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  • 1.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    United Nations University - WIDER.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Connectivity at a cost: The economic dynamics of connectivity restoration2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological literature shows that there is a species-area relationship between habitat size and the equilibrium number of species that will thrive in a habitat. There is also a literature on habitat fragmentation showing that, if a larger habitat is broken up into smaller fragments, the long run equilibrium species number will decline in each of the remaining fragments according to the same relationship. Both in the United States and in Europe there is ongoing work on reversing habitat fragmentation in river systems, with fish ladders and other measures being introduced to restore connectivity in river systems that have previously been subdivided into smaller habitats by hydropower and other developments. However, even if connectivity is restored, the new and higher equilibrium species number will be reached only after extended periods of time. This means that measures to restore connectivity entail incurring one-time investment costs (and possibly continuous long run increases in maintenance costs as well) in order to gain habitat improvements that will generate increasing value over time upto the point where the new, better equilibrium is reached. In this paper, we set up a theoretical model to investigate what the conditions are for such an investment to be socially profitable, and link the model to empirical data from measures to restore river system connectivity which show how quickly this recovery tends to occur in practice. We find that even in cases where it would have been socially preferable not to build a hydropower installation in the first place, connectivity-restoring measures affecting the installation are not necessarily socially profitable. Under a wide range of plausible assumptions about discount rates, investment costs and productivity losses, decommissioning the hydropower plant once its economic lifespan is past is a better option, from the social planner’s perspective, than carrying out measures while the plant is still economically viable.

  • 2.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The Persistence of Subjective Poverty in Urban Ethiopia2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Using panel data spanning 15 years, this paper  investigates the persistence and correlates of subjective and consumption  poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite the decline in consumption poverty in  recent years, which has been linked to rapid economic growth, subjective  poverty has remained largely unchanged. Dynamic probit regression results  show that households with a history of past poverty continue to perceive  themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. Our results  also suggest that the relative economic position of households is a strong  determinant of subjective poverty, and having at least some type of  employment reduces the likelihood that households will perceive themselves  as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. Receiving remittances  from abroad, on the other hand, does not reduce perceived poverty, even if  it raises material consumption. We argue that any analysis to measure the  impact of growth on welfare should encompass subjective measures as  well.

  • 3.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014Ingår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 51-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Department of Economics, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, United Kingdom.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or nonexistent) selection: a case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011Ingår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, nr 28, s. 4203-4211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders‟ access to credit and making long-term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small-scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers – both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans – remain credit-constrained; both types overutilise labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders – with their closer ties to the individual farmers – remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 5.
    Arvidsson, Anders
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Technology-neutral green procurement in practice: An example from Swedish waste management2012Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 519-523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has been criticized for its excessive reliance on detailed technology specifications, which can distort incentives in the short term and discourage innovation in the longer term. Economists therefore tend to prefer technology-neutral procurement, which rewards outcomes rather than technologies. However, technology-neutral procurement can also be problematic in practice. The present study investigated green public procurement of waste management, a rapidly growing field. In one of the most sophisticated models for technology-neutral procurement applied in Sweden in recent years, different environmental impacts were assigned weights, but no weight was given to the particular technology employed. Even here, however, potential inefficiencies were found where the scoring rule could have led to arbitrary, and presumably unwanted, outcomes. Explicitly assigning monetary surcharges to desirable and undesirable environmental effects may be a better way to reach environmental targets.

  • 6.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Effects of migration on tax policy in the EU countries: An empirical analysis2011Ingår i: China-USA Business Review, ISSN 1537-1514, Vol. 10, nr 7, s. 508-515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study whether migration affects taxes on labor and capital income. The analysis is based on panel data for 14 European countries. The results indicate that migration does affect subsequent tax rates; taxes on labor income increase with increased migration, especially in countries with large public sectors. However, this effect is reduced for countries with large foreign trade and/or large shares of elderly in the population.

