystein
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Networking women entrepreneurs: a fruitful base for business growth?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore what kinds of contacts and networks women see as supportive in their role as business leaders and for their willingness of business growth. Our approach is to investigate the context of women entrepreneurs’ and the various kinds of supporting social networks they are part of. Questionnaires were sent to women entrepreneurs in Mid-Sweden and Mid-Norway about supportive assets and willingness for growth. The result shows 1) that personal networks are seen as a more supportive asset than business networks, 2) that personal contacts with other entrepreneurs are regarded valuable and 3) that women entrepreneurs willing for new networking already have a more heterogenic network than those who don’t express this willingness. The contribution from this study is to provide more detailed insight into the kind of networking giving access to resources important for women leading businesses to grow.

  • 22.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Westerdahl, Stig
    Malmö University.
    Organizations in cooperation within Development Partnerships: The impact of organizational fields and institutions2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose Attempts to solve important societal issues, for example long-term sick leave and unemployment, nowadays often involve several and varying type of actors. The European Union supports for example cooperation in projects aiming for new solutions and models to fight the problems. Temporary organizations are formed for this purpose at international, national, regional and local levels, with actors from public sector on different levels, representatives from private companies and non-profit organizations. At times, also the target group affected by the problem is involved. Formations of this kind can apply for funding for a certain period. The constellation lasts for this project only, and a possible continuation depends on the result of the project, or rather whether new funding is received. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a specific type of temporary cooperation between actors from different organizational fields within a temporary organization, what is called Development Partnerships. In our case, the members of the partnership comprises of other organizations, but we especially want to stress the issue concerning actors without organizational belonging, and their participation with actors from well established organizations belonging to institutionalised fields.

  • 23.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Growth in women´s businesses in the light of time2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous results on growth in women’s businesses indicate that employment growth require time and that growth ambitions change over time. Time aspects has however only to a minor extent previously been studied despite the fact that it was required already twenty years ago. The aim of this paper is to explore growth from a longitudinal perspective. The results is based from data that have taken place at three different times during the period 2010 to 2016. The result shows that companies with a clear and specified future growth ambition is highly significant with the companies that actually have achieved growth.

  • 24.
    Rennemo, Øystein
    et al.
    Nord Univ, Norway.
    Widding, Lars Øystein
    Norges Teknisk Nat Vitenskapelige Univ, Norway.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Business growth through intentional and non-intentional network processes2017In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 242-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine business growth and explore the "growth mode" among 24 women entrepreneurs participating in a Nordic research, development and networking programme.

    Design/methodology/approach - A longitudinal design made it possible to follow entrepreneurial growth as an unfolding and emerging research process with a methodology inductive in nature and driven by empirical findings. The analysis is structured following established procedures for inductive, theory-building research, using guidelines for constant comparison techniques and working recursively between the data and the emerging theory.

    Findings - Two processes were found important to understand the women entrepreneurs' growth mode. The first is interpreted as intentionally driven and relates to the women's achievement of expanding their knowledge reservoir; the other is non-intentionally driven and a result of uncontrolled network responses. The latter unfolded as a movement towards a preferable macro-actor status for some of the entrepreneurs.

    Practical implications - The study calls attention to relevant knowledge preferable to entrepreneurs who face challenges when trying to grow their businesses. The political implications of this study relate to the importance of awareness among governmental organizations and municipal business advisers regarding the effects of entrepreneurial networking.

    Originality/value - This study provides an empirically rigorous insight into the processes of entrepreneurial growth. The findings led the authors to develop a conceptual model for business growth, which contributes to the recent stream of literature on how new businesses are growing.

  • 25.
    Rennemo, Øystein
    et al.
    North Trøndelag University College.
    Widding, Øystein
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Building credibility through networking: a way for women entrepreneurs to grow2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Sjödin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Management of Self-management in Governmental mentoring programs for entrepreneurs2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Cultural differences among tourists’ travel behavior with focus on their information search prior to their trip.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Entrepreneurial learning – The role of the process, the people and the place2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyse a three-year long process of an entrepreneurial learning programme with a focus on the process, the people and the place.

