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  • 1.
    Calbet, Jose A. L.
    et al.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Res Inst Biomed & Hlth Sci, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Ponce-Gonzalez, Jesus G.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    de la Calle-Herrero, Jaime
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Perez-Suarez, Ismael
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Res Inst Biomed & Hlth Sci, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain..
    Martin-Rincon, Marcos
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Res Inst Biomed & Hlth Sci, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Santana, Alfredo
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Res Inst Biomed & Hlth Sci, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Morales-Alamo, David
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Dept Phys Educ, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Res Inst Biomed & Hlth Sci, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Exercise Preserves Lean Mass and Performance during Severe Energy Deficit: The Role of Exercise Volume and Dietary Protein Content2017In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, article id 483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD) can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (similar to 23 MJ deficit/day). Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE), followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE) and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD). During CRE, the participants ingested a VLCD and performed 45 min of one-arm cranking followed by 8 h walking each day. The VLCD consisted of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day of either whey protein (PRO, n = 8) or sucrose (SU, n = 7). FFM was reduced after CRE (P < 0.001), with the legs and the exercised arm losing proportionally less FFM than the control arm [57% (P < 0.05) and 29% (P = 0.05), respectively]. Performance during leg pedaling, as reflected by the peak oxygen uptake and power output (Wpeak), was reduced after CRE by 15 and 12%, respectively (P < 0.05), and recovered only partially after CD. The deterioration of cycling performance was more pronounced in the whey protein than sucrose group (P < 0.05). Wpeak during arm cranking was unchanged in the control arm, but improved in the contralateral arm by arm cranking. There was a linear relationship between the reduction in whole-body FFM between PRE and CRE and the changes in the cortisol/free testosterone ratio (C/FT), serum isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, valine, BCAA, and EAA (r = -0.54 to -0.71, respectively, P < 0.05). C/FT tended to be higher in the PRO than the SU group following CRE (P = 0.06). In conclusion, concomitant low-intensity exercise such as walking or arm cranking even during an extreme energy deficit results in remarkable preservation of lean mass. The intake of proteins alone may be associated with greater cortisol/free testosterone ratio and is not better than the ingestion of only carbohydrates for preserving FFM and muscle performance in interventions of short duration.

  • 2.
    Morales-Alamo, David
    et al.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Martinez-Canton, Miriam
    IUIBS, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Gelabert-Rebato, Miriam
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain; Nektium Pharma, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Martin-Rincon, Marcos
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro
    IUIBS, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain; Hosp Univ Gran Canaria Doctor Negrin, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Calbet, Jose A. L.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; IUIBS, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain; Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Sarcolipin expression in human skeletal muscle: Influence of energy balance and exercise2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 408-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sarcolipin (SLN) is a SERCA uncoupling protein associated with exercise performance and lower adiposity in mice. To determine SLN protein expression in human skeletal muscle and its relationship with adiposity, resting energy expenditure (REE), and performance, SLN was assessed by Western blot in 199 biopsies from two previous studies. In one study, 15 overweight volunteers underwent a pretest followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (45-minute one-arm cranking + 8-hour walking), and 3 days on a control diet. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the trained and non-exercised deltoid, and vastus lateralis (VL). In another study, 16 men performed seven sessions of 4-6 x 30-sec all-out sprints on the cycle ergometer with both limbs, and their VL and triceps brachii biopsied pre- and post-training. SLN expression was twofold and 44% higher in the VL than in the deltoids and triceps brachii, respectively. SLN was associated with neither adiposity nor REE, and was not altered by a severe energy deficit (5500 kcal/day). SLN and cortisol changes after the energy deficit were correlated (r = .38, P = .039). SLN was not altered by low-intensity exercise in the overweight subjects, whereas it was reduced after sprint training in the other group. The changes in SLN with sprint training were inversely associated with the changes in gross efficiency (r = -.59, P = .016). No association was observed between aerobic or anaerobic performance and SLN expression. In conclusion, sarcolipin appears to play no role in regulating the fat mass of men. Sprint training reduces sarcolipin expression, which may improve muscle efficiency.

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