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  • 1.
    Afrim, Philip
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kartläggning och identifiering av flaskhalsar inom arbetsprocesser för bagagehantering: Kartlägga och analysera förutsättningarna för en effektivare bagagehanteringsprocess för avgående bagage på Landvetter flygplats med hjälp av VSM, ABC-Analys och processkartläggningar.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flygplats logistik

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Computationally Efficient Light Field Image Compression using a Multiview HEVC Framework2019Other (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Ghafoor, Mubeen
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Tariq, Syed Ali
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Hassan, Ali
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Computationally Efficient Light Field Image Compression Using a Multiview HEVC Framework2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 143002-143014, article id 8853251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acquisition of the spatial and angular information of a scene using light eld (LF) technologies supplement a wide range of post-processing applications, such as scene reconstruction, refocusing, virtual view synthesis, and so forth. The additional angular information possessed by LF data increases the size of the overall data captured while offering the same spatial resolution. The main contributor to the size of captured data (i.e., angular information) contains a high correlation that is exploited by state-of-the-art video encoders by treating the LF as a pseudo video sequence (PVS). The interpretation of LF as a single PVS restricts the encoding scheme to only utilize a single-dimensional angular correlation present in the LF data. In this paper, we present an LF compression framework that efciently exploits the spatial and angular correlation using a multiview extension of high-efciency video coding (MV-HEVC). The input LF views are converted into multiple PVSs and are organized hierarchically. The rate-allocation scheme takes into account the assigned organization of frames and distributes quality/bits among them accordingly. Subsequently, the reference picture selection scheme prioritizes the reference frames based on the assigned quality. The proposed compression scheme is evaluated by following the common test conditions set by JPEG Pleno. The proposed scheme performs 0.75 dB better compared to state-of-the-art compression schemes and 2.5 dB better compared to the x265-based JPEG Pleno anchor scheme. Moreover, an optimized motionsearch scheme is proposed in the framework that reduces the computational complexity (in terms of the sum of absolute difference [SAD] computations) of motion estimation by up to 87% with a negligible loss in visual quality (approximately 0.05 dB).

  • 4.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Vagharshakyan, Suren
    Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gotchev, Atanas
    Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Bregovic, Robert
    Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Shearlet Transform-Based Light Field Compression under Low Bitrates2020In: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, ISSN 1057-7149, E-ISSN 1941-0042, Vol. 29, p. 4269-4280, article id 8974608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light field (LF) acquisition devices capture spatial and angular information of a scene. In contrast with traditional cameras, the additional angular information enables novel post-processing applications, such as 3D scene reconstruction, the ability to refocus at different depth planes, and synthetic aperture. In this paper, we present a novel compression scheme for LF data captured using multiple traditional cameras. The input LF views were divided into two groups: key views and decimated views. The key views were compressed using the multi-view extension of high-efficiency video coding (MV-HEVC) scheme, and decimated views were predicted using the shearlet-transform-based prediction (STBP) scheme. Additionally, the residual information of predicted views was also encoded and sent along with the coded stream of key views. The proposed scheme was evaluated over a benchmark multi-camera based LF datasets, demonstrating that incorporating the residual information into the compression scheme increased the overall peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) by 2 dB. The proposed compression scheme performed significantly better at low bit rates compared to anchor schemes, which have a better level of compression efficiency in high bit-rate scenarios. The sensitivity of the human vision system towards compression artifacts, specifically at low bit rates, favors the proposed compression scheme over anchor schemes. 

  • 5.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Fagerholm, Anna-Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Design.
    Fagerholm, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Design.
    Bättre avfallshantering i Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetets slutrapport från förstudien2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstudien syftar till att tillsammans med MittSverige Vatten & Avfall (MSVA) ta fram verktyg för att informera om vinsterna med källsortering och påverka för att nå en bättre, mer hållbar avfallshantering i Sundsvall. En hållbar avfallshantering bidrar till att ge förutsättningar för en hållbartillväxt och god livsmiljö i Sundsvall. I förstudien presenteras exempel och förslag på hur visualiseringar kan bidra till att förbättra avfallshanteringen i Sundsvalls kommun. Inom ramen för studien har också en Återbruksfestival genomförts i syfte att undersöka och uppmärksamma vad som slängs samt ge konkreta exempel på återvinning och återbruk. Vidare genomfördes ett seminarium baserat på underliggande arbete kring hur papper och kartong kan användas som material för att ersätta hushållsförpackningar i plast. Förstudien utgör också en del i arbetet mot visionen att initiera forskning i samverkan med de aktörer i regionen som kan se nytta av design och visualisering i sin egen verksamhet. Förstudien har också bidragit till att ge underlag för framtida inriktningar, förutsättningar, och forskningsfrågor inom visualisering och design.

  • 6.
    Anjum, Mahnoor
    et al.
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Khan, Muhammad Abdullah
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Analysis of RSSI Fingerprinting in LoRa Networks2019In: 2019 15th International Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), IEEE, 2019, p. 1178-1183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Localization has gained great attention in recent years, where different technologies have been utilized to achieve high positioning accuracy. Fingerprinting is a common technique for indoor positioning using short-range radio frequency (RF) technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). In this paper, we investigate the suitability of LoRa (Long Range) technology to implement a positioning system using received signal strength indicator (RSSI) fingerprinting. We test in real line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) environments to determine appropriate LoRa packet specifications for an accurate RSSI-to-distance mapping function. To further improve the positioning accuracy, we consider the environmental context. Extensive experiments are conducted to examine the performance of LoRa at different spreading factors. We analyze the path loss exponent and the standard deviation of shadowing in each environment

  • 7.
    Ansari, Rafay Iqbal
    et al.
    Frederick University, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Pervaiz, Haris
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Chrysostomou, Chrysostomos
    Frederick University, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Control-Data Separation Architecture for Dual-Band mmWave Networks: A New Dimension to Spectrum Management2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 34925-34937, article id 8663278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exponential growth in global mobile data traffic, especially with regards to the massive deployment of devices envisioned for the fifth generation (5G) mobile networks, has given impetus to exploring new spectrum opportunities to support the new traffic demands. The millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency band is considered as a potential candidate for alleviating the spectrum scarcity. Moreover, the concept of multi-tier networks has gained popularity, especially for dense network environments. In this article, we deviate from the conventional multi-tier networks and employ the concept of control-data separation architecture (CDSA), which comprises of a control base station (CBS) overlaying the data base station (DBS). We assume that the CBS operates on the sub-6 GHz single band, while the DBS possesses a dual-band mmWave capability, i.e., 26 GHz unlicensed band and 60 GHz licensed band. We formulate a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem, which jointly optimizes conflicting objectives: the spectral efficiency (SE) and the energy efficiency (EE). The unique aspect of this work includes the analysis of a joint radio resource allocation algorithm based on Lagrangian Dual Decomposition (LDD) and we compare the proposed algorithm with the maximal-rate (maxRx), dynamic sub-carrier allocation (DSA) and joint power and rate adaptation (JPRA) algorithms to show the performance gains achieved by the proposed algorithm.