  • 7.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Optimal tax and expenditure policy in the presence of migration – are credit restrictions important?2014Ingår i: Indian Growth and Development Review, ISSN 1753-8254, E-ISSN 1753-8262, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 98-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have found an ’inverted U-curve’ relationship between emigration and per capita income. In this paper, we present a theoretical underpinning for this phenomenon based on credit restrictions. We also characterize how the presence of an ’inverted U-curve’ relationship between emigration and per capita income will influence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad. Among the results it is shown that if age dependent taxes are available, the presence of an ’inverted U-curve’ provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise. Thus, our more realistic picture of emigration leads to results that differ from the previous literature.

  • 8. Bergsten, Peter
    et al.
    Nicolin, Stéphanie
    Frisk, Anders
    Rydgren, Bernt
    Poveda Björklund, Inger
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Miljöförbättrande åtgärder i Mörrumsån och Ångermanälven, med fokus på havsvandrande arter2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    Univ Portsmouth, Dept Econ, Portsmouth PO1 3DE, Hants, UK.
    Chambwera, Muyeye
    Int Inst Environm & Dev, Sustainable Markets Grp, Econ Climate Change Team, London WC1H 0DD, UK.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Climate change and total factor productivity in the Tanzanian economy2011Ingår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 1289-1302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyses the economic impacts of climate change-induced adjustments on the performance of the Tanzanian economy, using a country-wide computable general equilibrium model. The effect of overall climate change on agricultural productivity (modeled as reduced land productivity) is projected to be relatively limited until approximately 2030 and become worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that despite the projected reduction in agricultural productivity, the negative impacts can potentially be quite limited. This is because the time scales involved and the low starting point of the economy leave ample space for factor substitutability and increased overall productivity. This indicates that policies that give farmers opportunity to invest in autonomous climate adaptation, as well as policies that improve the overall performance of the economy, can be as important for reducing the impacts of climate change in the economy as direct government policies for climate adaptation.

  • 10.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    et al.
    University of Portsmouth.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    How much is too much?: Individual biodiversity conservation vis-a-vis socially optimal levels2012Ingår i: 2nd International Conference on Environment and Natural Resources Management in Developing and Transition Economies: Abstracts, 2012, s. 16-16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The individual farmer in a developing country has little incentive to care about the public good properties of on-farm biodiversity in the form of different crop varieties. There is a common assumption that because of this, farmers will tend to maintain too little biodiversity on their farms. However, this does not fit well with the empirical data; because of poorly functioning insurance markets, farms tend to maintain a wide range of different crop varieties in practice in order to hedge against weather shocks and other uncertainty. In this paper we develop a theoretical model to account for this, and show that farmers may in fact even maintain too much biodiversity on the individual farm, compared to the social optimum. This will be illustrated with empirical estimations from Ethiopian agriculture.

  • 11.
    Choumert, Johanna
    et al.
    CERDI-CNRS Université d'Auvergne Clermont 1, 65 boulevard François MitterrandClermont-Ferrand, France.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Uwera, Claudine
    University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Access to water as determinant of rental values: A housing hedonic analysis in Rwanda2014Ingår i: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 26, s. 48-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the determinants of rental values in urban housing markets in Kigali, Rwanda. In particular, we study the value of access to piped water; due to the high costs associated with installing new piped connections, renting a property with an existing connection is often the only way for low income households to access piped water. Our results indicate that extending the piped network to a new house will in many cases raise the rental value of the house enough to pay for the cost of installing the new connection in less than two years.

  • 12.
    Dalin, Torbjörn
    et al.
    GS - The Swedish Union of Forestry, Wood and Graphical Workers, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The effects of capital income taxation on wage formation2011Ingår i: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 113, nr 2, s. 186-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effects of capital income taxation on wage formation are studied using OECD data. The results indicate that a rise in the tax rate on capital income will reduce real wages and increase employment.

