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  • 1. Aabrekk, S.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.2 Possible market strategies for one stop shops of renovation of single family house.: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The document describes examples of missions, visions and strategies based on the potentialpiloting models defined in report 3.2. It is based on status of interest amongst thestakeholders, and the information, figures and challenges which were discussed in the reportD 2.1 Stakeholder interests. The different service models will request different missionsdepending on the stakeholder in charge of the model. Also visions and strategies could bedifferent depending on the composition of services (core business) offered within each pilot aswell as the additional services offered by sub suppliers and the network connected to the pilot.In the report D2.1 Stakeholders interests, the following 5 different piloting models aresuggested:Type 1 Joint venture of industry, retailers and contractorsType 2 Joint venture of construction/renovation, industry and architect/engineering companiesType 3 Complementary businesses expand their business into renovationType 4 Joint venture of type house producer, bank and home owner associationType 5 Energy/building consultant, real estate agent and financing institutions, e.g. bankIn this report we have described mission, vision and market strategies for 4 existing orproposed models; The Project Manager by Bolig Enøk, from Norway (type 1), ENRA concept(type 2) and K-Rauta & Rautia (type 3) from Finland, and ProjectLavenergi (type 2) fromDenmark. Cleantech by Dong Energy (type 3) from Denmark is also addressed, but notdescribed in detail. As there is no concrete examples representing two of the models fromD2.1 (types 4 and 5), we have made a theoretical exercise in developing mission, vision andmarket strategies for type 5 model, while type 4 is not handled.It may be concluded that there are commercial actors in different parts of the value chainwhich see an opportunity in developing different approaches of “one stop shops” for energyefficient holistic renovations. The concepts are still in a development phase and differ inrespect to how they are organised (as supply side). We may say that the pilots in the differentcountries also find inspiration from each other through this research project. Due to thecomplexity of a holistic renovation project, it is a prerequisite with good partnerships even inthe development phase. In all identified models there is however one main actor taking thelead and ownership to the business model.Independent of the business model the responsible company needs to make some strategicchoices. The starting point is the SWOT analysis which sums up all major challenges for therespective business model. How the strategies should be developed is described in this report.Although the main target group for this report is companies seeing an interest in developingbusiness models for renovation, we found some important issues identified in the SWOTanalysis which the authorities may influence including lack of interest in the market (need ofmore public attention through holistic campaigns), fragmented solutions (stop subsidisingsingle measures without a holistic plan), serious vs unserious companies (need of certificationsystems to build credibility), cost focus leads to limited renovation (need of subventionschemes for holistic retrofitting including tax deduction measures) and finally lack incompetence within companies (need of support to training and collaboration acrosscompanies).

  • 2. Ala-Juusela, M.
    et al.
    Paiho, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Successful sustainable renovation business for single-family houses2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Dornburg, Veronica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Eggers, Thies
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 5671-5691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios in which up to 400 PJ/year of additional biomass is prioritised to reduce CO2 emissions, reduce oil use, simultaneously reduce both CO2 emission and oil use, or to produce ethanol to replace gasoline. Technologies analysed for using the biomass include the production of electricity, heat, and transport fuels, and also as construction materials and other products. We find that optimising biomass use for a single objective (either CO2 emission reduction or oil use reduction) results in high fulfilment of that single objective (17.4 Tg C/year and 350 PJ oil/year, respectively), at a monetary cost of 130–330 million €/year, but with low fulfilment of the other objective. A careful selection of biomass uses for combined benefits results in reductions of 12.6 Tg C/year and 230 PJ oil/year (72% and 67%, respectively, of the reductions achieved in the scenarios with single objectives), with a monetary benefit of 45 million €/year. Prioritising for ethanol production gives the lowest CO2 emissions reduction, intermediate oil use reduction, and the highest monetary cost.

  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Madlener, R.
    Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Switzerland.
    Hoen, H.F.
    Agricultural University Norway.
    Jungmeier, G.
    Institute of Energy Research, Austria.
    Karjalainen, T.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, Finland.
    Klöhn, S.
    University of Technology Dresden, Germany.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Pohjola, J.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Solberg, B.
    Agricultural University Norway.
    Spelter, H.
    Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, United States.
    The role of wood material for greenhouse gas mitigation2006In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 5-6, p. 1097-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an interdisciplinary perspective the role of wood as a carbon sink, as a multipurpose material, and as a renewable energy source for the net reduction of greenhouse gases is discussed. We synthesize aspects from engineering, natural and social sciences to better understand the role of wood substitution in CO2 mitigation.We also formulate some recommendations on filling knowledge gaps that could be useful for policy making regarding how wood substitution could be further expanded. There are sufficient wood resources to substantially increase the use of wood for material and energy purposes. However, a number of factors hinder a wider use of wood for energy and material purposes. Furthermore, an analysis of wood substitution is a very complex issue, since the substitution influencing factors are to be found along the entire wood supply chain and involve several industries, socio-economic and cultural aspects, traditions, price dynamics, and structural and technical change. To improve the knowledge about wood as a substitute for other resources and the implications, it would be helpful to better integrate research from different disciplines on the subject and to cover different scales from a project to an economy-wide level.