  • 8.
    Aroka, Annabel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hur använder man digitalisering för att uppnå hållbarhet?: En fallstudie om hur arbetet med digitalisering tillämpas på nationell och lokal nivå i ambition att uppnå hållbarhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, Sweden's ambition is to be the best in the world to use the possibilities of digitization, while at the same time aiming to be a leader in the work for sustainable development and Agenda 2030. The study aims to study whether there is a clear connection between how the theory of how one should work with digitization to achieve sustainability applies in the practical work at national and local level. Furthermore, one can use the result to identify how one should use digitization and plan for a more sustainable society.

    The aim of the study is to be able to see what differences and / or similarities there are at the different strategic levels, where the study is limited to comparing Sundsvall's municipality with the rest of Sweden.

    The parameters examined are supported by the theory that William Mitchell has written in his book "e-topia", which describes the connection between digitization and sustainability and answers the question of how to achieve sustainability with the help of digitization.

     

    The report is based on a qualitative method, in which the result is gathered from two interviews and two policy documents, respectively, in order to be compared and discussed in the report's concluding discussion and conclusion part. The result shows that it is the human transformation that is of significant importance both at national and local level, but that there is no clear link to the sustainability work in the national digitization strategy. Instead of focusing on what abilities that are required to be able to use digital techniques or technologies, one should instead focus on how digitalization contributes to the sustainability work in order to eliminate unnecessary processes or steps.

     

  • 9.
    Aslam, Muhammad Shehryar
    et al.
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Khan, Alishba
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Atif, Abeera
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Qureshi, Hassaan Khaliq
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Exploring Multi-Hop LoRa for Green Smart Cities2019In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing popularity of Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based smart city applications, various long-range and low-power wireless connectivity solutions are under rigorous research. LoRa is one such solution that works in the sub-GHz unlicensed spectrum and promises to provide long-range communication with minimal energy consumption. However, the conventional LoRa networks are single-hop, with the end devices connected to a central gateway through a direct link, which may be subject to large path loss and hence render low connectivity and coverage. This article motivates the use of multi-hop LoRa topologies to enable energy-efficient connectivity in smart city applications. We present a case study that experimentally evaluates and compares single-hop and multi-hop LoRa topologies in terms of range extension and energy efficiency by evaluating packet reception ratio (PRR) for various source to destination distances, spreading factors (SFs), and transmission powers. The results highlight that a multi-hop LoRa network configuration can save significant energy and enhance coverage. For instance, it is shown that to achieve a 90% PRR, a two-hop network provides 50% energy savings as compared to a single-hop network while increasing 35% coverage at a particular SF. In the end, we discuss open challenges in multi-hop LoRa deployment and optimization.

  • 10.
    Aydogan, Emre
    et al.
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Yilmaz, Selim
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Sen, Sevil
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    A Central Intrusion Detection System for RPL-Based Industrial Internet of Things2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8758024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Internet-of-Things (IoT) is revolutionizing the IT sector, it is not mature yet as several technologies are  still being offered to be candidates for supporting the backbone of this system. IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is one of those promising candidate technologies to be adopted by IoT and Industrial IoT (IIoT). Attacks against RPL have shown to be possible, as the attackers utilize the unauthorized parent selection system of the RLP protocol. In this work, we are proposing a methodology and architecture to detect intrusions against IIoT. Especially, we are targeting to detect attacks against RPL by using genetic programming. Our results indicate that the developed framework can successfully (with high accuracy, along with high true positive and low false positive rates) detect routing attacks in RPL-based Industrial IoT networks.

  • 11.
    Basir, Rabeea
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
    Qaisar, Saad
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
    Ali, Mudassar
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
    Aldwairi, Monther
    College of Technological Innovation, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi 144534, UAE.
    Ashraf, Muhammad Ikram
    Centre for Wireless Communication, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Fog Computing Enabling Industrial Internet of Things: State-of-the-Art and Research Challenges2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 21, article id 4807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry is going through a transformation phase, enabling automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies and processes, and this transformation is called Industry 4.0. Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT) applications require real-time processing, near-by storage, ultra-low latency, reliability and high data rate, all of which can be satisfied by fog computing architecture. With smart devices expected to grow exponentially, the need for an optimized fog computing architecture and protocols is crucial. Therein, efficient, intelligent and decentralized solutions are required to ensure real-time connectivity, reliability and green communication. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of methods and techniques in fog computing. Our focus is on fog infrastructure and protocols in the context of IIoT applications. This article has two main research areas: In the first half, we discuss the history of industrial revolution, application areas of IIoT followed by key enabling technologies that act as building blocks for industrial transformation. In the second half, we focus on fog computing, providing solutions to critical challenges and as an enabler for IIoT application domains. Finally, open research challenges are discussed to enlighten fog computing aspects in different fields and technologies.

  • 12.
    Beije, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pix2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the creation of a new game framework named Pix and a comparison between it and the game engine Godot. The purpose is to create a game framework that focuses on making the workflow streamlined for the pro- grammer and at the same time giving the programmer a lot of creative power. Pix uses C# as programming language which runs on the .NET Core platform. Pix is built with Entity Component System (ECS) design which means that the design is data-oriented and that it focuses on composition. Thus the ECS design brings with it a clear separation between logic and data. The ECS design also makes it easy to write multithreaded code and to serialize the game world state. The comparison against Godot shows clear differences between how you use them and the philosophy about how the users become familiar with them. The obvious difference between them is that the main time spent working with Godot will be in the graphical user interface. In Pix on the other hand you will only work in a text-editor or an IDE if you do not create your own editor. The coding in Godot is done primarily with the script language GDScript. It is made for creating common game functionality but can’t be used to extend the engine with new advanced functionality. Thus to integrate new more advanced features Godot will need to be recompiled. Being forced to recompile the engine to add new advanced features results in that extending the engine can both be time consuming and challenging. In Pix there is no difference between coding game functionality and extending the framework. This equality in Pix between coding game functionality and extending the framework brings with it that when you can make a game in Pix you can also extend the engine with more functionality. The differences results in that Godot is simpler to learn but also gives the regu- lar user less power. Pix is the opposite of that. I you look at the workflow of us- ing Pix and combine that with the technologies Pix is built upon you can see that Pix differentiates itself from the already existing alternatives. The work- flow Pix provides and the technologies it is built upon shows that Pix can be a good alternative for creating complex games that doesn't need the most ad- vanced graphical features.

