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  • 1.
    Borg, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Organization of Laundry Facility Types and Energy Use in Owner-Occupied Multi-Family Buildings in Sweden2014In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 3843-3860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which we plan and produce buildings today will influence our energy consumption in the future. This paper explores how the types of laundry facilities provided in owner-occupied multi-family buildings in Sweden have changed since the 1990s and seeks to draw attention to how this may impact energy consumption for laundry. Three factors are analyzed that influence energy consumption: the number of laundry appliances, energy performance in laundry appliances and user demand for laundry. The results indicate that there has been a change in building practices, from the domination of communal laundry rooms towards in-unit laundry facilities. The findings imply that the changes in provision of laundry facilities increase the number of appliances but do not necessarily increase energy consumption during the usage phase depending on energy performance and user behavior. Thus, developers should consider laundry facility organization when designing multi-family buildings in order to optimize the use of space and resources, given user demand and building regulations. This paper is exploratory in nature and indicates a shift in building practices that up until now has been undocumented in a research context which in turn opens up for many new research questions related to resource use but also related to the economics of developers, housing firms and households.

  • 2. DeLisle, J.
    et al.
    Grissom, T.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Sustainable real estate: An empirical study of the behavioural response of developers and investors to the LEED rating system2013In: Journal of Property Investment & Finance, ISSN 1463-578X, E-ISSN 1470-2002, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 10-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the notion of sustainability and research reporting price premiums for LEED-certified buildings. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the notion of sustainability and research reporting price premiums for LEED-certified buildings. The durability of certification levels is explored by converting projects developed under the initial NC2-series system to a new vintage rating adopted in 2009. This conversion is made by applying Lagrangian multipliers to model stochastic impacts. Findings: The study reveals that 18 percent of 591 projects developed under the NC2-Series were "misclassified" in terms of certification levels when converted to new NCv2009 standards. To the extent the market has pursued LEED certification levels, the unanticipated changes may have led to the adoption short-term solutions that are inappropriate due to the long-term nature of real estate assets. Research limitations/implications: Given the complexity of the LEED rating system, it is unknown how the market will react to the lack of durability and approach pricing over the long-term. Practical implications: The results indicate market participants should adopt a proactive approach to LEED certification. Originality/value: The study identifies significant dynamics in the LEED certification system for new construction and behavioural responses that have not been reported in the literature.

  • 3.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Building Sustainability: Studies on incentives in construction and management of real estate2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis summarizes the results from several studies with connection to sustainability in construction and management of real estate. Here, the concept sustainability includes environmental, social and economic dimensions and focus is on the actors with the best possibilities to impact real estate, namely the real estate owners and the developers. The thesis consists of six papers. Real estate owners’ perception of and incentives and strategies for sustainability was studied in four ways: incentives for energy efficiency and other sustainability issues in connection to renovation (papers I and II), factors that characterize firms with an ambitious approach to energy efficiency (paper V) and economic incentives for energy efficiency (paper VI). Developers’ behavior and impact on sustainability was studied in two ways: how developers’ planning and construction methods may influence energy consumption for future residents (paper III) and how developers relate to requirements for building environmental certification levels (paper IV). The first paper aims to clarify how housing firms see and treat energy efficiency matters in connection to renovation of multi-family buildings constructed during the 1960’s and 70’s. Interviews with housing firms resulted in four ideal housing firm types illustrating that housing firms have more or less incentives to improve energy efficiency. The second paper aimed to study a model for renovation of buildings in a residential area in peripheral Stockholm and to assess how it considers environmental, social and economic sustainability as well as technical concerns. Paper V builds on the results in paper I and aims to identify factors, on a firm level as well as in the surroundings of the firm, that characterize housing firms who own multi-family buildings from the 1960’s and 70’s and who have an ambitious approach to energy efficiency. Paper VI uses information from energy performance certificates to study whether better energy performance increases the selling price of single-family homes, which would increase owners’ incentives to improve energy efficiency. Paper III takes its starting point in an indicated shift in developers’ planning and construction practices for laundry facilities in owner-occupied multi-family buildings. The paper aims to clarify whether a shift has actually occurred from communal laundry rooms to in-unit laundry appliances and to illuminate the impact this could have on residents’ energy consumption for laundry. Paper IV reports the study of how developers who have adopted the environmental certification system LEED relate to the requirements for specific certification levels and how updated requirements risk undermining developers’ incentives for sustainable construction.

