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  • 1.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Authentic Journalism?: A Critical Discussion about Existential  Authenticity in Journalism Ethics2012In: Journal of Mass Media Ethics, ISSN 0890-0523, E-ISSN 1532-7728, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authenticity as an ideal is construed in general as an expression of existentialist unhappiness with the perceived dehumanization of man in modern society. Existential journalism can be seen as rejection of the demands of conformism and compromise of personal convictions that many journalists face. Ethically, existential journalism calls on journalists to live authentic lives, as private individuals as well as in their profession. This means to resist external pressures and to choose to follow a path that can be defended by the individual journalist’s inner conscience. Existential journalism, in general, has been more debated in the field of mass media ethics than authenticity. Authenticity is, however, a contested concept, and this essay applies a critical discussion about authenticity as an ethical guide to the field of journalism. Weaknesses in the idea of existential authenticity problematize the existential construal of authenticity as a route to heightened ethical awareness for contemporary journalists.

  • 2.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Deltagarjournalistik i det digitala kaffehuset: En analys av Newsmill som kontext för deltagarjournalistik och debatt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier har på bara några år blivit ett centralt inslag medielandskapet1.  Med- 

    ieforskningen har blivit något överrumplad av den snabba hastighet med vilken nya 

    sociala medier dyker upp och blir etablerade – därför släpar forskningen efter med 

    arbetet att utarbeta metoder, begrepp och modeller för att förstå nya mediefenomen 

    och dess konsekvenser. Ett forskningsområde som dock varit tämligen omfattande 

    ända sedan introduktionen av WWW, är hur internet påverkar demokratin, och i 

    synnerhet hur nya interaktiva kommunikationsmöjligheter kan skapa nya förutsätt- 

    ningar för att aktivt involvera medborgare i den demokratiska processen genom att 

    göra dem delaktiga i debatten på nya sätt. De sociala medierna och det som allmänt 

    kallas ”web 2.0”, ”collaborative culture” och ”participatory culture” har tilldragit sig 

    mycket uppmärksamhet och gett upphov till många förhoppningar om en demo- 

    kratisering av ett offentligt samtal som i massmediernas tidsålder aldrig lyckades 

    göra publiken delaktig. (Van Dijck & Nieborg, 2009; Bruns, 2008; Jenkins, 2006) 

    Den forskning som gjorts på området har dock hittills präglats av ett trevande efter 

    användbara metoder för att undersöka om det finns något fog för sådana förhopp- 

    ningar. (Witschge, 2008) 

    Newsmill är ett forum på internet som specialiserar sig på debatt och nyhets- 

    artiklar skrivna av läsarna själva. Sajten sjösattes 2008 och har idag ett stort antal 

    användare och har publicerat ett antal artiklar som även fått ett stort genomslag i 

    de traditionella massmedierna.2  Som medborgarjournalistik (citizen journalism) i 

    ett socialt medium är Newsmill intressant att studera, eftersom det är ett konkret 

    exempel på ett socialt medium som skapar en offentlig mötesplats där såväl van- 

    liga medborgare som etablerade debattörer och politiker publicerar egna texter och 

    kommenterar andras på ett sätt som i flera avseenden verkar kunna främja dialog 

    och offentligt användande av förnuftet mellan medborgare om gemensamma ange- 

    lägenheter och därmed vara ett typexempel på hur web 2.0 skapar nya möjligheter 

    för denna typ av kommunikation. 

  • 3.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Det sovjetiska alternativet i Ivar Harries Moskva/Köpenhamn2005In: Frigörare: Moderna svenska samhällsdrömmar, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Behandlar ivar Harries resa till Moskva 1937.

  • 4.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Digital Public Discourses: An analysis of Newsmill.se as a forum for civic participation.2009In: Mediated Citizenship: Political Information and Participation in Europe, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Newsmill.se, launched as a commercial enterprise in 2008, is a Swedish example of an online public space, intended for civic debates about selected topics for the day. The idea behind the site, according to their presentation, is to be the ”first social media” to focus on ”news and debate”. The motto reads: ”Our readers know more than we do”, and the aim is to introduce a new, transparent, democratic and interactive way of working with news by ”opening up the editorial board and inviting the readers to participate in an immediate way”. Newsmill.se is an interesting example of an experiment, merging the logic of a commercial media outlet, financed by advertising, with the logic of the ”virtual Agora”, in the web 2.0 context. Newsmill.se is not politically, ideologically or religiously labelled, and the setting therefore invites discussions between people who do not already have the same opinions.