  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Madlener, Reinhard
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Framework conditions and market potentials for the diffusion of innovative small-scale wood pellet systems2003In: Bioenergy 2003, Proceedings: International Nordic Bioenergy Conference, 2-5 September, Jyväskylä, Finland, 2003Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 85% of all dwellings in the European Union are currently being heated by single-house systems. At the same time significant technological progress, cost reductions and increasing consumer awareness related to modern small-scale bioenergy systems (SSBS) have occurred in recent years. Taken together, SSBS could make a substantial contribution to the heat and electricity requirements in the not-too-distant future and, by substituting for less benign energy technologies and fuels, also to a more sustainable energy supply system. Despite the remarkably increased levels of comfort and reduced environmental impact offered by today´s SSBS, however, their widespread diffusion is still at its very beginning. Framework and market conditions and the overall merits of SSBS systems need to be properly understood by policy-makers for a suc-cessful promotion policy addressing these technologies. Technology diffusion models can help to better understand the diffusion dynamics and long-term market potentials, and the effectiveness of drivers and barriers that influence the adoption decision process. This paper first summarises recent technological, socio-economic and institutional trends relevant for SSBS adoption, and reflects on research results from other studies in this field regarding perceived image, comfort levels, reliability, and ways of use of modern small-scale bioenergy technologies in Europe. Second, it contains a limited compara-tive analysis of the direct and indirect external costs and benefits of modern bioenergy-based versus other heating technolo-gies at the small scale. Third, the usefulness of various economic diffusion modelling approaches is discussed, also with a perspective on studying modern SSBS in the light of data availability restrictions

  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Småhusägares inställning till fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar: Report prepared for Swedish Association of Pellet Producers (PiR), Stockholm, Sweden (in Swedish)2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I Sveriges villabestånd finns det en stor potential att ersätta elvärme och oljepannor med fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar. Vi analyserade effekterna av det svenska investeringsbidraget för konvertering från oljepannor och direktverkande el med s.k. “adopter-centric” metodik och hur konverteringen till fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar varierade. Resultaten från enkätundersökningar, som genomfördes hos 1500 slumpvist utvalda husägare i Sverige i september 2004 och januari 2007, visade att över 80% inte avsåg att byta värmesystem. Det trots att ca 37% av de svenska villaägarna fortfarande har el- eller oljeuppvärmning. Det statliga investeringsbidraget var viktigt för konvertering från direktverkande el, men inte för konvertering från olja. Det beror på att de flesta husägarna redan har bytt ut sina oljepannor, medan få har konverterat bort direktverkande el. De som konverterar bort från oljepannor är eftersläntrare, medan de som konverterar bort från el är ”tidiga anammare”. Ekonomi och driftsäkerhet var de viktigaste faktorerna när husägare skall välja mellan olika värmesystem. Olika värmesystem upplevs ha olika fördelar och det påverkar spridningsmönstret för konverteringen till nya värmesystem. Installatörer och personliga kontakter angavs vara de viktigaste källorna för information om nya värmesystem.

  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Swedish Homewoners´ attitude towards water-based heating systems2008In: World Bioenergy 2008, 26-29 May, Jönköping, Sweden, Swedish Bioenergy Association , 2008Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 and 2007, we conducted questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected Swedish homeowners of detached houses to understand their attitude towards adopting an innovative heating system (IHS). The results showed that there was no substantial change in homeowners’ attitude towards IHSs. More than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents’ choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Installers were the most frequently consulted source of information on heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantages with respect to investment cost. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic.

  • 8.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Swedish house owners perception of pellet heating systems2006In: Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Pellets (Pellets 2006), 30 May-1 June, Jönköping, Sweden, Swedish Bioenergy Association , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the problems of global warming and security issues associated with the supply of fossil fuel use, bioenergy systems such as small-scale pellet heating systems (SSPHS) have been developed in Europe and elsewhere. In Sweden, SSPHS for the residential sector have been available on the market for about ten years, but the diffusion rate is rather slow. Research to analyse the diffusion of innovation is important, as this aspect determines the success of a technology. In this context, we recently carried out a questionnaire survey on Swedish house owners� perception of different heating systems. The sample consisted of about 1500 Swedish house owners selected through stratified random sampling. The results of the survey regarding pellet heating systems revealed that the annual cost of heating with the new heating system, functional reliability, investment cost, and in-door air quality are the four most important factors, in decreasing order of importance, in heating system choice. Environmental friendliness and low greenhouse gas emission are considered to be less important. Respondents consider SSPHS to be second to bedrock heat pumps in every aspect except for investment cost and therefore, such systems diffuse slowly in Sweden.

  • 9.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Madlener, R
    Energy systems in transition: perspectives for the diffusion of small-scale wood pellet heating technology2005In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 29, no 3/4, p. 327-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to environmental and supply security concerns associated with fossil fuels, promising small-scale wood heating systems with sizable market potentials have started to penetrate the residential heating market in Europe and elsewhere. Despite significant technological progress that led to cost reduction, increased levels of convenience, improved reliability and reduced environmental impact, the widespread diffusion of such systems will nonetheless take many years or even decades. Framework and market conditions, and especially drivers and barriers and the overall merits of such systems in comparison to alternative solutions, need to be properly understood by policy-makers and entrepreneurs for the successful promotion of these technologies. In this article we cover three important aspects related to small-scale wood pellet heating systems. First, we summarise recent technological, socio-economic and institutional trends. Second, results from a comparative analysis of the direct and indirect external costs and benefits of these technologies versus other heating technologies are reported. Third, the usefulness of various diffusion modelling approaches used in economics is discussed in the light of the technology scrutinised and existing data constraints.