  • 13.
    Edström, Frida
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The Natural Forest Protection Program in China: A contingent valuation study in Heilongjiang province2012Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering B, ISSN 2162-5263, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 426-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1998 the Chinese government implemented the Natural Forest Protection Program, NFPP, which included logging restrictions, protected areas, replanting, and a range of other policies aimed at safeguarding the state of the country’s forests and reducing the risk of erosion and flooding. A second phase of this policy is currently being discussed. In this paper, we use contingent valuation to estimate the WTP for maintaining the program among the inhabitants in Heilongjiang Province in northern China. Our results show that, even with fairly conservative assumptions, the aggregated WTP for maintaining the program for another five years is some 3.24 billion Yuan per year. This can be compared to the current cost of the program in the province, which is some 1.57 billion Yuan per year.

  • 14.
    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Mekelle University, Adi-Haqui Campus, P.O. Box 451, Mekelle, Tigrai, Ethiopia.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden.
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Climate change and the Ethiopian economy: A CGE analysis2016Ingår i: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 205-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes the economic impacts of climate change-induced fluctuations on the performance of Ethiopia's agriculture, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. We model the impacts on agriculture using a Ricardian model, where current agricultural production is modelled as a function of temperature and precipitation, among other things, and where future agriculture is assumed to follow the same climate function. The effect of overall climate change is projected to be relatively benign until approximately 2030, but will become considerably worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to reductions in average income of some 20 per cent compared with the outcome that would have prevailed in the absence of climate change. This indicates that adaptation policies – both government planned and those that ease autonomous adaptation by farmers – will be crucial for Ethiopia's future development.

  • 15. Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Climate Change and the Ethiopian Economy: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the economic impacts of climate change on Ethiopia’s agriculture using a countrywide computable general equilibrium model. The impacts on agriculture are based on results from a Ricardian model where current (and future) agricultural production is analyzed as a function of temperature and precipitation. We project that the effect of overall climate change will be relatively benign until approximately 2030 and then worsen considerably. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to 30 percent less average income, compared with the possible outcome in the absence of climate change. Autonomous adaptations that the farmers make and government policies in response will be crucial for Ethiopia’s future development.

  • 16.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Retail waste of horticultural products in Sweden2011Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, nr 5, s. 554-556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste of food is a topic of considerable policy interest. However, few studies have been done on food waste at the retail level. The aim of this study was to examine how large retail waste is for 16 different horticultural products, selected among typical fruit and vegetables. The levels of retail waste were examined in cooperation with one of the leading Swedish retail companies. The results showed that retail waste of horticultural products amounted to between 0.4 and 6.3% of store supplies for different horticultural products. The results did not show that packaging reduced waste of horticultural products.

  • 17.
    Humavindu, M. N.
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Economics and Sector Research, Namibian Competition CommissionWindhoek, Namibia .
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Continuous financial support will be needed2015Ingår i: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 18-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Read the Feature Paper: Community-based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability and the Commentaries on this Feature Paper: Wildlife conservation without financial viability? The potential for payments for dispersal areas' services in Namibia; Achieving ecological conservation impact is not enough: setting priorities based on multiple criteria Animal Conservation.

  • 18.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Namibian Competition Commission, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    Community based wildlife management failing to link conservation and financial viability2015Ingår i: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 4-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the considerable popularity of community-based wildlife management as a conservation tool, it is of interest to assess the long-run sustainability of this policy not only in conservation terms, but also in financial terms. In this paper, we use cost–benefit analysis to study the social and financial sustainability of a large set of community conservancies in Namibia, one of the few countries where community-based wildlife management policies have been in place long enough to assess their long-term viability. We find that, although the social sustainability is generally good, the financial sustainability is problematic – especially for the younger conservancies: there is no real link between conservation achievements and financial success. This calls into question the long-term sustainability of many of these conservancies: if they are unable to generate enough revenue to pay for their running expenditure, they will eventually fail – even if they are successful from a conservation point of view. Similar problems, linked to the way in which external funders have pushed for additional conservancies to be established regardless of financial considerations, are likely to be present in other countries that have implemented such programmes.