  • 13.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    LoRa beyond ALOHA: An Investigation of Alternative Random Access Protocols2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a stochastic geometry-based model to investigate alternative medium access choices for LoRaWAN a widely adopted low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) technology for the Internet-of-things (IoT). LoRaWAN adoption is driven by its simplified network architecture, air interface, and medium access. The physical layer, known as LoRa, provides quasi-orthogonal virtual channels through spreading factors (SFs) and time-power capture gains. However, the adopted pure ALOHA access mechanism suffers, in terms of scalability, under the same-channel same-SF transmissions from a large number of devices. In this paper, our objective is to explore access mechanisms beyond-ALOHA for LoRaWAN. Using recent results on time- and power-capture effects of LoRa, we develop a unified model for the comparative study of other choices, i.e., slotted ALOHA and carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA). The model includes the necessary design parameters of these access mechanisms, such as guard time and synchronization accuracy for slotted ALOHA, carrier sensing threshold for CSMA. It also accounts for the spatial interaction of devices in annular shaped regions, characteristic of LoRa, for CSMA. The performance derived from the model in terms of coverage probability, throughput, and energy efficiency are validated using Monte-Carlo simulations. Our analysis shows that slotted ALOHA indeed has higher reliability than pure ALOHA but at the cost of lower energy efficiency for low device densities. Whereas, CSMA outperforms slotted ALOHA at smaller SFs in terms of reliability and energy efficiency, with its performance degrading to pure ALOHA at higher SFs.

  • 14.
    Blank, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Handlingsplaner och diskussion: Samarbetsverktyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discloses the implementation of a collaboration tool in the form of action plans and discussion functionality in behalf of the company ZonderaCom AB (Zondera). The current tool used for this purpose is inflexible, have a hard time meeting customer requirements and therefore needs to be replaced. The new application is part of a larger entity where user management and database schemas are already in place. The functionality of this application consists of issue management, chat/discussion, document management, notes, sharing and printing. For users with higher permissions a summary view will also be available. The application is implemented using ASP.NET Core MVC, Entity Framework (EF) and SQL Server as the database engine. A SPA-based approach is used where the UI (User Interface) is dynamically rendered and loaded via Ajax and partial views. The source code for the application is largely omitted from this report due to business reasons. Interface’s and database schemas are used to display code and database structure.

  • 15.
    Bonafini, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Depari, Alessandro
    Univeristy of Brescia, Italy.
    Ferrari, Paolo
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Pasetti, Marco
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Rinaldo, Stefano
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. University of Brescia, Italy.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Exploiting localization systems for LoRaWAN transmission scheduling in industrial applications2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm contaminated industrial world, allowing for innovative services. The wireless communications seem to be particularly attracting, especially when complement indoor and outdoor Real Time Location Systems (RTLS) for geo-referencing smart objects (e.g. for asset tracking). In this paper, the LoRaWAN solution is considered for transmitting RTLS data. LoRaWAN is an example of Low Power Wide Area Network: it tradeoffs throughput with coverage and power consumption. However, performance can be greatly improved with limited changes to the standard specifications. In this work, a scheduling layer is suggested above the regular stack for allocating communication resources in a time slot channel hopping medium access strategy. The main innovation is the time synchronization, which is obtained opportunistically from the ranging devices belonging to the RTLSs. The experimental testbed, based on commercially available solutions, demonstrates the affordability and feasibility of the proposed approach. When low-cost GPS (outdoor) and UWB (indoor) ranging devices are considered, synchronization error of few microseconds can be easily obtained. The experimental results show the that time reference pulses disciplined by GPS have a maximum jitter of 180 ns and a standard deviation of 40 ns whereas, if time reference pulses disciplined by UWB are considered, the maximum jitter is 3.3 μs and the standard deviation is 0.7 μs.

  • 16.
    Borg, Madelene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Is It True2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with a minor part of a larger project where several people are involved. The purpose of the project is to offer a service to counteract the spread of false information on the internet. One part of this is to create a prototype to test how such a service can look and function. The question that is answered by the study is how this can be achieved with the help of web development. The study's goal has been to develop and propose solutions to parts of the prototype on client side. Methods and tools used are React, Git, Scrum, Visual Studio Code, Jira and Microsoft Teams. The prototype will consist of a plugin for web browsers, a website and a database. The study will result in and visually show solutions to the parts developed by the author. It will also appear how the prototype is constructed in its entirety. The study has shown suggestions on how a service of this type can work but also that there are many things that need to be solved to enable the project to be realized.

  • 17.
    Borgerud, Charlotte
    et al.
    Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, Stockholm.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Open research data, an archival challenge?2020In: Archives and Museum Informatics, ISSN 1389-0166, E-ISSN 1573-7500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has decided that all research results in the form of research data and scientific publications financed with public funds should be openly accessible as far as possible. The question is whether the responsible actors and if the universities are ready to implement the change. The significance of open access has amplified in Sweden. Earlier research has brought to light that the collection and preservation of research data are often surrounded by ambiguous rules and lack a comprehensive structure. For example, archiving is not given enough consideration in connection to research projects and researchers often tend to save their material on platforms that are not persistent over time. This article is based upon a qualitative research approach where 15 semi-structured interviews have been used as primarily data sources to investigate the implementation of open access of research data and scientific publications. The article investigated how Swedish universities and public authorities were working with archiving and implementation of open research data and their opinions on open access. The results displayed a lack of coordination, resources and infrastructure but also that common agreed nomenclature were missing. The management of research data was not part of an overall recordkeeping strategy. One explanation could be differences in the information culture among researchers and archivists. Social sciences theory has been combined with archival theory in order to explain the reasons to this. These have been put in relation to the principles of the open data directive. 

  • 18.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Att lära av historien2019In: Festskrift till Björn Fjæstad: Utvecklingen av en forskningsmiljö: Ett verksamhetsnära engagemang på distans / [ed] Erna Danielsson, Roine Johansson, Anna Olofsson, Susanna Öhman, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2019, p. 83-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    What is really regulating the work with open data?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bosse, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications – Heinrich Hertz Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Research Intstitutes of Sweden AB.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Martini, Maria G.
    Kingston University, London, UK.
    Ramzan, Naeem
    University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    CSIRO Data61, Kensington, Australia.
    A common framework for the evaluation of psychophysiological visual quality assessment2019In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, E-ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of perceived quality based on psychophysiological methods recently gained attraction as it potentially overcomes certain flaws of psychophysical approaches. Although studies report promising results, it is not possible to arrive at decisive and comparable conclusions that recommend the use of one or another method for a specific application or research question. The video quality expert group started a project on psychophysiological quality assessment to study these novel approaches and to develop a test plan that enables more systematic research. This test plan comprises of a specifically designed set of quality annotated video sequences, suggestions for psychophysiological methods to be studied in quality assessment, and recommendations for the documentation and publications of test results. The test plan is presented in this article.

