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  • 1.
    Danielsson, Erna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms universitet.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Strategic planning for power shortages2020In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 137, article id 111186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity is critical to almost all other critical infrastructure. Disturbance in the power supply would likely have devastating effects on all areas in society. Assurance of electricity to vital societal functions requires policies to manage power shortages. Such policies exist in only a handful of countries. This study focuses on one of those countries. In Sweden, the policy for power shortages, Styrel, includes all levels of society, all responsible institutions, and expert organisations. The policy is governed from the top down. We are primarily interested in how Styrel affects municipalities in their planning processes and supports decision making at the local level. The study is an interview study with key informants at the municipal level. The results show that the policy is supportive under certain conditions, depending on how the actors carried out previous processes. Lack of knowledge and support, and time pressure, characterise the process, although participants also have a sufficiently positive attitude to allow a more relaxed method of handling the process. The study provides insights on challenges that municipalities must manage in their work with policies for critical infrastructure protection.

  • 2.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Danielsson, Erna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms universitet.
    Strategic planning for power outages: “With reservation inaccuracies”2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crises are often characterized as low-probability/high-consequence events (Weick1988), as they typically strike suddenly, are unexpected prior to their occurrence andare difficult to prepare for (Brown and Eriksson 2008). Compared to emergencies, crisesrequire a great deal of effort to cope with (Kendra and Wachtendorf 2003) and thereforewe develop crisis plans.Power supply is vital for the society to function, even more today with our reliance ontechnical inventions in almost all parts of our life. Disturbance in the power supply willmost probably have devastating effects in all areas in society (Rinaldi et al., 2001). Eventhough the power grid is rigid and redundant, it is vulnerable to various impacts, such aswhether conditions, aging of components, demolition, and cyber-attacks. Even if it isunlikely that power outages will occur, there is a need to plan for consequences ofpower shortage.STYREL is the Swedish planning process to manage early consequences of power outages.It is part of the emergency planning to build up preparedness in advance (MSB, 2011). Itintends to locate key consumers for functions of national importance. The processincludes all levels in the society, municipalities, county administrative board, expertorganizations such as Svenska kraftnät and Energimyndigheten, and the Government. Itis top down governed; however, information about what establishments that needs tobe protected comes from the municipality. In this paper, we focus on how STYREL cansupport decision making at the local level in case of power shortage. Since STYREL is atop-down process, we are primarily interested in the planning process at the local level.We focus on the integration of “STYREL” in the municipal emergency planning. How isSTYREL involved in the emergency planning process? How does the STYREL process,defined at higher-level authorities, affect the municipalities in their planning process?and How well do the STYREL process cover the municipality’s needs of support in case ofpower shortage?

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