  • 19.
    Humavindu, Michael Nokokure
    et al.
    Namibian Competition Commission, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Key sectors of the Namibian economy2013Ingår i: Journal of Economic Structures, ISSN 2193-2409, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents key sector research for the Namibian economy, based on input-output and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) analyses. The analyses were derived from a Namibian SAM for the 2004 period, using 28 economic sectors. We find that mining and government services are currently key sectors. Some manufacturing and services sectors have important linkages in terms of output effects, whilst for employment and income effects, the agriculture sector is paramount. The results obtained are useful for policy purposes in terms of identifying those sectors where interventions are likely to have the greatest impact on the Namibian economy.

  • 20.
    Kassie, Menale
    et al.
    CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center).
    Ndiritu, Simon Wagura
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    What determines gender inequality in household food security in Kenya?: Application of exogenous switching treatment regression2014Ingår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 153-171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the link between the gender of a household head and food security in rural Kenya. The results show that the food security gap between male-headed households (MHHs) and female-headed households (FHHs) is explained by their differences in observable and unobservable characteristics. FHHs’ food security status would have been higher than it is now if the returns (coefficients) on their observed characteristics had been the same as the returns on the MHHs’ characteristics. Even if that had been thecase, however, results indicate that FHHs would still have been less food-secure than the MHHs due to unobservable characteristics.

  • 21.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Tangerås, Thomas
    Institutet för Näringslivsforskning.
    Carlén, Björn
    VTI.
    Energimarknaden, ägandet och klimatet2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    MacGregor, James
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nordin, Åsa
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Strategic alliances in Kenyan smallholder farming2014Ingår i: Business Excellence, ISSN 1846-3355, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 49-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing and complying with standards and certification often increases costs for supply chain actors. These increased costs are caused by upgrading production, logistics and marketing needed to achieve compliance, and can lead to the exclusion of actors from the supply chain. In particular, the exclusion of small-scale growers in developing countries as the result of the expansion and proliferation of private voluntary standards (PVS) used by large procurers has been extensively reported. Costs of PVS are per certification and the unit is usually the individual farm, regardless of its size. In much of the developing world smallholder production dominates domestic food production, and these small farms face proportionately higher costs per unit area for certification and compliance. Benefits of PVS are per production unit, giving benefits to larger farms. Developing world smallholder production tends to be on less than one hectare, giving relatively small production. Compared with the costs per farm, there is an inherent bias in many standards and certification towards larger farms. Standards in export horticulture can, potentially, incentivize a more active role for the private sector in investing in small-scale growers in ways that are mutually beneficial for growers and exporters. Such co-investment is a feature of trading relationships and business models that are inclusive of small-scale growers. In Kenyan horticulture, donors, exporters and smallholders have in some cases managed to leverage PVS requirements into profitable local agricultural developments. In this paper, we use resource-based strategic alliance theory to explain the patterns that have evolved. We propose greater use of cooperation theory to help make more efficient economic development interventions which are complementary with private-sector investments. We explore how standards might be used to accelerate development initiatives.

  • 23.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    University of Cape Town.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Market Based Incentives for Watershed Management2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, South Africa .
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    The economic impacts of tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa: Is poverty subsiding?2013Ingår i: Natural resources forum (Print), ISSN 0165-0203, E-ISSN 1477-8947, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 80-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism in southern Africa is based on the region’s wildlife and nature assets and is generally environmentally sustainable, but the extent to which it contributes to other aspects of sustainable development – overall income generation, or poverty eradication – is less well explored. In this paper, we use social accounting matrices to compare economic impacts of foreign tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. Overall impacts on GDP range from 6% (South Africa) to 9% (Namibia). However, South Africa’s economy is more diversified than its neighbours’ and more of the goods and services used by tourists and by the tourism industry are supplied domestically. Consequently, the impact per Rand spent is considerably larger for South Africa than for Botswana or Namibia. The poorer segments of the population appear to receive shares of tourism income that are smaller than their share of overall income in all three countries.