    In this paper, I use theories about the public sphere and current research about public deliberation on the internet as a basis for a critical discussion about Newsmill.se as an example of a social media in the emerging digital public-sphere.

  • 5.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ivar Harrie:: En intellektuell biografi 1944-19602006Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 6.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Media, authenticity and religion2008In: The Second international conference on media and religion: Tehran: 9-14 november 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Media, authenticity and religion.: Søren Kierkegaard as media critic.2009In: International Communication Association annual conference: Keywords in communication, Chicago May 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper Søren Kierkegaard’s “Two ages” is analysed as an example of early modern media criticism. Existentialist thinkers like Nietzsche, Jaspers, Heidegger and Sartre have dealt with the authenticity of the self, and the ideal of staying true to the uniqueness of one’s own being in spite of societal or cultural obstacles. Sartre, for example, noted that his time and culture was too artificial to allow for authenticity of the self. Media has often been seen as a part of the increasingly artificial landscape of modern society. For Kierkegaard, however, the criticism of media had a clearly religious dimension. From a different angle than John Stuart Mill and Alexis de Tocqueville – who both considered the problem of the public sphere and the press in the 19th century as tyranny of the masses – Kierkegaard disliked the press because it offered a shortcut to forming own opinions by presenting ready-made thoughts and shallow entertainment instead of helping people in facing reality. The media offered escape from reality into fiction, from your own experiences into someone else’s and as a consequence, was a threat to religious life. He saw media as an intervening agency, blocking people’s way to true experiences, authenticity and, ultimately, God.

  • 8.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    New media - Old church?: Some reflections on the identity of the Roman Catholic church in the digital age2009In: Ex Corde Conference: Klosterneuburg, Austria June 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since Barack Obama’s succesful election campaign, the hype about ”social media” has been persisent. Many scholars are now talking about a communicative revolution, a paradigm shift in the way that networks, information and opinion forming is organized and conducted. The shift from web 1.0 to web 2.0 went smoothly, without reflection for most people – but the implications of this shift are not always clear and therefore needs consideration.  In this paper, the concepts and the rhetoric surrounding this development will be discussed in relation to the implications of this change for the Roman Catholic Church – an organisation that in contrast to Obama, has been severely criticized for its manner of communication. The points will be illustrated by examples from a case study of the interaction between the church and the media in the Swedish web 2.0 debate-forum Newsmill.se.

  • 9.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    New Media, New Participants – New Ethics?: Is there a chance for ethics in a world of prosumers?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when not only journalists reach large audiences with news and commentary, new ethical questions arise.  In the paper, two opposing views are discussed critically: a) the traditional elitist view, that tends to be suspicious of UGC in participatory journalism on account of the lack of solid ethical guidelines and b) participatory ethics related to the ideal of “collective intelligence”. It is argued that both views are problematic, in their own ways.

    In search of an ethical framework that can appropriately be applied to participatory journalism, in a liquid modernity, and globalised media reach, the paper discusses Zygmunt Bauman’s and Roger Silverstone’s readings of Immanuel Levinas, and his notion of “I-for-the-Other”.

  • 10.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Participatory Culture and the Church: Contrasting Communicative Ideals?2010In: The 2nd International Media Readings in Moscow Mass Media and Communications – 2010: DIGITAL FRONTIERS: TRADITIONAL MEDIA PRACTICES IN THE AGE OF CONVERGENCE, Moscow, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the culture of participation that is supposedly emerging, one thing is often stressed: The “people formerly known as the audience”, no longer tolerate to be reduced into passive receivers - they want to interact, customize, interfere and be taken seriously, they want to have a say and be able to influence, and they have the means to pool their resources in collective efforts to promote the changes they see fit. The power of such collectives is widely thought to cause great political and cultural change.

    The rhetorics of participation and change – surrounding the web 2.0 – has implications that need to be taken into account when an organisation like the church launches new strategies of communication on the web. The fact that the church is (and is widely perceived of as) an organisation, based on a hierarchical structure and upholding a strong tradition of communicating in a disseminatory, one-way, top-down manner should not be obscured in this discussion. Over the last years, the Catholic Church has received much criticism for its alleged inability to communicate with the surrounding world in an up to date manner. This has led to several initiatives that aim at strengthening the Church’s presence on the Internet and creating channels into social media. For example, the Pope has a Facebook page and the Holy See has a Twitter account, the papal Youtube channel received worldwide attention.