  • 21.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE Research Institute of Sweden AB.
    Dima, Elijs
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Quality of Experience of hand controller latency in a Virtual Reality simulator2019In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2019 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt and Jeffrey Mulligan, 2019, Springfield, VA, United States, 2019, article id 3068450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. A QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task performance. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards to delays in the crane control interface. A formal subjective study has been performed where we have added controlled delays to the hand controller (joystick) signals. The added delays ranged from 0 ms to 800 ms. We found no significant effects of delays on the task performance on any scales up to 200 ms. A significant negative effect was found for 800 ms added delay. The Symptoms reported in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was significantly higher for all the symptom groups, but a majority of the participants reported only slight symptoms. Two out of thirty test persons stopped the test before finishing due to their symptoms.

  • 22.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things2019In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy / [ed] Paolo Mori, Steven Furnell and Olivier Camp, Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 623-630Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is in the booming age of its growth, therefore a vast amount of applications, projects, hardware/software solutions, and customized concepts are being developed. The proliferation of IoT will enable location-based services to be available everywhere for everyone, and this will raise a large number of privacy issues related to the collection, usage, retention, and disclosure of the user’s location information. In order to provide a solution to this unique problem of IoT, this paper proposes Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things (LPA-IoT) scheme, which uses the concepts of Mix-Zone, location-obfuscation along with context-awareness. To the authors’ best knowledge, the proposed LPA-IoT scheme is the first location-based privacy-preserving scheme for IoT that provides flexible privacy levels associated with the present context of the user.

  • 23.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    School of Engineering (DEI/ISEP), Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Security Risk Analysis of LoRaWAN and Future Directions2019In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRa (along with its upper layers definition—LoRaWAN) is one of the most promising Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies for implementing Internet of Things (IoT)-based applications. Although being a popular technology, several works in the literature have revealed vulnerabilities and risks regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st specification draft). The LoRa-Alliance has built upon these findings and introduced several improvements in the security and architecture of LoRa. The result of these efforts resulted in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on 11 October 2017. This work aims at reviewing and clarifying the security aspects of LoRaWAN v1.1. By following ETSI guidelines, we provide a comprehensive Security Risk Analysisof the protocol and discuss several remedies to the security risks described. A threat catalog is presented, along with discussions and analysis in view of the scale, impact, and likelihood of each threat. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this work is one of the first of its kind, by providing a detailed security risk analysis related to the latest version of LoRaWAN. Our analysis highlights important practical threats, such as end-device physical capture, rogue gateway and self-replay, which require particular attention by developers and organizations implementing LoRa networks.

  • 24.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sari, Alparslan
    Department of Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Security Implications of Fog Computing on the Internet of Things2019In: International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), IEEE, 2019, article id 8661909Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the use of IoT devices and sensors has been rapidly increased which also caused data generation (information and logs), bandwidth usage, and related phenomena to be increased. To our best knowledge, a standard definition for the integration of fog computing with IoT is emerging now. This integration will bring many opportunities for the researchers, especially while building cyber-security related solutions. In this study, we surveyed about the integration of fog computing with IoT and its implications. Our goal was to find out and emphasize problems, specifically security related problems that arise with the employment of fog computing by IoT. According to our findings, although this integration seems to be non-trivial and complicated, it has more benefits than the implications. Index Terms—IoT, IIoT, vulnerabilities, trust, end-device, confidentiality, integrity, availability.

  • 25.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Detecting Intrusions in Cyber-Physical Systems of Smart Cities: Challenges and Directions2019In: Secure Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Cities / [ed] Riaz Ahmed Shaikh, Hershey, USA: IGI Global, 2019, p. 74-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacing the smart cities with cyber-physical systems (CPSs) improves cyber infrastructures while introducing security vulnerabilities that may lead to severe problems such as system failure, privacy violation, and/or issues related to data integrity if security and privacy are not addressed properly. In order for the CPSs of smart cities to be designed with proactive intelligence against such vulnerabilities, anomaly detection approaches need to be employed. This chapter will provide a brief overview of the security vulnerabilities in CPSs of smart cities. Following a thorough discussion on the applicability of conventional anomaly detection schemes in CPSs of smart cities, possible adoption of distributed anomaly detection systems by CPSs of smart cities will be discussed along with a comprehensive survey of the state of the art. The chapter will discuss challenges in tailoring appropriate anomaly detection schemes for CPSs of smart cities and provide insights into future directions for the researchers working in this field.

  • 26.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Preserving location privacy in cyber-physical systems2019In: 2019 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trending technological research platform is Internet of Things (IoT)and most probably it will stay that way for a while. One of the main application areas of IoT is Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), in which IoT devices can be leveraged as actuators and sensors in accordance with the system needs. The public acceptance and adoption of CPS services and applications will create a huge amount of privacy issues related to the processing, storage and disclosure of the user location information. As a remedy, our paper proposes a methodology to provide location privacy for the users of CPSs. Our proposal takes advantage of concepts such as mix-zone, context-awareness, and location-obfuscation. According to our best knowledge, the proposed methodology is the first privacy-preserving location service for CPSs that offers adaptable privacy levels related to the current context of the user.

  • 27.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Song, Houbing
    Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL, USA.
    Security of the Internet of Things: Vulnerabilities, Attacks, and Countermeasures2020In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 616-644, article id 8897627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) constitute one of the most promising third-millennium technologies and have wide range of applications in our surrounding environment. The reason behind the vast adoption of WSNs in various applications is that they have tremendously appealing features, e.g., low production cost, low installation cost, unattended network operation, autonomous and longtime operation. WSNs have started to merge with the Internet of Things (IoT) through the introduction of Internet access capability in sensor nodes and sensing ability in Internet-connected devices. Thereby, the IoT is providing access to huge amount of data, collected by the WSNs, over the Internet. Hence, the security of IoT should start with foremost securing WSNs ahead of the other components. However, owing to the absence of a physical line-of-defense, i.e., there is no dedicated infrastructure such as gateways to watch and observe the flowing information in the network, security of WSNs along with IoT is of a big concern to the scientific community. More specifically, for the application areas in which CIA (confidentiality, integrity, availability) has prime importance, WSNs and emerging IoT technology might constitute an open avenue for the attackers. Besides, recent integration and collaboration of WSNs with IoT will open new challenges and problems in terms of security. Hence, this would be a nightmare for the individuals using these systems as well as the security administrators who are managing those networks. Therefore, a detailed review of security attacks towards WSNs and IoT, along with the techniques for prevention, detection, and mitigation of those attacks are provided in this paper. In this text, attacks are categorized and treated into mainly two parts, most or all types of attacks towards WSNs and IoT are investigated under that umbrella: 'Passive Attacks' and 'Active Attacks'. Understanding these attacks and their associated defense mechanisms will help paving a secure path towards the proliferation and public acceptance of IoT technology. 