  • 10.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Implementering av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintlig bebyggelse: Report prepared for the Swedish Energy Agency2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential to improve energy efficiency in existing Swedish residential buildings. However, the successful implementation of efficiency measures depends on economical and technical factors, as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. A better understanding of their attitudes and perceptions may influence the design of suitable policy measures that increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. In this context, we conducted mail-in surveys completed by owners of detached houses, chairmen of co-operative housing associations (bostadsrättsförening) and municipality energy advisers in Sweden. We also interviewed window sellers/installers in Jämtland.

    Results show that it was important for the majority of homeowners to reduce their household energy use, with most undertaking no-cost measures (e.g., switching off lights). However, 70–90% of the responding homeowners had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. The main reason for non-adoption was that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition and thermal performance of their existing building envelope components. Homeowners who thought their energy cost was high were more likely to adopt an investment measure compared to those who thought their energy cost was low. Investment costs and annual energy cost savings were the most important factors in adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures. Therefore, economic incentives may induce homeowners to adopt energy efficiency investment measures. However, a large percentage (64%) of homeowners was unaware of the existence of government support for reducing household energy use. Information campaigns announcing the availability of economic incentives and the cost advantages of energy efficiency measures may be helpful in the adoption decision.

    Homeowners‘ considered interpersonal sources, builders, installers and energy advisers as important sources of information for their adoption of energy efficiency measures. Though a large percentage of respondents considered energy advisers as an important source of information, only 14% of homeowners had contacted an energy adviser in the past. Our findings suggest that the energy advice service is important for homeowners, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners‘ awareness of and satisfaction with such services. The majority of municipal energy advisers were of the opinion that more training in technical aspects of energy issues and increased financial support could improve their performance.

    Installers and material suppliers are important actors in homeowners‘ adoption of energy efficiency measures. For example, approximately 53% of responding homeowners to a survey in Jämtland/Västernorrland stated that the window seller/installer from whom they had bought windows had recommended a particular type of window, and 97% had ii

    installed the windows that were recommended. The window sellers/installers in Jämtland prefer a window that is ―reasonably‖ energy efficient. They believe that windows with a U-value of 1.2 W/m

    2K are good and there is no reason to further improve the energy efficiency. The majority did not recommend windows with U-value <1.2 W/m2K. They were concerned about the condensation issues and high prices of such windows. This may influence the diffusion of very energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses.

    About 80-95% of chairmen in co-operative housing associations who responded to our survey had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. They were satisfied with the existing building envelope components, which may be one of the reasons for this lack of intention. As in the case of owners of detached houses, economic factors, like annual energy cost savings and investment costs, guide the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures in co-operative housing associations. However, about 66% of the responding chairmen did not consider financial constraint as a barrier to implementing investment intensive energy efficiency measures. For 54% of the respondents limited in-house competency to evaluate the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the main barrier.

    The majority of owners of detached houses (80%) and chairmen of co-operative housing associations (70%) perceived that economic policy instruments, such as investment subsidies and tax deductions, would encourage them to implement energy efficiency measures. Other policy instruments, especially information instruments, were perceived as less effective. Among various information policies, increasing the frequency of meter reading received the highest approval with 38% of homeowners, whereas approximately 41% of housing association chairmen thought that individual metering of heating and hot water use could be effective. Approximately 30% of homeowners and housing association chairmen thought that energy declaration was effective.

  • 11.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Implementing energy efficiency measures in existing Swedish building stock2008In: World Sustainable Energy Days 2008, 5-7 March 2008, Wels, Austria, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large potential for improving energy efficiency in the existing Swedish building stock. However, how successful the implementation of the efficiency measures will be, depends on economical and technical factors as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. In this paper we use Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory to analyze various factors affecting implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish detached houses and apartment buildings. Results of recent Swedish household surveys concerning adoption of heating systems showed that majority of the respondents were satisfied with their heating systems and did not intend to install a new one. Economic aspects and functional reliability were important factors in the choice of heating systems, while installers/vendors were the most important sources of information on heating system. We discuss upcoming empirical studies on implementation of other energy efficiency measures, e.g. energy efficient windows and additional insulation, including that of heating systems, in detached houses and apartment buildings.

  • 12. Haavik, T.
    et al.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.1 Report on stakeholder interests: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2010Report (Other academic)
  • 13. Haavik, T.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Vanhoutteghem, L.
    Svendsen, S.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Renovation of single family houses – an emerging market2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Haavik, Trond
    et al.
    Aabrekk, Synnöve
    Tommerup, Henrik
    Svendsen, Svend
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Paiho, Satu
    Ala-Juusela, Mia
    Report on stakeholders interests2010Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Adoption of innovations in building construction: Hindrances and actor influence as perceived by Swedish architects2011In: Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, p. 1133-1140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of general hindrances to the diffusion of innovations in the construction sector may help to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. This study uses a web-based questionnaire to collect information on Swedish architects’ perceptions of hindrances to the adoption of innovations in building construction. The responding architects characterise the Swedish construction industry as having a low level of innovativeness. The most influential hindrances to innovativeness were perceived as the focus on project costs instead of life-cycle costs, the economic risks that innovations imply, the focus on traditional engineering models, the construction industry’s tendency to use proven materials and methods, and contractors’ inability to adjust processes. In terms of the involved actors, construction clients were perceived to have the greatest influence on innovativeness, and stronger cooperation between the architect and construction client was recognised as important to facilitate innovativeness.