    Design/methodology/approach - The study centres on a case-study of a newly established one-year programme at a university in Sweden, and uses participant observation and interviews with students.

    Findings – The results show that the students work through experience-oriented learning with a focus on entrepreneurship. The people is important, both which students that are selected as well as creative teachers and the collaboration with stakeholders at the destination. The place where the students learn is important and by being there they contribute to the local society.

  • 29.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Organizing an entrepreneurial learning programme: The role of people, process and place2019In: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in entrepreneurship and learning has focused on education about, for and within enterprises. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the importance of organizing for entrepreneurial learning. The research design included a case study of a newly established 1-year programme at a university in Sweden. Data were collected through participant observations and interviews with students, both in groups and individually. The study shows that organizing entrepreneurial learning involves a similar method to that used in entrepreneurial processes in companies with a focus on process, people and place. The contribution of the study is to confirm that Foley’s model with these three components is applicable in the context of entrepreneurial learning. The conclusion is that the process, the people and the place combined to create an environment for the students that was conducive to entrepreneurial learning. The people are the most important factor and should also be considered with regard to process and place. In order to establish a creative environment, organizers should consider the importance of students’ collaboration with stakeholders in the region, through which they can contribute to the development of the community. Students contribute to the local community through their interaction with it.

  • 30.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The digital arena: tourists´ information search prior to their trip2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Tourists´ use of internet sources – can the information be trusted?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Cawthorn, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lifestyle Entrepreneurs within Nature Based Businesses in Sweden: Motives and Challenges for the Future?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Cawthorn, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Lifestyle Entrepreneurs within Nature-Based Businesses in Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of research studies focuses on lifestyle entrepreneurs in the tourism industry. Lifestyle entrepreneurs often start their business due to the fact that they want to make business of their hobby or they want to create a certain quality of life by living in a specific place. Previous studies argue that lifestyle entrepreneurs are often motivated by non-economic goals. Nature based businesses includes traditional businesses like agriculture and forestry but also new emerging businesses that are based on nature‟s resources like tourism. In rural areas, these type of tourism business are the most important incomes and therefore also of high importance concerning business development. The aim is to explore the tourism entrepreneurs‟ point of view of their lifestyle and business within nature based businesses in rural areas. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach. 17 different cases was studied from autumn 2015 until autumn 2016. The cases consisted of micro tourism companies within nature based businesses situated in the rural county of Jämtland in Sweden. The data was collected through semistructured interviews, observations and written materials. The result from this study show that there is several difference between tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs in rural areas with nature based businesses. We have identified four types of tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs that have different motives for running their businesses. The results also show that depending on what kind of tourism entrepreneur they focus differently on their nature based businesses. Many of the lifestyle entrepreneurs are focusing on finding several different types of income to spread the risk and also obtain growth. We could also see that traditional entrepreneurs within nature based businesses prefer to focus on the main income which often was more traditional products and services rather than tourism. The tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs therefore seem to try more different types of businesses and appear more open minded to create and innovate new products and services.