    In this paper, I discuss the compatibility between the church’s tradition of disseminatory communication and the dialogical and interactive aspects of participatory media.

  • 11.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Participatory culture and the church: Contrasting communicative ideals?2011In: Religion and new media in the age of convergence: Reading materials on media and religion for students / [ed] Khroul, Victor, Moscow: Faculty of Journalism Lomonosov Moscow State University , 2011, p. 57-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the culture of participation that is supposedly emerging, one thing is often stressed: The “people formerly known as the audience”, no longer tolerate to be reduced into passive receivers - they want to interact, customize, interfere and be taken seriously, they want to have a say and be able to influence, and they have the means to pool their resources in collective efforts to promote the changes they see fit. The power of such collectives is widely thought to cause great political and cultural change.

                          The rhetorics of participation and change – surrounding the web 2.0 – has implications that need to be taken into account when an organisation like the church launches new strategies of communication on the web. The fact that the church is (and is widely perceived of as) an organisation, based on a hierarchical structure and upholding a strong tradition of communicating in a disseminatory, one-way, top-down manner should not be obscured in this discussion. Over the last years, the Catholic Church has received much criticism for its alleged inability to communicate with the surrounding world in an up to date manner. This has led to several initiatives that aim at strengthening the Church’s presence on the Internet and creating channels into social media. For example, the Pope has a Facebook page and a Youtube channel.

                In this paper, I discuss the compatibility between the church’s tradition of disseminatory communication and the dialogical and interactive aspects of participatory media.

  • 12.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Publicisten Ivar Harrie: ideologi, offentlighetsdebatt och idékritik i Expressen 1944-19602008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    ISAK, Tema Q, Linköpings universitet.
    Stockholms Skandinavistsymposium: Två rapporter: "Hur nordiskt är Baltikum?" och "Svensk kultur sedd utifrån"2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The Hour och det journalistiska äkthetsidealet2012In: Kulturaliseringens samhälle: Problemorienterad kulturvetenskaplig forskning vid Tema Q 2002–2012 / [ed] Beckman, Svante, Linköping: Liu-Tryck , 2012, p. 172-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Tore Ahlbäck (red.), Exercising power. The role of Religions in Concord and Conflict.: Anmälan av Kristoffer Holt2008In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 1, p. 105-108Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Yttrandefrihetens dilemma2006In: Uppsala nya tidning UNTArticle, book review (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Recension av Peters, John Durham (2005) Courting the Abyss: Free speech and the liberal tradition

  • 17.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet.
    Edited participation: A comparative study of editorial influence on three online news media in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although participatory journalism often involves the publishing of content created by users, editorial influence is an important aspect of the emerging participatory online mediascape. The choices that editors make shape the conditions under which user generated content is produced, the immediate context of publication and the perceived prominence of the published content. The question is how this influence manifests itself, and how this can be related to the discussion about participatory media’s potential for revitalizing democracy. In this paper, three online news media in Sweden are analysed comparatively: Sourze – one of the first Swedish sites that invited citizens as primary contributors; Newsmill – a social media focusing on news and debate; and DN – the online version of the largest Swedish morning paper Dagens Nyheter. The question is how participation is affected by editorial influence.

    The findings suggest that participatory arenas to some extent are constrained by the logic of their context of production. Participation is not the same for everyone, and people from different categories in society participate on different terms. Furthermore, editors influence the agenda by suggesting topics, and by rewarding articles that follow their suggestions. These findings do not challenge assumptions about participatory newspapers as more accessible channels for citizens to publish content, and therefore interesting as possible means of allowing a more democratically involved citizenry, but it challenges assumptions about freedom from constraints related to traditional mass media, such as agenda setting, gate-keeping and media logic.

