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  • 1.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    "Det viktigaste är hur man har det runtomkring sig och det bemötande man får" - En intervjustudie ur ett genusperspektiv om livsvillkorens betydelse för gymnasieungdomars psykiska hälsa : D-uppsats Malmö2005Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett genusmönster i ungdomars psykiska hälsa där unga tjejers situation är sämre än unga killars. Bakgrunden till denna studie är att det saknas kunskap om hur detta mönster är relaterat till ungdomars livsvillkor. Uppsatsens syfte är att, ur ett genusperspektiv, synliggöra och öka kunskapen om livsvillkorens betydelse för gymnasieungdomars psykiska hälsa. Genus utgör uppsatsens centrala analytiska begrepp. Studien bygger på fokusgruppsintervjuer med gymnasieungdomar om vilka faktorer som de anser vara betydelsefulla för psykisk hälsa. Materialet är analyserat enligt metoden för innehållsanalys. Resultatet visar att för ungdomarna betydelsefulla livsvillkor är: Krav i form av prestationer, utseende, ansvar, relationer och bemötande samt utsatthet för sexuella trakasserier och våld. Det finns könsskillnader i erfarenheterna av dessa livsvillkor. Den genusteoretiska analysen synliggör hur såväl materiella/reella levnadsförhållanden som diskursiva aspekter av genusordningen bidrar till genusmönstren i psykisk hälsa. Uppsatsens huvudsakliga slutsatser är: a) ungdomarna anser att livsvillkor som krav, relationer, sexuella trakasserier och våld har betydelse för psykisk hälsa; b) innebörden och erfarenheterna av dessa är genusrelaterade; samt c) framtida folkhälsovetenskapliga forskning inom fältet bör uppmärksamma de livsvillkor ungdomarna har betonat, anlägga ett genusperspektiv i studier av dem samt utveckla sina metoder. Detta i syfte att skapa kunskap utifrån vilken hälsofrämjande och förebyggande arbete kan utformas.

  • 2.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Life circumstances and adolescent mental health: Perceptions, associations and a gender analysis2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a well-documented gender pattern of adolescent mental health, public health research investigating possible influencing factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This study aimed to explore what factors and circumstances are related to adolescent mental health and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to improve the understanding of the relationships between life circumstances and the gendered patterning of mental health among young people.

     

    The study population was 16-19-year-old Swedish students and data was collected by means of focus groups (N=29) and self-administered questionnaires (N=1,663, 78.3% response rate) in school settings. Mental health problems were defined in a broad sense including the adolescents’ own understandings, perceived stress, psychological distress and deliberate self-harm.

     

    The mental health problems of perceived stress, psychological distress and deliberate self-harm were twice as common among girls as boys. The findings suggest that adolescent mental health is associated with the life circumstances of social relationships, demands and responsibility taking and experiences of violence and harassment.  Supportive relationships with friends, family and teachers were found to be of importance to positive mental health, whereas poor social relationships, loneliness and lack of influence were associated with mental health problems.  Perceived demands and responsibility taking regarding school work, relationships, future plans, appearance and financial issues were strongly related to mental health problems, particularly among girls regardless of social class. The results indicate that physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment are severe risk factors for mental health problems in young people. Boys and girls experienced different types of violence, and the victim-perpetrator relationships of physical violence differed. These diverging experiences appeared to influence the associations with mental health problems in boys and girls.

     

    A gender analysis provides the tools to gain knowledge about the ways that boys’ and girls’ lives are shaped by gender relations and constructions at different levels in society and how these life circumstances represent risk- or protective factors for mental health. For example, unequal power structures and the ways girls are expected to ‘do’ femininity likely influence their life circumstances in ways that place them at greater risk of mental health problems. Hegemonic constructions of masculinity and advantaged positions likely contribute to life circumstances that are positive for mental health but are also implying risk factors for poor mental health among boys, e.g., violence. It is also important to recognise how the intertwined cultural and structural aspects of gender and social class influence the lives and mental health of boys and girls. In conclusion, gendered and class-related mechanisms at the different levels in society influence the distribution of risk factors unevenly among boys and girls, which could be a possible explanation for the gender differences in reports of perceived stress, psychological distress and deliberate self-harm.