  • 28.
    Bygdeson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Utvecklingen av Spotalike2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this assignment has been to study the product Spotalike and develop a new version to make the product more attractive. The studying of the product was done with the help of user data, such as how Spotalike is being used, what target audience it has, why it's being used, etc. The new version of Spotalike was planned by making design sketches and prototypes which were created as a first step in order to get a better picture of what the result would be. The new version is not available to the public, but it is fully functional and works locally. The solution that was concluded was to develop a music player which is built on the founding principles of the old Spotalike. The music player is developed with React and is powered by Spotify. Besides the old functions there are also new functions that has been implemented, and the interface has been redesigned. There is currently no new user data available to determine the result of the development, since the new version of Spotalike hasn't been made public yet.

  • 29.
    Bylin, Jenniefer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Riskanalys av självkörande fordon i hamnområden: En kvalitativ studie för interna transporter av containrar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, companies face constant challenges, as the business must constantly be developed in order to compete. As new ports are being built in already existing ones, other opportunities are often made available to develop further and reduce costs and risks. Replacing some labour against automation is one of them. The study aims to ensure the risks of using selfdriving vehicles for the movement of containers in port areas. The work has been carried out at SCA in Tunadal for their new coming terminal. The aim of the study was to examine the risk associated with manpower versus self-driving vehicles exist. If, based on a safety aspect, it is profitable to go towards a more automated business. To carry out the study, documents have been collected describing the accidents in the port, two persons who are extra responsible for the accidents in the port have been interviewed and observations have been made to also see how the self-driving vehicle is to be applied to reality. When processing the data, THERP - Technique for human error rate prediction has been used for mapping the current situation. FMEA - failure mode and effects analysis and FTA - Fault tree analysis has been used to map the future situation with automation. The result shows that from a safety perspective, it is safest to use self-driving vehicles, as it is the human slips that represent the greatest risks in port areas.

  • 30.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    eDiscovery-samverkan för digitalt bevarande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To solve the problems of long-term digital preservation, there must be an interaction between man, the process and the technology. Data processing is an important step to secure the digital long-term storage of documents, and to use collaborative surfaces with common platforms, for preparation between archive institutions. In a computer network that should automatically be able to find and communicate with other equipment in the same network, we use different systems daily to open our files, which in the original file format has a "built-in" format, which in a certain way organizes data to be read and processed by a computer program. Here, the collection of the material is required to be done correctly. The need for contact areas for collaboration is great and an activity for solutions that enable, among other things, to comply with legislation on information retention is ongoing. Authorities and many companies that have not yet noticed the problem have the need for solutions.

  • 31.
    Carlsson, August
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Åqvist, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lean´s påverkan på arbetsmiljön: En kvalitativ studie över effekterna på arbetsmiljö och hälsa vid införande av Lean2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many organizations that choose to introduce Lean production in their operations, as these are the concepts that have made the greatest progress in terms of efficiency programs. Since Lean focuses on maximizing customer benefit and minimizing waste of resources in an organisation's business processes, it is often forgotten that the introduction also affects the staff. The purpose of the study is to investigate what effects on the working environment and health that employees in the private sector experience after an introduction of Lean production as a strategy within their organization. The aim of the study has been to answer how a Lean introduction affects the working environment and health. The study is based on Almondy's latest improvement work on the shrinkage process. With the help of an interview study and a general literature study, we have examined what effects a Lean introduction has on the work environment and health. The interview study was conducted at Almondy AB, which is a food producer based in Gothenburg. Searching the literature is done in article databases with keywords linked to the area. By means of a comparative analysis method, the result has been analyzed. There are studies that show that the effects vary depending on the point of view they have had and in which industry the survey was conducted. This means that the effects get a large spread and therefore it is difficult to give a general picture of the effects. The results of the interview study show a positive effect on the work environment as they describe that the physical moments in the process have decreased. The results of the literature study show that more studies are needed to be able to demonstrate the general effects that Lean has on the working environment. But the literature study suggests that there are both negative and positive effects on the work environment and health when introducing Lean. The conclusion suggests that Almondy has had a positive impact on their physical work environment since there has been a decrease in deviation reports. If someone wants to study further in the field, Lean production should be investigated in several industries and examine all aspects of a Lean introduction linked work environment and health.

     

  • 32.
    Carlsson, Olivia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Auktorisering i system för digitalt bevarande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to investigate, analyze and clarify the relationship between authorization and security policy for digital preservation system. Information security comes into focus when digital preservation systems are discussed. The handling of electronic documents in digital preservation systems is now widespread and a large part of many activities. This means that the business must ensure that it protects against the loss of information stored in the digital preservation system. Authorization and security policy are relevant to archive and information science because digital objects in digital preservation system are to be protected from unauthorized access. With a qualitative method the research will go through security policy, systems and models for access architecture. With open approach and open questions, the research will be summarized with a discussion on the most important conclusions for access management for digital preservation system, which are mainly built on roles. It is of great importance that the company uses roles and authorization levels to ensure that everyone knows with certainty what to do and what they cannot do.

  • 33.
    Danielson, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Kista; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Ekenberg, Love
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria; Stockholm University, Kista.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Stockholm University, Kista.
    A second-order-based decision tool for evaluating decisions under conditions of severe uncertainty2020In: Knowledge-Based Systems, ISSN 0950-7051, E-ISSN 1872-7409, Vol. 191, article id 105219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirement to assign precise numerical values to model entities such as criteria weights, probabilities, and utilities is too strong in most real-life decision situations, and hence alternative representations and evaluation mechanisms are important to consider. In this paper, we discuss the DecideIT 3.0 state-of-the-art software decision tool and demonstrate its functionality using a real-life case. The tool is based on a belief mass interpretation of the decision information, where the components are imprecise by means of intervals and qualitative estimates, and we discuss how multiplicative and additive aggregations influence the resulting distribution over the expected values. 

  • 34.
    Davidsson, Viola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Att välja e-arkiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitization has exploded over the past 30 years and unfortunately the archives have not been able to do so. Many municipalities have not yet taken the step out and introduced e-archives, from a survey conducted by the National Archives in 2010, it turned out that only one-fifth of Sweden's municipalities had introduced e-archives, which is very little considering how much progress digitalization has made.