  • 16.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Perceptions, attitudes and interest of Swedish architects towards the use of wood frames in multi-storey buildings2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 1013-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of wood frames from sustainable forestry instead of non-wood frames in multi-storey buildings can reduce primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in construction. However, construction actors might have different perceptions towards wood frames than towards steel and concrete frames. Such perceptions may influence the actors' decision to adopt wood frames. In this study we use a web-based questionnaire to assess Swedish architects' perceptions, attitudes and interest towards steel, concrete and wood frames in multi-storey buildings (n = 412). Results indicate that the responding architects find concrete the most suitable frame material in buildings of 3-8 storeys, mainly because of the performance of concrete with regards to the engineering aspects (e.g. stability and fire safety) that were considered important in the choice of frame material. Although wood is considered the least suitable frame material, the overall attitude towards, and interest in, using wood is positive and related to the perceived environmental benefits of wood. This may derive from an increased discussion of and information about the environmental impact of buildings. Wood may be perceived as new and innovative while not considered as adequately proven as steel and concrete with regards to engineering aspects.

  • 17.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Swedish architects’ perceptions of hindrances to the adoption of wood frames and other innovations in multi-storey building construction2011In: World Sustainable Building Conference, 18 - 21 October, Helsinki, Finland., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Linnaeus University, 351 95 Växjö, Sweden .
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Linnaeus University, 351 95 Växjö, Sweden .
    Swedish private forest owners' perceptions and intentions with respect to adopting exotic tree species2013In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 132, no 3, p. 433-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish forest growth can be increased through intensive forestry practices, enabling an increased use of forest biomass for climate-change mitigation. However, the diffusion of such practices depends on the forest owners' adoption of them. We study Swedish private forest owners' perceptions and intentions with respect to increasing forest growth by adopting exotic tree species. The results of a mail-in questionnaire survey show that although a majority of forest owners desire increasing forest growth, most owners have only a basic understanding of exotic tree species and a smaller proportion is interested in adopting them. The intention to adopt exotics seems to depend on the perceived performance of the species with respect to the economic aspects of forest management rather than on environmental or recreational concerns. Whereas a knowledge gap among the private forest owners regarding how to increase forest growth is implied, forest owners with higher self-rated knowledge of forestry and exotics have stronger intentions to adopt such species.

  • 19.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The perceptions of Swedish architects and structural engineers towards use of wood frames in multi-storey buildings2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Diffusion of innovative domestic heating systems and multi-storey wood-framed buildings in Sweden2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of innovations that promote sustainable use of forest resources and energy efficiency is important for reducing greenhouse gas emission and dependency on oil. In this thesis the ‘systems of innovation’ (SI)

    The SI analyses showed that several sources of path dependency, resulting from the establishment and growth of the concrete-based construction system over the past 100 years, hinder the expansion of a wood-based multi-storey

    The adopter-centric approach included household questionnaire surveys: one covering the whole of Sweden in 2004 involving 1500 randomly selected homeowners with any type of heating system, and another in the city of Östersund in

    The expansion of district heating networks in the detached home sector, particularly those homes with resistance heaters, is often considered difficult. However, results showed that, in Östersund, the government investment

  • 21.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Adoption of innovative heating systems – needs and attitudes of Swedish homeowners2010In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaire surveys of Swedish homeowners of detached houses were carried out in 2004 and 2007 to understand their needs and attitudes towards attributes of innovative heating systems (IHSs) comprised of a bedrock heat pump, district heating, or a wood pellet boiler. In each occasion 1,500 homeowners were randomly selected. The response rate was 42% in 2004 and 48% in 2007. Results showed that the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their existing heating system and did not intend to install new systems. Economic factors and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents’ choices of heating system, while environmental factors were of lower importance. Among the IHSs, respondents’ had the most favourable attitude towards bedrock heat pumps followed by district heating and pellet boilers. But, the attitude was more favourable towards electric boilers than for pellet boilers. The least favourable attitude was towards oil boilers. Between 2004 and 2007, there was a positive change in respondents’ attitude towards IHSs and electric boilers, and a negative change in attitude towards resistance heaters and oil boilers.

  • 23.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    An adopter-centric approach to analyze the diffusion patterns of innovative residential heating systems in Sweden2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 577-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation and diffusion of renewable energy technologies play a major role in mitigation of climate change. In Sweden replacing electric and oil heating systems with innovative heating systems such as district heating, heat pumps and wood pellet boilers in detached homes is a significant mitigation option. Using an adopter-centric approach we analyzed the influence of investment subsidy on conversion of resistance heaters and oil boilers, and the variation in diffusion pattern of district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers in Swedish detached homes. Results from questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected homeowners in September 2004 and January 2007 showed that more than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Hence, about 37% of the homeowners still have electric and oil heating systems. The government investment subsidy was important for conversion from a resistance heater, but not from an oil boiler. This is because homeowners currently replacing their oil boilers are the laggards, while those replacing resistance heaters are the �early adopters�. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors for the homeowners when considering a new heating system. There is a variation in the perceived advantages associated with each of the innovative heating systems and therefore, the diffusion patterns of such systems vary. Installers and interpersonal sources were the most important communication channels for information on heating systems.

  • 24.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Cost-effectiveness of using wood frames in the production of multi-storey buildings in Sweden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production cost of buildings is a complex issue to analyze with high variation and several uncertainties. In this report we give an overview of the production cost effectiveness of a change from traditional concrete-framed building practice to wood-frame building practice. The frame material itself may not significantly influence the production cost, but there is potential for cost reduction in the activities associated with a change from concrete to wooden frames. From the review of existing studies it could not be concluded that the production cost of wood-framed buildings was lower than that of a concrete-framed building. However, with increased construction, the production cost of wood-framed buildings could be reduced due to the influence of “learning”.