     

    The likelihood of gender and socioeconomic differences in mental health problems should be taken into account in prevention and health promotion strategies at all levels in society. A greater awareness about gender relations and the gendered social circumstances under which young people live is required. The school environment is an important arena with respect to prevention and health promotion. There is also a need for a joint action against violence and harassment at all levels in society. Implications do not only concern young people; social policy and legislation should focus on reducing gender and class inequalities in general.

  • 3.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Livsvillkorens betydelse för gymnasieungdomars psykiska hälsa ur ett genusperspektiv (abstract)2007In: Genusmaraton 2007: Mittsveriges genusforskare på frammarsch, Östersund: Mittuniverstitetet , 2007, p. 33-34Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lyssna på oss! Rapport från en intervjustudie med gymnasieungdomar i Västernorrlands län hösten 20052006Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Är du ledsen nu igen, lilla vän? Genusperspektiv och konstruktion av flickor i offentliga utredningar och rapporter om ungas psykiska hälsa: C-uppsats Lund2004Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Unga kvinnor och flickors psykiska hälsa är sämre än unga mäns och pojkars. Detta enligt såväl självrapporterade som medicinska uppgifter. Den psykiska ohälsan hos flickor ökar dessutom i både relativa och absoluta tal. Mitt syfte med uppsatsen är att uppmärksamma sociala och strukturella faktorers betydelse för unga flickors psykiska hälsa. Detta genom att undersöka om och/eller hur man i svenska utredningar och rapporter som behandlar ungdomars psykiska hälsa, problematiserar flickors situation ur genusperspektiv. Syftet är vidare att studera vilka tolknings- och förklaringsmodeller som dominerar inom fältet samt hur unga kvinnor och flickor framställs och konstrueras. Inspirerad av feministisk kritik av det medicinska paradigmet gör jag en diskursanalys av elva offentliga utredningar och rapporter med utgångspunkt i de genusteoretiska verktygen strukturellt symboliskt och individuellt genus samt biologisk/genetisk, sociokulturell och psykologisk förklaringsmodell. Genusteori inom fältet berör hur den manligt dominerade västerländska medicinen legitimerat och reproducerat en ojämlik genusordning genom att �bevisa� att kvinnor är styrda av sina kroppsliga funktioner och svaga psyke och därmed underlägsna män. Den diskursanalytiska metoden och de struktur- och maktfokuserade genusteorierna möjliggör en analys av hur unga kvinnor och flickor konstrueras. Analysen visar att texterna domineras av ett deskriptivt och förhållningssätt som generellt sett inte problematiserar flickors psykiska ohälsa ur genusperspektiv. De individfokuserade biologiska/genetiska och psykologiska förklaringsmodellerna dominerar. Konstruktionen av flickorna sker främst genom en normalisering av deras sämre psykiska hälsa. Slutsatser kan sammanfattas som: Frånvaro av genusstrukturell analys och stort individfokus, och negligering och normalisering av unga tjejers psykiska ohälsa/problematik.

  • 6.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gender and adolescent mental health - a focus group study with 16-19 year old students2007In: 7th Conference on Advances in Health Care Science Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 7-8 Nov 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Understanding adolescent mental health: the influence of social processes, doing gender and gendered power relations2009In: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 962-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a well-documented gender pattern in adolescent mental health, research investigating possible explanatory factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This paper reports a grounded theory study based on 29 focus groups. The aim was to explore 16- to 19-year-old students' perceptions of what is significant for mental health, and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to advance understanding of the gender pattern in adolescent mental health. Significant factors were identified in three social processes categories, including both positive and negative aspects: (1) social interactions, (2) performance and (3) responsibility. Girls more often experienced negative aspects of these processes, placing them at greater risk for mental health problems. Boys' more positive mental health appeared to be associated with their low degree of responsibility-taking and beneficial positions relative to girls. Negotiating cultural norms of femininity and masculinity seemed to be more strenuous for girls, which could place them at a disadvantage with regard to mental health. Social factors and processes (particularly responsibility), gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities and femininities should be acknowledged as important for adolescent mental health.