    There are two purposes for this thesis; The first is to do a small survey to capture reasons why some municipalities have introduced e-archives and others not. The other is to show what requirements there are on e-archives regarding legal aspects, security, user-friendliness and what cost the introduction of e-archives entails. The thesis is aimed at municipalities with about 10,000-30,000 inhabitants, where there are no equal opportunities for finance and competence that a larger municipality has.

    The issues are:

    What are the requirements for e-archives regarding legal aspects, security, user-friendliness and can the municipalities bear the cost of e-archives?

    Why did some municipalities get started with e-archives and others not?

    Method for this is a combination of literature study and interview study. Interviews have been done with two suppliers of e-archives, who want to be anonymous in this paper and 4 municipalities, of which two have introduced e-archives and two do not have e-archives. These municipalities have chosen because they are municipalities with about 10 000-30 000 inhabitants (to whom the report is directed). They were also chosen because they are close to each other purely geographical and can thus give a fair picture of the result.

    All the questions were answered in the result section.

    Requirements for legal aspects are the Freedom of the Press Decree. 2, which states that all Swedish citizens have the right to access public documents. The Archives Act regulates what is required for archives, what the purpose is, what it is supposed to do, and that the authorities are to care for their archives.

    In terms of cost, there was the ambition to get an economic picture of what e-archives cost. One municipality submitted price information and the other municipality referred to SKL kommentus which has confidentiality on the price information. The suppliers also did not issue price information and because of this, a comparison could not be made. However, there are some tips on how to think about procurement instead.

    Regarding security, there are examples of what one can think of, such as authorization control in the e-archive to protect the archive from unauthorized persons.

    With regard to accessibility, this essay has chosen to mean how accessible the e-archive is to the public and also the disabled. Therefore, Ales e-archive has been reviewed and the single Post and Telecom Agency's - Guidance for web development has Ale municipality reached 44 %, so they have a bit left.

    In response to the second question, it emerged after the interview study that the biggest reason why the municipalities did not get started with e-archives is that they lack competence and thus a fiery person who drives the issue and resources.

  • 35.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Division ICT-Acreo, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Design.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Mölndal.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB, Hudiksvall.
    Joint effects of depth-aiding augmentations and viewing positions on the quality of experience in augmented telepresence2020In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, E-ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 5, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual and augmented reality is increasingly prevalent in industrial applications, such as remote control of industrial machinery, due to recent advances in head-mounted display technologies and low-latency communications via 5G. However, the influence of augmentations and camera placement-based viewing positions on operator performance in telepresence systems remains unknown. In this paper, we investigate the joint effects of depth-aiding augmentations and viewing positions on the quality of experience for operators in augmented telepresence systems. A study was conducted with 27 non-expert participants using a real-time augmented telepresence system to perform a remote-controlled navigation and positioning task, with varied depth-aiding augmentations and viewing positions. The resulting quality of experience was analyzed via Likert opinion scales, task performance measurements, and simulator sickness evaluation. Results suggest that reducing the reliance on stereoscopic depth perception via camera placement has a significant benefit to operator performance and quality of experience. Conversely, the depth-aiding augmentations can partly mitigate the negative effects of inferior viewing positions. However the viewing-position based monoscopic and stereoscopic depth cues tend to dominate over cues based on augmentations. There is also a discrepancy between the participants’ subjective opinions on augmentation helpfulness, and its observed effects on positioning task performance.

  • 36.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Division ICT - Acreo.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB.
    View Position Impact on QoE in an Immersive Telepresence System for Remote Operation2019In: 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how different viewing positions affect a user's Quality of Experience (QoE) and performance in an immersive telepresence system. A QoE experiment has been conducted with 27 participants to assess the general subjective experience and the performance of remotely operating a toy excavator. Two view positions have been tested, an overhead and a ground-level view, respectively, which encourage reliance on stereoscopic depth cues to different extents for accurate operation. Results demonstrate a significant difference between ground and overhead views: the ground view increased the perceived difficulty of the task, whereas the overhead view increased the perceived accomplishment as well as the objective performance of the task. The perceived helpfulness of the overhead view was also significant according to the participants.

  • 37.
    Ekman, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Implementation av Lean i traditionell verkstadsmiljö: En fallstudie i ett kollektivtrafikbolag2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how Lean can be implemented in a traditional workshop environment for a public transport company within the bus industry in Sweden. Public transport companies in Sweden suffer from the same problem and there are low margins. Lean can be a way to increase its margins and in this study it focuses on an ongoing Lean implementation and also previous implementations within the fall company. The study is made as a case study with a mixed method, it contains both qualitative and quantitative parts and that the approach is abductive.

    The information about the ongoing Lean implementation and previous initiatives has been gathered from interviews and observations. Since then, the information has been analyzed and discussed to come to a conclusion. It is that Lean can be implemented in a traditional workshop environment, but with different results. It depends on how you do it and the study shows that if you choose to include management from the beginning and educate them before the implementation starts, chances are that it will be successful. Only then does the study show that it is a winning concept. Another problem is also the inherited way of working in this environment, it is more or less affected by a bygone era when the business was municipal and did not have the same return requirements as today.

    The case company on which the study was made has previously implemented Lean, but without success, largely because management was not included. It was an external party that carried out the implementation, which made it difficult for the maintenance management to see the purpose and the purpose of the implementation which was thus excluded. On the other hand, the ongoing implementation has gained a completely different attachment to the management, much because the implementation goes through them. Maintenance management has also been trained in advance before implementation began, which the study shows was one of the success factors.

  • 38.
    Ekström, Louise
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Große, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Choice of Airport in Extinguishing Wildfires: Model and Cases2020In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Operations Research and Enterprise Systems (ICORES) / [ed] Greg H. Parlier; Federico Liberatore and Marc Demange, SciTePress, 2020, p. 364-371Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a model to support the optimal choice of an airport as a base for the flying vehicles that are operated to extinguish wildfires and forest fires. Based on experiences from the two largest wildfires in Swedish history, this study models the optimisation as a balanced transportation problem. In both cases, the model selected the airport that is closest to the fire area. If the capacity of the chosen airport was insufficient to host all of the flying vehicles, then the model added a second airport which is also nearby the wildfire area. The cases demonstrate that the total cost of the operation is lower when the extinguishing work is concentrated in an area that has a short distance between the airport and the fire, the fuel depots and the pilots’ accommodation. Improved access to relevant data in the context of crisis management by air could allow for the inclusion of additional parameters and correct data in the optimisation model, which could in turn provide more comprehensive decision-making support.