  • 25.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, South Africa .
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Whereto with institutions and governance challenges in southern African wildlife conservation?2015Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id 095013Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The economics of European eel management2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Niyonzima, Théophile
    et al.
    Department of Geography, National University of Rwanda, Butare, Rwanda.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Uwera, Claudine
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The value of access to water: livestock farming in Nyagatare district, Rwanda2013Ingår i: SpringerPlus, ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-6-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Rwanda, access to water is seen as a significant constraint to development in both urban and rural areas. The government and foreign donors give priority to improving access to water for agricultural use. In this paper we study whether and, if so, to what extent the revenue generated by livestock farming in the Nyagatare District is affected by the distance that cattle need to go in order to reach the nearest water point. Our findings suggest that this distance does not affect the revenue from livestock farming much, indicating that  improved access to water is not a major constraint to livestock farming at present. Therefore, other water needs can be given greater weight.

  • 28.
    Nyangena, Wilfred
    et al.
    University of Nairobi.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Saving Kenya's Wildlife Corridors: Economic Benefits and Costs2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Onjala, Joseph
    et al.
    University of Nairobi.
    Ndiritu, Simon Wagura
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Risk perception, choice of drinking water and water treatment: Evidence from Kenyan towns2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses household survey data from four Kenyan towns to examine the effect of households’ characteristics and risk perceptions on their decision to treat/filter water as well as their choice of main drinking water source. Because the two decisions may be jointly made by the household, a seemingly unrelated bivariate probit model is estimated. It turns out that treating non-piped water and using piped water as a main drinking water source are substitutes. The evidence supports the finding that perceived risks significantly correlate with a household’s decision to treat/filter unimproved non-pipe water before drinking it. The study also finds that higher connection fees reduce the likelihood of households connecting to the piped network. Because the current connection fee acts as a cost hurdle that deters households from getting a connection, the study recommends a system where households pay the connection fee in instalments, through a prepaid water scheme or through a subsidy scheme.

  • 30.
    Onjala, Joseph
    et al.
    Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya .
    Ndiritu, Simon Wagura
    Strathmore Business School, Ole Sangale Road,PO Box 59857, Madaraka, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Swede.
    Risk perception, choice of drinking water and water treatment: Evidence from Kenyan towns2014Ingår i: Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, ISSN 2043-9083, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 268-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used household survey data from four Kenyan towns to examine the effect of households’ characteristics and risk perceptions on their decision to treat/filter water as well as on their choice of main drinking water source. Because the two decisions may be jointly made by the household, a seemingly unrelated bivariate probit model was estimated. It turned out that treating non-piped water and using piped water as a main drinking water source were substitutes. The evidence supports the finding that perceived risks significantly correlate with a household’s decision to treat non-piped water before drinking it. The study also found that higher connection fees reduced the likelihood of households connecting to the piped network. Because the current connection fee acts as a cost hurdle which deters households from getting a connection, the study recommends a system where households pay the connection fee in instalments, through a prepaid water scheme or through a subsidy scheme.

  • 31. Paulrud, Anton
    et al.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Thangavelu, Tharshini
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Valuation of angling site characteristics and visitation frequency: The case of the Lower End Ammer River and the Lower End Hårkan River2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Sahlén, Linda
    et al.
    Swedish National Institute for Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Environmental fiscal reform in Namibia: A potential approach to reduce poverty?2012Ingår i: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 219-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the likely effects of an environmental fiscal reform in Namibia are examined using a Computable General Equilibrium model. We find that a triple dividend—improving the environment, increasing employment, and reducing poverty at the same time—remains elusive. Subsidizing unskilled labor would give the most favorable result in terms of real GDP and employment, but the worst in terms of environmental effects. Transfers targeted toward poorer households have the best distributional and environmental impacts, but do not lead to increases in GDP or employment. Thus there is scope to create additional benefits for society through the various environmental fiscal reform options studied, but there is no option that clearly outperforms the others in all respects.

  • 33.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Aktuella forskningsfrågor: Perspektiv från en samhällsvetare2012Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34.
    Stage, Jesper
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries2010Ingår i: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1185, s. 150-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis.