     

     

  • 8.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Deliberate self-harm and associated factors in 17-year-old Swedish students2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) in young people is an important public health issue. To prevent DSH, more knowledge is needed about its prevalence and associated contextual factors in community samples of adolescents. Aims: To determine the prevalence of deliberate self-harm in 17-year-old Swedish students and to explore the association of demographic variables, psychological distress, experiences of violence, and school-related factors with DSH. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional study in which 17-year-old students completed questionnaires during school hours (n=1,663; 78.3%). The variables used in this analysis are as follows: deliberate self-harm, demographic variables, psychological distress, experiences of violence, and school-related factors. Data were analysed using chi-squared statistics and logistic regression. Results: The lifetime prevalence of DSH was 17%, and it was more common among girls (23.3%) than boys (10.5%). There were considerable socioeconomic differences in reports of DSH. Psychological distress was strongly associated with DSH in both boys and girls, as were experiences of bullying, sexual harassment, physical violence and sexual assault. Social support, safety and academic factors in school were related to reports of DSH in both girls and boys. There were some gender differences with respect to which factors were associated with DSH. Conclusions: Deliberate self-harm is common and more frequently reported by girls than boys. Psychological distress, experiences of different types of violence, and school-related factors (academic, social and safety-related), should be considered risk factors for DSH in young people. Findings can be applied to health-promotion policy and interventions in various contexts, for example schools.

  • 9.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress2011In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 419-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Results: Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Conclusions: Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  • 10.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Seventeen and Stressed – Do Gender and Class Matter?2012In: Health Sociology Review, ISSN 1446-1242, E-ISSN 1839-3551, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 82-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increasing concerns about stress levels in adolescents, knowledge is scarce about what boys and girls from different social backgrounds find stressful. This cross-sectional study explored gender and class patterning of perceived stress and reported stressors in a sample of 1,663 17-year-old Swedish students. The students, especially girls, were highly stressed. No class difference (indicated by educational programme) was found. Performance-related stressors (e.g. school work) and stress due to pressure on looks was mainly patterned by gender (girls), whilst relational stressors were patterned by class (vocational programme students). There was a complex gender and class patterning of stress due to school work and lack of money. The interplay of gender and class inequalities should be acknowledged in identifying determinants of stress in young people. Challenging normative ideals and implementing policies aiming at reducing gender and class inequalities are central components for stress-reducing interventions in, for example, schools.

  • 11.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Susanne
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health in young people2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 393-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the factors associated with exposure to in-real-life (IRL) bullying, cyberbullying, and both IRL and cyberbullying and to explore the relationship between these types of bullying and mental health among 13-16-year-old Swedish boys and girls. Methods: Data was derived from a cross-sectional web-based study of 13-16-year-old students in northern Sweden (n=1214, response rate 81.9%). Results: The combination of IRL- and cyberbullying was the most common type of bullying. A non-supportive school environment and poor body image were related to exposure to bullying for both genders but the relationship was more distinct in girls. All types of bullying were associated with depressive symptoms in both boys and girls and all forms of bullying increased the likelihood of psychosomatic problems in girls. Conclusions: Cyberbullying can be seen as an extension of IRL bullying. A combination of IRL- and cyberbullying seems to be particularly negative for mental health. Interventions should focus on improved school environment and body image as well as anti-violence programmes. Gender aspects of bullying need to be acknowledged.