  • 39.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), Porto, Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Formal security analysis of LoRaWAN2019In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 148, p. 328-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) protocols are receiving increased attention from industry and academia to offer accessibility for Internet of Things (IoT) connected remote sensors and actuators. In this work, we present a formal study of LoRaWAN security, an increasingly popular technology, which defines the structure and operation of LPWAN networks based on the LoRa physical layer. There are previously known security vulnerabilities in LoRaWAN that lead to the proposal of several improvements, some already incorporated into the latest protocol specification. Our analysis of LoRaWAN security uses Scyther, a formal security analysis tool and focuses on the key exchange portion of versions 1.0 (released in 2015) and 1.1 (the latest, released in 2017). For version 1.0, which is still the most widely deployed version of LoRaWAN, we show that our formal model allowed to uncover weaknesses that can be related to previously reported vulnerabilities. Our model did not find weaknesses in the latest version of the protocol (v1.1), and we discuss what this means in practice for the security of LoRaWAN as well as important aspects of our model and tools employed that should be considered. The Scyther model developed provides realistic models for LoRaWAN v1.0 and v1.1 that can be used and extended to formally analyze, inspect, and explore the security features of the protocols. This, in turn, can clarify the methodology for achieving secrecy, integrity, and authentication for designers and developers interested in these LPWAN standards. We believe that our model and discussion of the protocols security properties are beneficial for both researchers and practitioners. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents a formal security analysis of LoRaWAN.

  • 40.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Halmstad Högskola.
    Ferrari, Nico
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Dynamic User Authentication Protocol for Industrial IoT without Timestamping2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757984Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) technology has succeed ingetting a great attention in the industry where it has been ableand still can solve many industrial intractable issues. The emergingtechnology is suffering from severe security shortcomings.Authentication is a cornerstone of IoT security as it presents the measures of checking the legitimacy of communication’s entities.The Industrial IoT (IIoT) technology has special conditions, resulting from a lack of resources and a shortage of security skills. As far as we can tell, from the literature, IIoT user authentication has not been studied extensively. In 2017 Tai et al. presented an authenticated key agreement for IoT networks. Here we prove that Tai et al. is susceptible to sever security weaknesses, such as;i. stolen smart card attack, ii. unknown key share attack, iii. node capturing attack. In this research article, we offer an innovative IIoT user authentication scheme that can achieve secure remote user authentication without timestamping that requires precise synchronization, it only needs Hashing and Xor-ing. We examine the efficiency of our presented scheme using Tmote Sky node over an MSP430 microcontroller using COOJA simulator as well aswe show its correctness using Scyther verification tool.

  • 41.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    The Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Key Distribution Protocol for Industrial Internet of Things without Implicit Certificates2019In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 906-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT) in industry, called the Industrial IoT (IIoT), is supporting the introduction of very desirable improvements such as increasing production flexibility, self-organization and real-time and quick response to events. However, security and privacy challenges are still to be well addressed. The IIoT requires different properties to achieve secure and reliable systems and these requirements create extra challenges considering the limited processing and communication power available to IIoT field devices. In this research article, we present a key distribution protocol for IIoT that is computationally and communicationally lightweight (requires a single message exchange) and handles node addition and revocation, as well as fast re-keying. The scheme can also resist the consequences of node capture attacks (we assume that captured nodes can be detected by the Gateway and previous works have shown this assumption to be acceptable in practice), server impersonation attacks and provides forward/backward secrecy. We show formally the correctness of our protocol and evaluate its energy consumption under realistic scenarios using a real embedded platform compared to previous state-of-the-art key-exchange protocols, to show our protocol reliability for IIoT.

  • 42.
    Eneman, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Stenmark, Dick
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ljungberg, Jan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Regulating Police Body-Worn Camera Practice - A Four Modality Perspective2019In: 10th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, Association for Information Systems, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police authorities in a number of countries have recently introduced body-worn cameras (BWC). With the use of body-worn cameras, the police have gained access to new forms of wearable and powerful law enforcing technologies. The cameras enable collection of large volume of personal information and in some cases even sensitive information that must be managed and stored within the organisationin line with rules of law. As is often the case when technology develops faster than societal norms and values, a range of questions concerning issues related to regulation of these practises are still uninvestigated. Therefore, this paper will analyse what actually regulates individual police officers’ body- worn camera practice. Empirically, we use the Swedish police as a case and our study is based on qualitative interviews. Theoretically we draw upon Lawrence Lessig’s four modality model - law, norms, market, and architecture - and we conclude that i) law is considered important although law regarding BWC is still in its infancy, ii) while law and official directives have a more macro applicability, norms are developed and maintained more locally, iii) market regulate indirectly via availability and cost, and iv) architecture is not necessarily as self-executed as often stated.

  • 43.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Records roles in Corporate Sustainability Reporting: An explorative study of corporate sustainability reporting from an archives and information science perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for more responsible companies, have led to initiatives and legislations of sustainability reporting, in order to improve corporate transparency and accountability regarding companies economic, environmental and social impact.

    The aim of the research was to explore records roles in corporate sustainability reporting, which is discussed from an archives and information science perspective. Records are regarded as evidence of business activities and therefore crucial to accountability and decision-making processes. A sustainability report is a record, and records are also used to create a sustainability report.

    The thesis is based on a qualitative explorative methodology with interviews as data gathering technique. Interviews were carried out with four employees at three different companies who work with sustainability reporting, a sustainability consultant who works with sustainability reporting, and an auditor who assesses the  companies´ annual and sustainability reports. The interviews have addressed records’ role in different aspects of sustainability reporting, exploring how sustainability reports are created, used and pluralized. As well as how the records, generated as an effect of the reporting process, are used, what impact they have on the business and efficiency of the process. The thesis also explore respondents´ perspectives on reliability and credibility of the reports in relation to records qualities. Results from the interviews have been analysed with the lens of Records Continuum Model and the ISO standard for records management, ISO 15489-1:2016.

    Results show that records are key assets that provide evidential information that enables different functions and benefits –both to companies that report and to stakeholders. Primary benefits of the reporting that have been emphasized are that it enables transparency and accountability, informed decision-making, management of risks, compliance with legislation, ability to demonstrate corporate responsibility and meeting sustainability goals, greater business efficiency, evidence-based analysis and development activities, formation of business culture and identity, and protection of corporate and collective memory about the corporates’ work regarding sustainability. Records are also valuable assets for governance and continuous improvements. It enables to monitor trends and assessment on how the company meets its targets.

    The thesis gives an increased understanding of records’ role in a socio-economic context. It also suggests some areas for further research and development in order for sustainability reporting to further support a sustainable development. One of the major tasks would be to make pluralization of sustainability-related records more efficient, in order to facilitate further utilization of the information. This may enhance corporate accountability and decision making based on sustainability criteria, and would make the work more efficient for companies. The global records governance environment can be improved further, in order to support  global sustainable development. Important is also to raise awareness about the role of trustworthy records.