  • 35.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Leakage effects from REDD2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Living in a bubble: Benefits from more flexible water policies2013Ingår i: Economic Theory, Policy and Applications: Abstracts / [ed] Gregory T. Papanikos, 2013, s. 69-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Living in a bubble: potential gains from flexible water management policies2018Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 25, nr 19, s. 1368-1372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study Swedish implementation of the European Union’s Water Framework Directive, and compare the current implementation strategy with more flexible ‘bubble’ schemes, where measures can be traded among various locations within the same river system to reach the overall environmental target. Two different Swedish river systems, the Mörrum system with small-scale hydropower plants, and the Ångerman system with larger plants, are studied. We find that the environmental benefits that current policies are likely to accomplish could be achieved at well under half the cost in the Mörrum system, and at less than a tenth of the cost in the Ångerman system.

  • 38. Stage, Jesper
    Mixing oil and water: Studies of the Namibian economy2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers studying economic aspects of natural resource and environmental management in Namibia.

    Paper [I] analyses changes in Namibian energy use patterns between 1980 and 1998. The study finds that, unlike their counterparts in many other developing countries where energy use has been studied, Namibian energy users appear to have been quite flexible in changing to energy-saving technologies and to technologies using different energy sources altogether. One explanation for this difference may be that Namibia has had relatively high energy prices and has had high taxes on oil-based fuels, which may have made Namibian energy users more interested in potential energy savings.

    Paper [II] studies variables affecting property pricing in the township areas of Windhoek, Namibia’s capital city. Plots close to a garbage dump sell at substantial discounts, while plots close to a recreation area sell at premium prices. These results suggest that environmental quality may be more important for households in township areas than has previously been believed. Neglecting issues of environmental quality in town planning for township areas may thus be a serious omission.

    Paper [III] uses Namibian farm price data to study the impact of groundwater access on farm profitability. Potentially, groundwater can function both as an extra source of water in areas with low rainfall and as a buffer source of water in areas where rainfall is higher but variable. If groundwater mainly functions as a buffer source of water in high-rainfall areas, it could be replaced by various means of water storage fairly easily. Providing extra water by other means in low-rainfall areas, on the other hand, is likely to be prohibitively expensive. The study does not provide clear-cut results, suggesting that on precautionary principles one should assume that groundwater will be difficult to replace with other water sources.

    Paper [IV] studies optimal allocation between commercial and recreational fishing for one of Namibia’s fish species, the kob. The biological dynamics of the kob are modelled using an age-class model with age-specific mortalities, in order to capture the fact that the two fisheries target different age classes. The length of the planning horizon is crucial for the results: If a short planning horizon is used, the results indicate that a large share of the catches should be allocated to commercial fishing. With a longer planning horizon, however, the higher profitability of recreational angling leads to the conclusion that it would be preferable to limit commercial fishing in order to permit kob stocks to recover and improve angling success.

  • 39.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Naturresurs- och skogsekonomi2013Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 78-80Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Oceans governance in the twenty-first century: Managing the blue planet2012Ingår i: Marine Resource Economics, ISSN 0738-1360, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 195-196Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Samhällsvetenskaplig forskning om miljö: Några nationalekonomiska exempel2011Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 42.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    The value of the Swedish eel fishery2015Ingår i: Marine Resource Economics, ISSN 0738-1360, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 21-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional sectors such as agriculture and fishing often receive special treatment from policymakers because such sectors are perceived to be associated with traditional cultural public good values. However, these values are often difficult to measure and few attempts have been made to do so. The recent European Union eel management directive creates an unusually clear-cut trade-off between eel fishing and other agents affecting the European eel population. It is possible, therefore, to measure directly the perceived public good value of the eel fishery in terms of other economic costs that policymakers are willing to incur in order to maintain eel fishing. Using Swedish data, we find that Swedish policymakers value the public good aspect of the remaining Swedish eel fishery at at least SEK 34 million (approximately EUR 3.4 million) annually, which is more than the commercial eel fishery’s actual production value.