  • 34.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Cawthorn, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    New directions for entrepreneurs within nature based business – the obstacles and possibilities with tourism.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature based businesses are seen by the Swedish government as a central industry where growth and development is of great importance. On the other hand, entrepreneurs are shutting down their businesses due to low revenues meanwhile other see possibilities and growth. The aim with this paper is to identify how entrepreneurs within nature based businesses in Sweden develop their businesses into tourism. How do entrepreneurs within nature based businesses develop their current businesses and for what reasons? What kind of obstacles and possibilities to develop their businesses into tourism industry? The starting point for this study came from a course that students attend at the university, focusing on strategic issues for businesses. We realized that nature based businesses in Sweden have not been studied from an entrepreneurial perspective. We have conducted case studies on total 17 different business during a year. We started in autumn 2015 and continued until autumn 2016. All 17 cases consisted of micro companies within nature based businesses situated in the rural county of Jämtland in Sweden. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and written materials. The interviews was conducted in various locations and notes were taken. The questions in the interviews was focused around different themes like: How do the situation for the company look like? What are their threats and possibilities? What are their challenges for the future? What kind of solutions do the entrepreneurs see for development? How are their business affected by being situated in rural areas. Each case was treated as a separate unit and was not compared to the other cases before all data collection was finished. The 17 cases was then analyzed and categorized with an interpretative approach based on the study’s themes. The result shows that their businesses often are quite small which makes it hard to employee people and growth. They often do not growth within their nature based business but rather often start a new type of business within the tourism industry. Tourism is seen as a great possibility to spread the risks into other businesses as well as a good business opportunity.

  • 35.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Cawthorn, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sustainability among large sized companies in Europe - Are there national differences in their sustainability information?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Cawthorn, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sustainability Information in Large-sized Companies in Europe: Does National Culture Matter?2019In: The International Journal of Sustainability in Economic, Social and Cultural Context, ISSN 2325-1115, E-ISSN 2325-114X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 45-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on sustainability information in large-sized companies in Europe. The aim of this article is to examine sustainability information in large-sized companies in European countries and the effect that the different national cultures might have on how sustainability is informed. The theoretical frameworks used are stakeholder theory, legitimacy, accountability, and national culture. The study has a qualitative approach, and data were collected during the spring of 2017 from 100 companies in five European countries (Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden). Data were collected from websites, written documents, and other secondary sources. The results show that there are both differences between companies within each country and between countries. Companies in different countries focus on different aspects of sustainability in their information. The theoretical contribution this study makes is a model that can be used as a tool when discussing sustainability among large-sized companies in Europe. Practical implications include new knowledge of national differences between large-sized companies in how they work with sustainability, which could be of use to companies trying to enter other European markets.

  • 37.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Cawthorn, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tourism Entrepreneurs with Nature-Based Businesses in Sweden: The Role of the Lifestyle and the Place2019In: Athens Journal of Tourism, E-ISSN 2241-8148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing amount of research focuses on lifestyle entrepreneurs in the tourism industry. Lifestyle entrepreneurs often go into business with the aim of making a hobby their income source or to create a certain quality of life in a specific place. Previous studies argue that lifestyle entrepreneurs are often motivated by noneconomic goals. Nature-based businesses include traditional businesses such as those in the agriculture and forestry industries as well as new emerging businesses that are based on nature’s resources such as tourism. In rural areas, these types of tourism businesses generate important income and are therefore of great importance from a business development perspective. The aim of this study is to explore how tourism entrepreneurs see their lifestyles and nature-based businesses in rural areas. The study was conducted using a qualitative approach. Seventeen different cases were studied between autumn 2015 and autumn 2016, all of which were nature-based businesses in the area of micro-tourism located in rural Sweden. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews, observations, and written material. The study’s results show that there are several differences between tourism-lifestyle entrepreneurs in rural areas with nature-based businesses. We have identified four types of tourismlifestyle entrepreneurs, each with different motives for running their businesses. The results also show that they focus differently on their nature-based businesses, depending on what kind of tourism entrepreneur they are. Many of the lifestyle entrepreneurs focus on developing several different types of income to reduce risk and obtain growth. Tourism-lifestyle entrepreneurs therefore seem to try different types of businesses and appear to be more open-minded and innovative where creating new products and services is concerned

  • 38.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Nature Based Businesses – Long Term Sustainable Businesses?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bogren, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    National branding: What role does food play?2016In: Valuing and Evaluating Creativity for Sustainable Regional Development Östersund September 11-14, 2016 Proceedings, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 38-38Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 39 of 39
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