  • 4.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hållbarhet i fastighetsföretagande2018In: Fastighetsekonomi och fastighetsrätt: Fastighetsnomenklatur / [ed] Gustafsson, C., Palm, P., Gottschalk, P. och Borg, L., Stockholm, Sverige: Fastighetsnytt Förlags AB , 2018, 13, p. 475-488Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Incentives for energy efficiency measures in post-war multi-family dwellings2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is an important question to society as well as to individuals and firms. Improving energy efficiency in the building sector is considered an important means to climate mitigation. For real estate owners energy is also a central expenditure item and reducing energy consumption may directly reduce operation costs while at the same time serve as insurance against future energy price increases. Since new buildings only add a few percent annually to the building stock, the potential to reduce total energy consumption primarily lies within the existing building stock. The building stock is ageing and the post-war part of the stock that is in need of renovation is growing. This has been suggested as a window of opportunity to improve energy efficiency, but so far the results have been few. Several factors have been put forward to explain the so called energy efficiency gap – the difference between actual and optimal energy efficiency – one of which is split incentives. What adds to complexity in this case is that distinct differences have been observed in the level of ambition between the real estate companies that have renovated so far. Some companies have undertaken extensive renovation and energy efficiency measures, whereas other companies have done little more than urgent maintenance measures. It seems that real estate owners in general don´t have strong economic incentives to improve energy efficiency in connection to renovation – but what can then explain the differences between strategies?

    This licentiate thesis examines the incentives among real estate owners to improve energy efficiency, particularly in post-war, multi-family buildings in need of renovation. The purpose is to add knowledge about decisions concerning measures that improve energy efficiency - in terms of incentives, barriers and different motives for real estate owners’ strategies and actions.

    Results show that real estate owners lack strong economic incentives to invest in energy efficiency in multi-family buildings and the level of investment is dependent on the different motivations, grouped in three levels of ambition, that real estate companies have. One important conclusion is that the heterogeneity between companies that was exposed in the interviews and survey implies that they will not respond similarly to policy stimuli. The heterogeneity should thus be considered when designing policy measures so that public and company resources can be allocated as efficiently as possible, as there are many challenges facing owners of post-war residential buildings. Another conclusion is that from an economic point of view it is important to take the interaction between different measures into account, e.g. between physical measures and measures focusing on changing household behavior.

  • 6.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Individual metering and charging in rental housing: creating the right incentives for energy saving?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changing user behavior by individually metering and charging tenants for their use of heating and hot water has been put forward as a means to reduce energy consumption in the building sector. This would give the tenant incentives to save energy, but at the same time weakens the landlord’s incentives for improving energy efficiency in the building, since she is no longer responsible for energy costs. These split incentives problems should be possible to avoid if there is a net gain from improving energy efficiency and/or installing individual metering that could be shared between the parties.

    The aim of this article is to problematize the concept of individual metering, to show through simulations that there are ways to avoid the split incentives problem involved, and to show that it should be possible to design contracts that give both landlord and tenant incentives to save energy.

    The results indicate that few energy efficiency investments will manage to bear their own investment costs, given how low the present value of the energy savings is at given energy prices. The results also show how split incentives may hinder the energy efficiency investments, but that there are conditions under which such investments and/or individual metering may increase welfare for landlord, tenant or both. Without negotiations this gain will not be reached, but through co-operation this welfare gain could be split which would benefit both landlord and tenant and this should be considered when designing contracts. Finally the findings highlight the importance to take into account the interaction of different means to save energy to avoid over-investment.

  • 7.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Modeller för att mäta samhällsvärde2019In: Samhällsentreprenörskap och regionalt värdeskapande i Norden / [ed] von Friedrichs, Yvonne; Wollan, Gjermund, Steinkjer, Norge: Embla Forlag, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsentreprenörskapet har många effekter, kvantitativa och kvalitativa, indirekta och direkta. En del av effekterna går i den riktning som avsikten var när man startade sin verksamhet, och följer det sociala företagets förändringsteori från verksamhetens aktiviteter till dess mål. En del av effekterna är lätta att mäta i monetära termer, medan andra effekter relativt enkelt kan omvandlas till ett ekonomiskt värde genom att jämföras med någon sorts referens, såsom sparade skattepengar. Av olika anledningar kan det också finnas behov och önskemål att mäta och kommunicera samhällsvärde som inte direkt förhåller sig till samma monetära måttenheter. Kapitlets syfte är att redogöra för och reflektera kring etablerade modeller för att mäta samhällsvärde som idag används inom socialt entreprenörskap och bygger på en litteraturstudie.