  • 43.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Vattenkraftens miljöfrågor2011Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Vattnets ekonomiska och miljömässiga värden2011Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 45.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    Christiernsson, A.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Box 260, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Söderholm, P.
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden .
    The economics of the Swedish individual transferable quota system: Experiences and policy implications2016Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 66, s. 15-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and other European Union countries are currently carrying out extensive work aimed at improving the marine and freshwater environment. The adaptive management approaches typically used for this require the development of new policy instruments and measures when needed, but also evaluations of instruments and measures already in use or under way. This paper reports on a study of the Swedish individual transferable quota system introduced in 2009 for the pelagic fishery. The new system was motivated mainly by economic arguments and, thus, the need to get incentives right. Despite this, the design of the Swedish system weakened the intended incentive effects in several ways, compared with the foreign systems that served as models. Moreover, the information needed for future evaluations was not collected, even though the need for future evaluations had been expressed explicitly and the data needs for this could be identified at the time that the system was introduced.

  • 46.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jørn
    Umeå universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    McGranahan, Gordon
    International Institute for Environment and Development.
    Is urbanization contributing to higher food prices?2010Ingår i: Environment and Urbanization, ISSN 0956-2478, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 199-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization has been mentioned as one possible cause of higher food prices, and in this paper we examine some of the suggested links between urbanization and food prices. We conclude that urbanization, conventionally defined as the increasing share of the population living in urban settlements, is being conflated with related but separate processes, such as economic growth, population growth and environmental degradation. We discuss factors that affect food prices and conclude that the one important way in which urbanization in poor countries may affect food prices is that it increases the number of households that depend on commercial food supplies, rather than on own production, as their main source, and hence are likely to hoard food if they fear future price increases. One policy option for managing this is larger food reserves. Attempts to curb urbanization, on the other hand, would be ill-advised.

  • 47.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Uwera, Claudine
    University of Rwanda, Rwanda; University of Gothenburg.
    Prospects for establishing environmental satellite accounts in a developing country: The case of Rwanda2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 200, s. 219-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the beginning of Rwanda's current work on natural capital accounts. Many developing countries began similar work on environmental satellite accounts in the 1990s and early 2000s, only to abandon them a few years later when the initial political interest waned. The question arises, therefore, as to whether renewed interest in these accounts has the potential to have a longer-lasting impact on national accounting practices. In Rwanda's case, the decision was to begin satellite accounting work by focusing on resources where key economic trade-offs between different uses had already begun to be identified by policymakers, and where the gathering of economic statistics had already been improved as a result. It seems likely that this approach could lead to more durable satellite accounts, and that a similar approach would be feasible in many other countries.

  • 48.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik. Luleå Univ Technol, Luleå.
    Uwera, Claudine
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg; Univ Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Social cohesion in Rwanda: Results from a public good experiment2018Ingår i: Development Policy Review, ISSN 0950-6764, E-ISSN 1467-7679, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 577-586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a public good experiment, a type of economic experiment commonly used to examine feelings of prosocialitythat is, behaviour which is positive, helpful and intended to promote social acceptance and friendshipand community cohesion, carried out in Rwanda. Contributions in different parts of the country are affected by the local intensity of the 1994 genocide, with more generous contributions being made in areas where violence was greater. This supports earlier research indicating that conflict experience leads to greater prosociality. However, we also find that people who have not, themselves, been targets of violence give lower contributions than people who have. The considerable group-related and regional differences in social behaviour may have implications for the country's policies to deal with social cohesion.

  • 49.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Uwera, Claudine
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi, Göteborgs universitet.
    Water management and pricing in the urban areas of Rwanda: the case of Kigali city2012Ingår i: Water Utility Management International, ISSN 1747-7751, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 13-17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the current water pricing system practised in Kigali, Rwanda, and evaluate the potential for efficiency gains by moving to other alternatives. Notably, our numerical examples indicate that a change in the system for connection fees could make it easier for households to gain access to the piped water network, which should be beneficial both for household welfare and for health. Moreover, all households currently pay less than the cost recovery price for their water, suggesting that a change in the tariff block structure could lead to more efficient water use and improved funding for maintenance of the water network.

  • 50.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Zimmerman, Jenny
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Crayfish management in the Ljungan river: Managing with shocks2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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