  • 25.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Diffusion of energy-saving innovative heating systems in Sweden - a consumer survey approach2006In: Proceedings. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 2006, August 13-18, Pacific Grove, California (CD-ROM), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, considerable energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved through the conversion of 500,000 detached houses from electricity-based heating systems to district heating, heat pumps or pellet boiler systems. House owners are central in the diffusion of innovative heating systems as they make the adoption decision. Hence, we carried out an empirical analysis of the factors affecting house owners� decisions to adopt a heating system. In June 2005 we sent out questionnaires to about 700 Swedish house owners residing in the city of Östersund, whose houses were originally built with resistance heaters. The results reveal that about 84% of the respondents had no plans to install a new heating system. Economic aspects, functional reliability and indoor air quality were the important factors in respondents� choice of a heating system. A district heating system has advantages with respect to functional reliability, indoor air quality, maintenance cost, system automation and time required for collection of information. A bedrock heat pump system has advantages with respect to annual cost of heating, indoor air quality, security of fuel supply, environmental benignity and market value of the house. A pellet heating system has an advantage with respect to investment cost.

  • 26.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Diffusion of innovative heating systems in detached homes in Sweden2008In: International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, ISSN 1472-8923, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 343-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish homeowners' perception of Innovative Heating Systems (IHSs) was studied through a questionnaire survey. Most of the respondents were satisfied with their existing heating systems and were not planning to install a new one. They considered economic factors and functional reliability the most important factors in the choice of a heating system. Hence, economic policy instruments appear to be efficient in inducing homeowners to install an IHS. Installers were the most important source of information. The perceived advantages of pellet boilers were fewer than those of heat pumps and therefore, they were diffusing slower than heat pumps in Sweden.

  • 27.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Diffusion of innovative small-scale pellet heating systems in the residential sector in the context of oil and electricity-based systems2005In: Proceedings. 14th European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy Industry and Climate Protection, Paris (France), 17-21 Oct 2005, Florence: ETA , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey of 1500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. Results revealed that most of the respondents are satisfied with their existing heating systems and have not planned to install new heating systems. Economic aspects and functional reliability are important factors in the respondents� choice of heating system while environmental factors are of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers are the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, they should be trained to inform the consumer comprehensively about different heating systems. Respondents perceive the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pumps are considered better than pellet boilers and therefore diffuse faster.

  • 28.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Full service energy efficient renovation business for Swedish single-family houses2011In:  , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    General Conditions for Construction of Multi-storey Wooden Buildings in Western Europe2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The market penetration of multi-storey wooden buildings, and regulations, perceptions and promotion of such construction varies among Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, United Kingdom (UK) and Sweden. It seems that the wood construction system in Sweden is passing from a formative phase to growth phase, while in all other countries they are still in the formative phase. Conditions for market growth of multi-storey construction seem to be most favourable in Sweden followed by Ireland, UK, Germany and the Netherlands.

  • 30.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 144-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners’ adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Östersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey.

  • 31.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Innovative approaches to domestic heating: homeowners’ perceptions and factors influencing their choice of heating system2008In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' perceptions of innovative heating systems, and those factors that influence their decision to adopt a new heating system. The systems studied were: district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers. Results of two household surveys - one covering the whole of Sweden in autumn 2004 and the other in the city of Östersund in summer 2005 - revealed that approximately 80% of the survey respondents, particularly those with resistance heaters, did not intend to install an innovative heating system. Economic aspects, functional reliability and indoor air quality were found to be the most important factors influencing respondents' choice of a heating system. Survey respondents thought that a bedrock heat pump system has a number of advantages with respect to the annual cost of heating, security of fuel supply, environmental benignity, market value of the home and low greenhouse gas emission. A district heating system has advantages regarding functional reliability, system automation and time required to obtain information. A pellet boiler system has one main advantage: investment cost. Compared with homeowners having other types of heating systems, those with resistance heaters accorded more importance to investment cost due to the high cost of installing a water-based system for heat distribution within the home.

  • 32.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Multi-storey timber buildings – breaking industry path dependency2008In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish legal restriction on construction of multi-storey timber buildings was imposed in 1888 and repealed in 1994. The subsequent emergence of such a timber building system in Sweden is analysed in the context of the existing concrete-based construction system. The characteristics of the construction industry and its path dependency over the past century hamper the development of a timber building system. However, government policies and funding, the wood industry’s interest in an enhanced market for value-added wood products, and involvement of the wood research community has helped develop such a construction system. Investments in knowledge creation, incentives for the entry of new firms, and increased prefabrication may facilitate a transition from this formative phase to a growth phase in the diffusion of timber buildings.

     

  • 33.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Small-scale pellet heating systems from consumer perspective2006In: Proceedings. 2nd World Conference on Pellets, 30 May-1 June 2006, Jönköping, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey of 1500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. The results revealed that most of the respondents had no plans to install new heating systems as they were satisfied with their existing ones. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents� choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers were the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, it is important that they could inform the consumers comprehensively and accurately about different heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantage over district heating system with respect to investment cost and annual cost of heating. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic.