  • 8.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Real estate owners' views on renovation and energy efficiency in post-war multi-dwelling buildings2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The upcoming renovations of large parts of the Swedish residential building stock have been seen as a window of opportunity to undertake energy efficiency measures, which would contribute to reaching ambitious savings objectives. In this paper the indications that building owners don´t have strong economic incentives to undertake such measures are investigated, and it is tested whether company attitudes and strategies differ with respect to level of ambition in energy efficiency matters. The aim of this paper is to get an insight into the renovation and energy efficiency state in Swedish housing companies, and to test hypotheses about how much energy efficiency work has been carried out and how potential obstacles and energy efficiency in terms of investment opportunities are perceived in order to give an indication of what energy efficiency investments can be expected to occur spontaneously in the existing Swedish building stock. The results indicate that renovations have started but will constitute a challenge to the companies, which may crowd out energy efficiency investments. They also indicate that the more ambitious companies do more extensive energy efficiency work and are more forward planning, but will not intervene “in excess”, in comparison with less ambitious companies. There are also indications that energy efficiency may be hindered by transaction costs, uncertainty about future energy prices, competing investments or financing, and that less ambitious companies place more emphasis on transaction costs, competing investments and financing problems than do more ambitious companies. There is no indication that the importance of economic considerations or that perceptions of uncertainty, risk or profitability differ with respect to ambition level, nor are there indications that the use of calculation methods or discount rate differs. It appears that it isn´t primarily economic or regulatory drivers that make the ambitious companies invest in energy efficiency; rather they seem to need other motives for energy efficiency investments in order to “create” profitability, whereas less ambitious companies seem to value short term profitability higher than ambitious companies do. Taken together only moderate energy efficiency investments are expected.

  • 9.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    The impact of energy performance on single-family home selling prices in Sweden2013In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 242-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to test whether energy performance effects single-family home sale prices. It also examines whether recommendations for supposedly cost-effective energy efficiency measures, by intervention category (construction, installation or operation/control technical measures), are perceived as untapped potential - a real option - that effects sale prices. Design/methodology/approach: The energy performance measurement and dummy variables for three categories of improvement recommendations are included as explanatory variables in a hedonic regression analysis using transaction data and energy performance certificates data for 1,073 observations. Findings: Results indicate that better energy performance effects selling prices positively. Energy efficiency recommendations seem to have an impact on sale price; home buyers seem to require a larger "discount" for more complex types of measures. Research limitations/implications: The sample only includes houses in the Stockholm; so-called sustainable buildings have not been specifically studied; and the heating source has not been accounted for. Originality/value: The EU energy performance certificates provide new information and measure energy performance more exactly than many earlier (proxy) variables. This is one of the first studies to test the effect of this information, and the first one using Swedish data.

  • 10.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Who will close the energy efficiency gap?: A quantitative study of what characterizes ambitious housing firms in Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results from a study that attempts to identify factors that characterize housing firms with particularly ambitious approaches to energy efficiency in connection to renovation. The aim of the study was to identify factors that correlate with ambitious firms and the market they operate in. The study builds on previous results that identified four ideal types among Swedish housing firms, ranging from not ambitious to very ambitious with regards to energy efficiency. Based on the ideal types, this paper uses three levels of ambition and focuses on the more ambitious levels to see if there are factors that co-vary with an ambitious approach.</p><p>Six hypotheses were formulated; ambitious firms were believed to be municipal, to be operating in markets with high and/or volatile energy prices, to be operating in strong markets, to have building portfolios in need of renovation, to be large and to have an expert employee who champions energy efficiency issues.</p><p>Using web survey results from housing firms, an ordered probit model was used to test if level of ambition as the independent variable and a number of firm and market specific factors as dependent variables The results indicate support for some of the hypotheses; the probability of being ambitious increases if firms are municipally owned, have a building portfolio in need of renovation and have an employee who champions the energy efficiency issues. There were no indications that high/volatile energy prices, strong markets or firm size influence the probability of being more ambitious.

  • 11.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH .
    af Klintberg, Tord
    KTH.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH.
    Knivstamodellen BoKvar för renovering av bostäder: Hur man kan få en vettig avvägning mellan insatser och hyreshöjning2016Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Grange, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Incentives for improving energy efficiency when renovating large-scale housing estates: A Case Study of the Swedish Million Homes Programme2009In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 1349-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has adopted ambitious energy savings objectives for buildings, but at the current rate of energy efficiency investments the objectives are unlikely to be reached. In this article we report the early findings of how real estate owners reason and act in energy efficiency investment decisions. Based on the results from interviews with the real estate companies, the companies have been divided into four ideal types that illuminate the differences in energy efficiency ambition and strategies; the Strict Profit Maximizing Company, the Little Extra Company, the Policy Led Ambitious Company and the Administration Led Ambitious Company. The different strategies will determine how the companies respond to incentives to invest in energy efficiency, and affect the overall result in the energy efficiency work. The ideal types hence are important to have in mind when designing policies to increase energy efficiency.