  • 12.
    Landstedt, Everlina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Enhancing adolescent mental health - understanding the significance of contextual factors and a gender perspective.2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Existing studies show a negative trend in adolescent mental health and a gender pattern where girls in general report more mental health problems. There is a knowledge gap regarding the significance of contextual factors and a lack of qualitative studies. The aim was to explore what conditions upper secondary school adolescents perceive as significant for mental health, analysed from a gender perspective. METHODS: The study was conducted according to grounded theory and consisted of 29 semi-structured, focus group interviews with 16-19 years old adolescents. Data was analysed by constant comparative method. RESULTS: Significant conditions for mental health were identified in three processes comprising what the participants perceived as positive and negative for mental health. These were processes of (i) social interactions, ranging from supportive relations to assault, (ii) performance, ranging from encouraging success to demands and heavy work load, (iii) responsibility, when processes of interaction and performance are intertwined and reinforced. The category of responsibility included processes ranging from limited responsibility taking to responsibility as a burden and lack of control. Mainly girls had experiences of negative aspects of these conditions. CONCLUSION: The adolescents emphasised the significance of contextual factors in general and specifically those concerning relations, treatment, expectations, demands and assault. A gender perspective can contribute to a deeper understanding of gender patterns in adolescent mental health. Different experiences among girls and boys in their everyday life may affect their mental health.Contextual factors, gendered power relations and cultural norms of masculinity and femininity should be acknowledged in mental health promotion and preventive work among adolescents.

  • 13.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå universitet.
    Almqvist, Ylva B
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A non-randomised pragmatic trial of a school-based group cognitive-behavioural programme for preventing depression in girls2017In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 76, no 1, article id 1396146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the DISA-programme in preventing depressive symptoms (DS) in adolescent girls, as implemented in a real-world school setting, accounting for baseline socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and to investigate whether the effects of these baseline variables on DS differed between intervention participants and non-participants. In this non-randomised pragmatic trial, an electronic questionnaire was disseminated in 2011 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) in schools in one municipality in northern Sweden. Pupils (total n=275; intervention participants identified in the questionnaire: n=53; non-partici-pants: n=222) were 14–15 years old at baseline. The groups were compared by means of SEM. DISA could not predict differences in DS at follow-up in this real-life setting. In the overall sample, sexual harassment victimisation (SH) at baseline was associated with DS at follow-up and the estimate for SH increased in the DISA-participants compared to the overall sample.

  • 14.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Depressive symptoms and the associations with individual, psychosocial, and structural determinants in Swedish adolescents2012In: Health, ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 881-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depressive symptoms in adolescents are an in-creasing public health issue in Sweden and in most Western countries. Aim: To explore how individual, psychosocial, and structural deter-minants are associated with depressive symp-toms in Swedish adolescents. Methods: A web- based questionnaire was answered by 1193 13- to 16-year-old boys (n = 566) and girls (n = 627). Stepwise logistic regressions were employed to analyse the association between depressive sym- ptoms and various determinants at the individ-ual level (self-efficacy), the psychosocial level (parental, peer, and teacher support, school de-mands, sexual harassment, and bullying) and the structural level (family affluence, having less money than friends, and parental foreign back-ground). Results: Determinants at the individual, psychosocial, and structural levels were inde-pendently associated with high levels of depres-sive symptoms in both boys and girls. The full model explained a high proportion of the vari-ance in depressive symptoms in both genders; 34.1% in boys and 36.8% in girls. The psycho-social level contributed the most to explaining the variance in depressive symptoms in boys. In girls, when harassment variables were separated from psychosocial variables, the harassment var- iables contributed as much to the full model as the rest of the psychosocial variables combined. Conclusions: Addressing psychosocial determi-nants provides the greatest benefits for prevent-ing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Ac-knowledging the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms for girls and having less money than their friends for boys and girls are particularly important.

  • 15.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention?: Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden2015In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 74, p. 29805-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce.

    Objective. To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention.

    Design. Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15.

    Results. Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma.

    Conclusions. The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed.

  • 16.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Young, Robert
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Causal pathways of sexual harassment and depressive symptoms in adolescence2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Young, Robert
    MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample2016In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 858-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages 14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences in these pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following 2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

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