  • 34.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Some reflections on the diffusion of pellet heating systems in Sweden2004In: 3rd European Congress on the Economics and Management of Energy in Industry (ECEMEI 2004), 6-9 April, Estoril-Lisbon, Portugal, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of global warming and dependence on fossil fuels, modern bioenergy systems have appeared as important sustainable energy solutions with a large untapped potential in Sweden and the rest of the European Union. Small-scale pellet heating systems for space heating of small houses is one of these solutions. In Sweden, such systems have relative advantages over oil- or electricity boiler systems both in terms of greenhouse gas emission reduction and total lifetime cost of equipment and fuel. However, so far the market diffusion process of this technology has been rather slow. This paper, by employing concepts and insights from the literature of evolutionary economics and sociology, studies the factors involved in the diffusion of such systems.

  • 35.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 3.1 Report on possible financing schemes for one-stop-shop service for sustainable renovation of single family house: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are significant potentials to improve energy efficiency of single-family houses in theNordic countries. Technical solutions exist, but there are market and financial barriers toimplementation of such measures. The aim of the report is to identify financial barriers toimplement energy efficiency measures in Nordic single family houses and to discuss optionsto address those barriers.In the initial phase of a market formation, the targeted potential customers (the “innovators”who are few in numbers) usually have capacity to invest in energy-efficient measures.However, such measures, though cost effective in a life-cycle perspective, often incur highinvestment cost and majority of the consumers tend to stick to the least efficient products.Moreover, a lack of awareness about the possible energy efficiency measures, including theirbenefits, and the uncertainty regarding the level of energy savings due to a lack ofstandardised measurements and verifications protocol may not encourage, both the customersand financiers, to go for energy efficiency investments. Financiers perceive energy efficiencyprojects as risky investments maybe because of their small size, difficulty to control energyuse behaviour of the occupants and the difficulty to predict future energy prices.The options to finance energy efficiency renovations include homeowners’ own resources,mortgage refinancing, flex loan, personal loan, financing by service providers, preferentialloan, subsidies/grants, credit cards, and financing supported by guarantee on energy savings.Each option has its own advantages and disadvantages. It is less likely that the one-stop-shopservice providers in Nordic countries, at present, will give any guarantee on actual savings inenergy use or cost. But, such a concept is emerging in some European countries and could bean option in future.The best option to finance energy efficiency improvements in Nordic countries seems to bethat one-stop-shop service providers collaborate with commercial banks to offer mortgagerefinancing. Such a mechanism is convenient for the homeowners, and banks will have a lessrisky asset in their portfolio. In situations where homeowners cannot avail additionalmortgage financing, e.g. those who recently purchased a house and used the limit to suchloans, banks may consider an energy efficient renovation plan prepared by an entrepreneurand pre-evaluate the post-renovation value of the house. This pre-renovation valuation couldform the basis for the bank to confirm the homeowner and the service provider that certainamount of investment cost would be available from mortgage refinancing. To cover the costthat exceeds the amount available from mortgage financing (or base loan), nationalgovernments may consider to provide soft loans or subsidies.In countries where tax deduction on home renovation is available, amendments should bemade to such programs to incorporate specific requirements regarding energy efficiency ofimplemented measures. Also, higher tax deduction could be offered for energy efficiencyimprovement than for other renovation. Moreover, a simple tool to inform the homeownersabout the cost-efficiency of energy renovation investment would be that banks and utilitiescollaborate to send a joint invoice which contains the monthly cost of mortgage loan and theenergy cost.

  • 36.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 3.2 Report on business models for one-stop-shop service for sustainable renovation of single family house: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the report is to analyze and develop one-stop-shop business models to offer fullservicerenovation packages in the Nordic countries. The report will contribute to identifypotential models that can be tested in pilot studies and will be an important source of marketinformation for companies planning to develop a one-stop-shop concept.In Nordic countries significant primary energy efficiency potential exists in houses builtbefore 1980. These houses are more than 30 years old and need to be renovated. This providesan opportunity for implementation of energy efficiency measures, but the renovation market isdominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. There is a need for one-stop-shopbusiness models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages includingconsulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow-up (independent qualitycontrol and commissioning) and financing. There is a significant business potential for such amodel as the renovation market for single-family houses could be in the order of hundreds ofmillion Euros per year in each Nordic country. Homeowners will get an improved qualityrenovated house with little risk or responsibility which usually is the case with traditionalrenovations, the energy cost will be reduced, market value of the house is likely to increase,mortgage banks will have a safer asset and there are societal benefits in terms of reducedenergy use and greenhouse gas emission. However, there is uncertainty over who will beresponsible for guarantee of the renovation work if the service provider goes bankrupt.Insurance companies could be involved to address this issue.A comparative assessment of models proposed in the Nordic countries shows that differenttype of actors may play the key role in a one-stop-shop for energy efficient renovation ofsingle-family houses. In some models the service provider collaborates with financinginstitutions to provide renovation financing. There are differences on how customers arecontacted, while the similarities are more on how the service is provided. A main challenge ishow to secure independent advising.Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept,still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. One of the main reasons isthe uncertainties about the customer base. One way to attract more customers is to offersubsidies for energy efficiency measures. In Denmark, Sweden and Finland there are taxdeductions for labour cost for home renovation and other household work. An amendment tosuch programs to incorporate specific requirements regarding energy efficiency ofimplemented measures could be a way to increase homeowners’ interest in energy efficientrenovation. A guarantee on energy or energy cost saving may encourage energy efficientrenovation of houses as energy cost saving is one of the most important factors in thehomeowners’ decision to implement energy efficiency measures. At present it is less likelythat such guarantee will be given as the full service energy renovation concept is yet to betested and not enough experience exists regarding energy savings potential in the context ofvarying household energy behaviour. Highlighting the energy (e.g. cost reduction) and nonenergybenefits (improved thermal comfort or indoor air quality) of energy efficiencyimprovements may create customer interest in energy efficient renovations. Some of theexisting models include financing by the service providers in collaboration with financinginstitutions. To support the mortgage financing of energy efficiency renovations, governmentcould provide soft loans or subsidies to cover the investment cost beyond the mortgage (base)loan.