  • 13.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Af Klintberg, Tord
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Sustainable Renovation Strategy in the Swedish Million Homes Programme: A Case Study2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a large multifamily housing stock that was built between 1960 and 1975. An important current issue is how this stock can be renovated in a sustainable way. The article analyses a strategy used by a suburban municipal housing company that had clear social ambitions and offered the tenants three options of renovation: Mini, Midi and Maxi. Most tenants chose the Mini alternative which meant that they could afford to stay and that there was no increase in costs for the social authorities. An investment analysis showed that the Mini alternative had a positive net present value, but that the Midi and Maxi alternatives were more profitable. Even though there was no clear environmental focus in the renovation, energy use was reduced by 8%. As a conclusion, the study shows that a sustainable renovation is possible but that there are a number of conflicts between the different dimensions of sustainability.

  • 14.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Annadotter, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    af Klintberg, Tord
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Sustainable renovation strategy in the Swedish Million HomesProgramme: A case study2014Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lind, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment.
    Incitament för energieffektivisering i 60- och 70-talets bostadsbestånd2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Startpunkten för det projekt som sammanfattas i denna rapport var ett antal observationer och hypoteser. Det första konstaterandet var att den stora del av vårt bostadsbestånd som byggdes under det sk miljonprogrammet nu står inför omfattande renoveringar. Det ligger då nära tillhands att se detta som en möjlighet att samtidigt göra insatser som minskar energiförbrukningen. En andra utgångspunkt för projektet var dock att bostadsföretagen agerade väldigt olika i denna situation. Vissa gjorde stora insatser för att minska energiförbrukningen medan andra inte gjorde det. Frågan uppstod hur incitamenten egentligen såg ut för att energieffektivisera i samband med upprustningen av miljonprogramshus.Lite tillspetsat kan man säga att det fanns två konkurrerande huvudhypoteser. Den ena hypotesen sa att orsaken till att inte mer gjordes helt enkelt var att det inte var lönsamt att göra så mycket. Den andra hypotesen sa att det fanns många lönsamma åtgärder men att företagen av olika anledningar inte genomförde dem.Resultaten från studien kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:- Det finns en stor potential för energieffektivisering i bostadsbeståndet från 60- och 70-talen Även om det naturligtvis finns stora variationer beroende på hur husen fungerar idag kan det handla om besparingar på kring 30%. Många företag har redan gjort betydande insatser och fler planerar åtgärder.- Resultaten i denna studie talat enligt vår mening för att den andra hypotesen ovan: Orsaken till att inte mer görs är helt enkelt att det inte är mer som är lönsamt. Kan det vara en tillfällighet att inga privata företag i denna studie klassats som ”ambitiösa”, dvs gjort eller planerar mycket genomgripande insatser för att minska energiförbrukningen? Kan alla dessa företag ”räkna fel”? Och varför verkade de företag som gjort mest vara minst intresserade av att diskutera ekonomiska kalkyler och ekonomiska resultat? Den metod som sägs visa att många åtgärder är lönsamma – genom att man räknar med ”paket” av åtgärder innebär i praktiken att man sänker avkastningskravet på investerade medel.- När det gäller kalkylering rekommenderar vi att nuvärdesmetoden används eftersom den är tydlig och transparent så att antaganden om investeringskostnader, besparingar ochavkastningskrav blir tydliga. Det är också viktigt att skilja mellan lönsamheten hos själva åtgärden och hur det kan påverka företagets redovisade resultat. Kalkyler handlar dock inte bara om att bedöma om en åtgärd är lönsam utan också om vad som är den rätta tidpunkten för en åtgärd. Samspelet mellan tekniska åtgärder, ekonomiska incitament ochbeteende förändringar måste också tas hänsyn till i kalkylen.- Det finns incitamentsproblem när det gäller energieffektiviseringar men dessa är enligt vår mening inte så allvarliga. Genom förhandlingar mellan hyresvärd och hyresgäst kan man hantera de problem som har att göra med kallhyra/varmhyra. Ju mer kvalitetsinriktad som hyressättningen generellt blir, desto mer gynnsamt är det ur ett incitamentsperspektiv. Fjärrvärmetaxor har ofta en rörlig del som är större än marginalkostnaden vilket stärker energisparincitamenten. Om vår bedömning är korrekt, och det inte sker några stora tekniska genombrott, krävs ytterligare statliga åtgärder för att nå de långsiktiga målen.

  • 16.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Netzell, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Price discovery over space2014In: Western Regional Science Association, 53d annual meeting, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Torget: en plats för hållbarhet ur ett socialt, ekologiskt, kulturellt och ekonomiskt perspektiv2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén, Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 64-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
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