     

  • 18.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Department of Media and Communication, Karlstad University.
    Edited participation comparing editorial influence on traditional and participatory online newspapers in Sweden2011In: Javnost - The Public, ISSN 1318-3222, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 19-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although participatory journalism involves publishing content created by users, editorial influence is an important aspect of participatory online media. Editors shape the conditions under which user generated content is produced, the context of publication and the perceived prominence of the content. It is still unclear how this influence manifests itself, and how it can be related to the discussion about participatory media’s potential for revitalising democracy. In this paper, three online news media in Sweden are analysed comparatively: Sourze – the first Swedish participatory newspaper; Newsmill – a social media focusing on news and debate; and DN – the online version of the largest Swedish morning paper Dagens Nyheter. The question is how participation is affected by editorial influence. The findings suggest that participatory arenas are constrained by the logic of their context of production. People from different categories in society participate on different terms. Furthermore, editors influence the agenda by suggesting topics, and by rewarding articles that follow their suggestions. These fi ndings do not challenge assumptions about participatory newspapers as more accessible channels for citizens and therefore interesting as possible means of allowing a more democratically involved citizenry, but it challenges assumptions about freedom from constraints related to traditional mass media, such as agenda setting, gate-keeping and media logic.

  • 19.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet.
    Participatory journalism and editorial influence2011In: Communication @ the Center: The 61st Annual Conference of the International Communication Association Boston, USA 26-30 May 2011, Boston, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Krogh, Torbjörn von
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The citizen as media critic in periods of media change2010In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 287-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media criticism often evolve – and grow in strength – during times of media change with new forms of journalism, new media formats, new media markets, new ways of addressing media markets and new media technologies. Different stakeholders may pursue their interests by formulating a media critique that protect their positions and promotes status quo. It is not difficult to find critics who in the name of the citizens formulate criticism against journalism and the media. It is more difficult to find and study representative examples of criticism expressed by the citizens themselves. The technological development on the Internet has paved the way for a number of new communicative tools that enable users to interact with each other and publish content in a way that changes the conditions for citizens to act as media critics radically. This is an aspect of the Internet’s democratic and participatory potential – and a key point in the rhetoric surrounding the concept “web 2.0”. In this paper we analyse and compare media critical debates during two periods of media change in Sweden: A) the debate caused by the launch of the tabloid Expressen in the 1950’s, and B) the critique against the new, commercially driven participatory news- and debate forum called Newsmill, launched in 2008. These historical and contemporary cases are used to enlighten a theoretical discussion about participatory online media’s potential for improving the conditions for citizens to act as media critics in a fruitful way. Both Expressen and Newsmill represent examples of journalistic innovations that affect surrounding media considerably. The result of the comparison point to a new dilemma related to the role of citizens as media critics in the digital age. The fact that the citizens themselves are now increasingly involved in the production of content, also puts them in a new role as defenders of the site that publish their content, against critics from traditional mass media.

  • 21.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Rosenqvist, Carl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wessel, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Photos on facebook: Photos on Facebook – 24 youths about social visual communication on Facebook2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper deals with the question why youths are publishing photos digitally and how they think about making private photographs public. It also looks into differences between men and women regarding their attitude towards publishing photos in this way.

    By focus group interviews, we have examined how 18-year-old high school students in Sweden reflect over photos and photo publishing on the online social network

    Facebook. Three focus groups consisting of women and three focus groups consisting of men were asked questions about four different themes: mediatization, integrity, self-presentation and ethics.

    The results show that the youths live mediated lives and that there is, to them, an intimate link between their digital selves and their real life-selves. With the use of photographs, they re-tell events from real life on Facebook. They also use photographs to construct their digital selves, and these images are seen as important for how they are perceived by others. The girls in the focus groups claim that they publish more photos of themselves than the boys, and are more conscious of how they appear on these photos. The youths do take in mind how an unknown public can take part of the information that is digitally gathered about them, and therefore defend their integrity on Facebook since they want to control the existence of the photos they are occurring on. Furthermore, the youths show an understanding of the ethical dilemmas involved, but do not see this as a problem since they claim to often know the publisher of these photos, and express that since they only upload photos of their friends, they would never publish unethical photos on Facebook themselves.

     

  • 22.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Age and the effects of news media attention and social media use on political interest and participation: Do social media function as leveller?2013In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how media use differs across age groups- and whether this matters for people's inclination to participate politically. More specifically, the study investigates the impact of social media use for political purposes and of attention to political news in traditional media, on political interest and offline political participation. The findings, based on a four-wave panel study conducted during the 2010 Swedish national election campaign, show (1) clear differences in media use between age groups and (2) that both political social media use and attention to political news in traditional media increase political engagement over time. Thus, this study suggests that frequent social media use among young citizens can function as a leveller in terms of motivating political participation.