  • 37.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Vanhoutteghem, L.
    Svendsen, S.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 3.3 Summary Report on one-stop-shop service for sustainable renovation of single family house: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2012Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Multi-storey wood-frame buildings in Germany, Sweden and the UK2012In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 62-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyse the influence of regulations, perceptions, and promotions on the emergence of an innovation system for wood-framed multi-storey buildings in Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK). Design/methodology/approach - This descriptive paper made a qualitative analysis of information collected mainly from secondary sources such as reports, newspapers, journal publications, conference proceedings and general internet search. Findings - Results showed that the conditions for market growth of multi-storey construction seemed to be the most favourable in Sweden followed by the UK and Germany. The regulations are stringent in Germany, followed by the UK and Sweden. In all countries, the construction professionals seemed to have negative perceptions regarding engineering properties of wood. Similar negative perceptions exist among the general public in Germany and the UK, but not in Sweden. The wood construction promotional activities in Germany and the UK are directed to all types of houses, while in Sweden multi-storey buildings are targeted. Research limitations/implications - An important implication of this paper was that it highlighted the usefulness of cross-country surveys at the European level, in order to better understand observed differences in the adoption of innovative systems. However, there might be shortcomings in the comparability of the information across the countries analysed because it was difficult to make an objective assessment of the claims made in some of the information sources. Also, there was varying and limited information about the survey methodologies used in some of the reviewed studies. Practical implications - The study showed that market intervention is needed to promote radical or really new innovations such as wood construction. The variations in the promotional measures undertaken partly explained the variations in growth of wood construction system in the three countries. Originality/value - The paper applied a theoretical framework on technology transition to analyse emergence of wood construction system in Germany, Sweden and the UK. The framework can be applied to analyse the development of wood construction system in other countries also. Copyright © 2012 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Madlener, Reinhard
    Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bioenergy innovations: the case of wood pellet systems in Sweden2007In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 99-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of global warming and dependence on fossil fuels, modern bioenergy systems have evolved with a large global potential. Small-scale pellet heating systems for space heating of detached houses is one application of bioenergy technology. In Sweden, such systems have advantages over oil-fired and electric boiler systems in terms of the total lifecycle heating cost to consumers. However, the diffusion of this technology into the market has hitherto been rather slow. By combining an extended configuration cycle model with a dynamic multi-level perspective on system innovation, we have studied the factors involved in the diffusion of such systems in Sweden. The results indicate that investment cost may not be the major issue, but that other factors such as annual fuel cost of heating, lack of information, dissatisfaction of early adopters, and technology lock-in are among the most important factors.

  • 40.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Potential target group for the introduction of full service energy efficient renovation in Swedish single-family houses.2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Swedish homeowners’ perceptions of innovative heating systems – results of three surveys2009In: ECEEE 2009 Summer Study, 1-6 June 2009, La Colle sur Loup, Côte d'Azur, France, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacing oil and electric heating systems with innovative heating systems (IHSs) such as bedrock heat pumps, district heating system, and pellet boilers will significantly reduce greenhouse gas emission from Swedish detached houses. However, realizing this potential depends on homeowners’ adoption decision, which is influenced by their need, awareness and perception of the advantages associated with the IHSs. In this context, we conducted mail-in questionnaire surveys of 1,500 Swedish homeowners, selected through stratified random sampling method, in Fall 2004, Spring 2007, and Summer 2008. A response rate of 42%, 48% and 37% was obtained in the 2004, 2007 and 2008 surveys, respectively. One of the aims of the series of surveys was to find out if external factors such as provision of investment subsidies and mass media discussion of climate change issues had influenced homeowners awareness and perception of the advantages associated with the IHSs. Results showed that there was no appreciable change in homeowners’ perceptions between the years surveyed. They consistently gave higher priority to economic factors over environmental factors in their decision to install a new heating system. Heat pumps were best perceived with respect to the annual energy cost of heating, environmental benignity, increased market value of the house, and low greenhouse gas emissions. Respondents felt that pellet boilers had the lowest investment cost, while district heating system had the perceived advantage of functional reliability.

  • 42.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavssson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Historical development and homeowners’ perception of pellet boilers in Sweden2009In: 17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition – From Research to Industry and Markets, 29 June – 3 July, Hamburg, Germany, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden leads in use of wood pellets for space heating. The oil crises of the 1970s and the concern for climate change in the early 1990s contributed significantly to the market development. Installation of pellet boilers in detached houses has grown tremendously, but to further improve market demand an understanding of homeowners’ perception of such heating system vis-à-vis other heating systems is required. We conducted questionnaire surveys of 1500 randomly selected owners of detached houses in autumn 2004, spring 2007 and summer 2008. Respondents consistently gave high priority to economic aspects and functional reliability in their choice of a heating system, while environmental factors were given less importance. Therefore, internalizing the external costs in homeowners heating cost might be effective in influencing homeowners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Respondents thought that pellet boilers had the lowest investment cost, while district heating system was most functionally reliable. Heat pumps were considered best with respect to the annual cost of heating, environmental benignity, increased market value of the house, and low greenhouse gas emission.