  • 44.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Situating trust challenges of online trade2019In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 272-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer an improved understanding of trust challenges in online trade, providing examples of issues that should be addressed for a trustworthy online environment. It also aims to illustrate how records and recordkeeping can contribute in terms of enabling trust and accountability. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on results from a self-ethnographic study of online trade (Engvall, 2017); the results are analyzed further. Kelton, Fleischmann and Wallace’s (2008) model for trust is used to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the challenges and where they should be addressed. Findings: This paper recognizes that there are different types of trust challenges at different levels – individual, between clients and businesses and at a societal level – that should be addressed at these levels in different ways. Originality/value: This paper provides an understanding of trust challenges in the online environment. 

  • 45.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    User participation: what can be learned from the information systems domain?2019In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 320-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Many records professionals are involved in the design and development of recordkeeping systems. To design recordkeeping systems that meet user needs, their perspectives have to be included in the design process. The purpose of this paper is to explore what can be learned from the domain of information systems (IS) regarding user participation in design, and then to reflect on what related to the recordkeeping dimension should be further considered. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a review of literature in the IS development field about user participation. Findings: Analysing how users participate in IS development reveals several aspects of interest for records professionals. There are different approaches to, purposes of and driving values in user participation, which should be transparent. For user participation to be successful, an infrastructure has to be in place. The idea of user participation may be a way to include the secondary values of records in the near term, but it may also challenge traditional roles. New issues, such as the archivist’s role as a trusted third party, should be analysed further. Originality/value: This study uses knowledge from the information system field to acquire new knowledge about user participation in design, and relate it to the recordkeeping domain. This study addresses issues surrounding user participation, which has been indicated as an area in need of further development in archives and information science.

  • 46.
    Engvall, Tove
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bunn, Jenny
    University College London.
    Flinn, Andrew
    University College London.
    Michetti, Giovanni
    Sapienza University of Rome.
    Gänser, Georg
    InterPARES Trust.
    Cai, Yingfang
    The State Archives Administration of China.
    Henttonen, Pekka
    University of Tempere.
    The role of the records professional2019In: Trusting Records in the Cloud / [ed] Luciana Duranti & Corinne Rogers, London: Facet Publishing, 2019, 1, p. 223-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With digitalization, professional roles changes. New tasks, skills and collaboration with other professions are needed. This chapter highlight core responsibilities and expertise that records professionals contribute. It also highlight examples from initiatives with open data in Sweden and United Kingdom, as well as development of digitization of accounting in China. 

  • 47.
    Eriksson, John
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Karlsson, Tobias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Visualiseringsverktyg för migrerad kod: Ersättare till Guardien2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Java is one of the most widely used programming languages used today. CSN that previously used 4 GL tool should now migrate to Java development, which means that there is a need for a tool to show dependencies and relationships in the migrated and newly developed Java code. The GuardIEn was previously used in the old code base, but that tool will be wound up after CSN's after migration to Java. The overall purpose of the project is to create a graph database with data that is scanned with the tool jqAssistant. This database is then used by a Java backend that retrieves relationships and nodes from the graph database which is then used with a separate web interface in Angular to visualize all relations between program code

  • 48.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Företagspresentation: Med WordPress och fokus på användbarhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this project has been to develop a website of the type of company presentation with opportunities for time booking for an organic hairdressing salon. The project's focus has been on usability and typography adapted for the web. In order to achieve usability, the project has been carried out based on various methods such as examination of similar systems, investigation to find out users' wishes, user stories, personas and scenarios and a few simpler usability tests. The personas with scenarios that have been developed have then been the basis for the work with the website together with a requirement list. In order to give the company its graphic profile, basic design and layout, a mood board and wireframes have been created. A responsive website prototype has then been developed where parts produced for the graphic profile and images are included. Based on the prototype, a website has been developed with its own theme in the content management system WordPress, to begin with on a local web server and the database MariaDB and finally on a web hosting server. The site's theme, typography, and its features have been developed using HTML, CSS and PHP. Finally, a number of plugins have been installed for various purposes such as contact forms, user role management, time booking, backup, security aspects and search engine optimization. An accessibility test has been carried out with a tool to help evaluate how accessible the content is in both the website prototype and the final website. The report follows the development of a website whose content has been analyzed in the results based on design and construction as well as usability based on design principles, Nielsen's Usability Heuristics, web guidelines and typography. The methods described, used and implemented to achieve usability have probably contributed positively to the development of a website to present a company and its services. Despite this, there is further development potential of the website.

  • 49.
    Etemad, Seyedeh Soma
    et al.
    Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism. Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Yousefpour, Rasoul
    Department of Forestry Economics and Forest Planning, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Forest management decision-making using goal programming and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approaches (case study: Hyrcanian forests of Iran): Forest management decision-making2019In: Journal of Forest Science, ISSN 1212-4834, E-ISSN 1805-935X, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 368-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimum stock level in the forest. In this research, a goal programming method was used to estimate the optimal stock level of different tree species considering environmental, economic and social issues. We consider multiple objectives in the process of decision-making to maximize carbon sequestration, net present value and labour. We used regression analysis to make a forest growth model and allometric functions for the quantification of carbon budget. Expected mean price is estimated using wood price and variable harvesting costs to determine the net present value of forest harvesting. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process is applied to determine the weights of goals using questionnaires filled in by experts in order to generate the optimal stock level. According to the results of integrated goal programming approach and fuzzy analytic hierarchy processes, optimal volume for each species was calculated. The findings indicate that environmental, economic and social outcomes can be achieved in a multi-objective forestry program for the future forest management plans.

  • 50.
    Falenius, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jarl, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lean – En utveckling från produktion till välfärd och service: En litteraturstudie av hur Lean utvecklats från produktion till välfärds- och servicebranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study consists of two studies around Lean. The studies are limited to two databases and three different sectors, the industry sector where Lean originated from, and the welfare and service sectors.

    The first study is a quantitative pilot study on published articles. The purpose was to get an understanding of what extent the different sectors get published, compared to each other. The result was illustrated in a graph where 40 articles per year were proportionally divided between the three sectors.

    The main study is a literature review where a scoring matrix was used to cull the selected articles. The remaining articles where compared to the “Toyota house” to answer the research questions:

    In what way has the definition of Lean changed from the manufacturing-based improvement philosophy it originated as, to the concept that is used in different sectors today?

    How does the specific sector affect the implementation of Lean, is there a difference in the Lean that is described in the literature compared to the Lean that is used in the welfare or service sectors?

    The study found in the chosen literature is that the sectors that are new at using Lean are using less of the tools available and in a smaller part of the organization, instead of using it on the whole organization. Many case studies where found that describes what tool was used, but not how they were used. One sector with many published articles was the construction sector, but they were overlooked due to the limitations of the study.

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