  • 23.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Social Media as Leveller?: Effects of Traditional News Media Attention and Social Media Use on Political Participation Among Younger and Older Citizens2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how media use among young citizens differs from older generations, and whether this matters for their inclination to participate politically. More specifically, this study investigates the causal impact of social media use and attention to political news in traditional media, on political interest and offline political participation. The findings, based on a four-wave panel study conducted during the 2010 Swedish national election campaign, show a) clear differences in media use between age groups, and b) that both political social media use and attention to political news in traditional media increase political engagement. The results also indicate that both types of media use have a causal impact on political interest and offline participation. Thus, this study suggests that frequent social media use among young citizens can function as a leveller in terms of motivating political participation.

  • 24.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Political Motivation and Participation: Social Media as Leveler?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Approaching media criticism: Reflections on motives, material and methods2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will address the need for systematic analyses of various reactions against the media – in history and in the present. It will also deal with difficulties associated with this field of research; questions about suitable empirical material and methods.    Media development, media production, and media content are well known fields of research that mainly study media-institutions/organisations and their products. Media history has also (for obvious reasons) been characterized by this focus. To some ex- tent, victorious media institutions have influenced their own history.  We argue that it is necessary to take into account the fact that the media has always been embedded in the context of society as a whole – including  those who might object to the consequences of media in society. An abundance of criticism – from various directions (religious, political, philosophical etc.) – has at all times surrounded the media.  The criticism that media-organisations/content provoke offers a rich but often neglected source for thought on media and communication. This perspective opens up a wide horizon of possible studies and a number of theoretical and methodological ques- tions.

  • 26.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Approaching media criticism: Reflections on motives, material and methods2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will address the need for systematic analyses of various reactions against the

    media – in history and in the present. It will also deal with difficulties associated with this

    field of research; questions about suitable empirical material and methods.

    Media development, media production, and media content are well known

    fields of research that mainly study media-institutions/organisations and their products.

    Media history has also (for obvious reasons) been characterized by this focus. To some ex-

    tent, victorious media institutions have influenced their own history.

    We argue that it is necessary to take into account the fact that the media has

    always been embedded in the context of society as a whole – including  those who might

    object to the consequences of media in society. An abundance of criticism – from various

    directions (religious, political, philosophical etc.) – has at all times surrounded the media.

    The criticism that media-organisations/content provoke offers a rich but often

    neglected source for thought on media and communication. This perspective opens up a

    wide horizon of possible studies and a number of theoretical and methodological ques-

    tions.

  • 27.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Citizens as Media Critics in Changing Mediascapes2011In: Communication @ the Center: The 61st Annual Conference of the International Communication Association Boston, USA 26-30 May 2011., Boston, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Citizens as Media Critics in Changing Mediascapes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media criticism often evolve – and grow in strength – during times of media change with new forms of journalism, new media formats, new media markets, new ways of addressing media markets and new media technologies. Different stakeholders may pursue their interests by formulating a media critique that protect their positions and promotes status quo. It is not difficult to find critics who in the name of the citizens formulate criticism against journalism and the media. It is more difficult to find and study representative examples of criticism expressed by the citizens themselves.

    The technological develoment on the internet has paved the way for a number of new communicative tools that enable users to interact with each other and publish content in a way that changes the conditions for citizens to act as media critics radically. This is an aspect of the internet’s democratic and participatory potential – and a key point in the rhetoric surrounding the concept “web 2.0”. In this paper we analyse and compare media critical debates during two periods of media change in Sweden: A) the debate caused by the launch of the tabloid Expressen in the 1950’s, and B) the critique against the new, commercially driven participatory news- and debate forum called Newsmill, launched in 2008. These historical and contemporary cases are used to enlighten a theoretical discussion about participatory online media’s potential for improving the conditions for citizens to act as media critics in a fruitful way.

    Both Expressen and Newsmill represent examples of journalistic innovations that affect surrounding media considerably. Findings suggest that there is much to be gained from analyses of criticism of new media phenomena from different times – for finding critical aspects for continued discussion as well as perspective on the contemporary debate about new media.

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