  • 43.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Kant, S
    Tropical deforestation: A multinomial logistic model and some country-specific policy priorities2005In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three problems - one-way effect hypothesis, data, and estimation problems - in the existing econometric models of global deforestation are addressed, robustness of the results is tested, and country-specific policy prescriptions, for five countries, are suggested. A theoretical deforestation model is proposed by incorporating two-way effects of all explanatory variables, and hypothesizing that the net effect of a variable may vary across regions. Deforestation is used as qualitative variable to address the data problem. Multinomial logistic model is used to deal with estimation problems, and the results of multinomial logistic are found to be more informative and robust compared to the results of binary logistic and ordinary least square (OLS) methods. Growth in population, forest areas, agriculture, and road construction are the main causes of deforestation in high deforesting countries, but debt service growth, in addition to agriculture and road construction, are the main causes in medium deforesting countries.

  • 44.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Madlener, R.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Economics of diffusion of pellet heating systems - system boundaries, alternative model specifications, and policy issues2004In: 2nd World Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, 10-14 May, Rome, Italy, 2004Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce a microeconomic modelling framework for the analysis of the adoption and diffusion of wood pellet heating systems that explicitly takes into account the cost of competing systems, differences in service and maintenance costs, and system switching costs. We also introduce an aggregate technology diffusion model that allows for the inclusion of economic explanatory variables and a limited degree of heterogeneity among adopters. Furthermore, we touch upon the issue of system boundaries in the context of technology adoption decisions, how alternative environmental and energy policies may affect the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems, and what guidelines welfare economics theory proposes regarding the optimal speed of technological diffusion.

  • 45.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energy advice service as perceived by Swedish homeowners2011In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden municipality energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. The success of energy advice service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context, we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in the summer of 2008. We found that majority of owners of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had contacted an energy adviser. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy advice service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  • 46.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Perceptional and soicio-economic factors in adoption of low energy houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of low energy houses reduces greenhouse emission from residential sector. However, adoption of such houses depends on the perception of the potential buyers. In this paper we have analyzed Swedish homeowners’ perception of low energy houses. Data was collected in 2008 from a mail-in questionnaire survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses. Results showed that about 39% of respondents, especially young, educated or whose household income was high, would consider buying a low energy house. Majority of the respondents agreed that a low energy house in comparison to a conventional house has lower operating energy cost, but higher investment cost. Majority thought that low energy houses do not have lower resale value, lower aesthetic appearance, or greater operational difficulty.

  • 47.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Policy instruments to promote energy efficiency in the building sector: Indian and Swedish experiences2008In: 14th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, 21-23 September, New Delhi, India, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency measures in buildings are widely regarded as cost effective options to mitigate climate change. However, policy instruments are needed to improve the diffusion of such measures. The policy mix may be country-specific. Here, we compare and contrast the various policy instruments designed to enhance energy efficiency in the building sector in India and Sweden. The objective is to explore if the experiences of Sweden that have promoted energy efficiency in buildings for decades could be useful for India, where energy demand is forecasted to strongly increase. India and Sweden are very different, for example, in terms of development, size, priorities, population, and climatic conditions. In Sweden, policy initiatives to reduce energy use in buildings date back to the 1970s and the government is committed to significantly reduce energy use in buildings. In India, the interest in energy efficiency improvements in buildings is a recent phenomenon. The country introduced an energy conservation building code in 2007. This analysis shows that policy instruments are more prevalent in Sweden than in India where regulatory instruments are particularly lacking. Hence, Swedish buildings are more energy efficient than those in India. The Swedish experience could be useful for devising programs and implementing policy instruments to improve energy efficiency of Indian buildings.

  • 48.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Swedish energy advisers' perceptions regarding and suggestions for fulfilling homeowner expectations2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 4264-4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipality energy advice services were re-introduced in Sweden in 1998 as a way of advising end-users, mainly owners of detached houses, on energy issues. In this paper, we investigate Swedish energy advisers' perceptions of homeowners' awareness of the energy advice service and their perceived ability to fulfil homeowners' expectations. Our study is based on a mail-in questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 and distributed to municipality energy advisers in all municipalities in Sweden. About 66% of the energy advisers responded. The results show that 43% of the energy advisers thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service and that mass media advertisements and presentations at different organisations could improve homeowner awareness. Energy adviser attitudes, job satisfaction, and the perception that the advisers possessed up-to-date and good knowledge and sufficient financial resources to execute their duties had a significant influence on their perceived ability to fulfil homeowner expectations. Increased training in technical aspects of energy measures and increased financial support were the two measures most widely suggested as a means to improve energy advisers' performance.

  • 49.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The role of energy advisers on adoption of energy measures in detached houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, 11-12 March, in connection with the ‘Energitinget 2009’, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Adoption of energy efficiency measures in swedish detatched houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners’ need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures such as improved windows and attic and wall insulation. The results of a questionnaire surveying 3000 randomly selected homeowners during the summer of 2008 revealed that about 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of implementing such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing installations. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improving attic insulation has more advantages than other measures, but windows were more likely to be installed than attic insulation was to be improved. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure, while environmental aspects were given lower priority. Hence, economic incentives could be useful in promoting the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures. Interpersonal sources, construction companies/installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to install energy efficiency measures.

12 1 - 50 of 63
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