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  • 1.
    Afrim, Philip
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kartläggning och identifiering av flaskhalsar inom arbetsprocesser för bagagehantering: Kartlägga och analysera förutsättningarna för en effektivare bagagehanteringsprocess för avgående bagage på Landvetter flygplats med hjälp av VSM, ABC-Analys och processkartläggningar.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flygplats logistik

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Computationally Efficient Light Field Image Compression using a Multiview HEVC Framework2019Other (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Anjum, Mahnoor
    et al.
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Khan, Muhammad Abdullah
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Analysis of RSSI Fingerprinting in LoRa Networks2019In: 15th International Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing Conference, IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Localization has gained great attention in recent years, where different technologies have been utilized to achieve high positioning accuracy. Fingerprinting is a common technique for indoor positioning using short-range radio frequency (RF) technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). In this paper, we investigate the suitability of LoRa (Long Range) technology to implement a positioning system using received signal strength indicator (RSSI) fingerprinting. We test in real line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) environments to determine appropriate LoRa packet specifications for an accurate RSSI-to-distance mapping function. To further improve the positioning accuracy, we consider the environmental context. Extensive experiments are conducted to examine the performance of LoRa at different spreading factors. We analyze the path loss exponent and the standard deviation of shadowing in each environment

  • 4.
    Ansari, Rafay Iqbal
    et al.
    Frederick University, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Pervaiz, Haris
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Chrysostomou, Chrysostomos
    Frederick University, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Control-Data Separation Architecture for Dual-Band mmWave Networks: A New Dimension to Spectrum Management2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 34925-34937, article id 8663278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exponential growth in global mobile data traffic, especially with regards to the massive deployment of devices envisioned for the fifth generation (5G) mobile networks, has given impetus to exploring new spectrum opportunities to support the new traffic demands. The millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency band is considered as a potential candidate for alleviating the spectrum scarcity. Moreover, the concept of multi-tier networks has gained popularity, especially for dense network environments. In this article, we deviate from the conventional multi-tier networks and employ the concept of control-data separation architecture (CDSA), which comprises of a control base station (CBS) overlaying the data base station (DBS). We assume that the CBS operates on the sub-6 GHz single band, while the DBS possesses a dual-band mmWave capability, i.e., 26 GHz unlicensed band and 60 GHz licensed band. We formulate a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem, which jointly optimizes conflicting objectives: the spectral efficiency (SE) and the energy efficiency (EE). The unique aspect of this work includes the analysis of a joint radio resource allocation algorithm based on Lagrangian Dual Decomposition (LDD) and we compare the proposed algorithm with the maximal-rate (maxRx), dynamic sub-carrier allocation (DSA) and joint power and rate adaptation (JPRA) algorithms to show the performance gains achieved by the proposed algorithm.

  • 5.
    Aroka, Annabel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hur använder man digitalisering för att uppnå hållbarhet?: En fallstudie om hur arbetet med digitalisering tillämpas på nationell och lokal nivå i ambition att uppnå hållbarhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, Sweden's ambition is to be the best in the world to use the possibilities of digitization, while at the same time aiming to be a leader in the work for sustainable development and Agenda 2030. The study aims to study whether there is a clear connection between how the theory of how one should work with digitization to achieve sustainability applies in the practical work at national and local level. Furthermore, one can use the result to identify how one should use digitization and plan for a more sustainable society.

    The aim of the study is to be able to see what differences and / or similarities there are at the different strategic levels, where the study is limited to comparing Sundsvall's municipality with the rest of Sweden.

    The parameters examined are supported by the theory that William Mitchell has written in his book "e-topia", which describes the connection between digitization and sustainability and answers the question of how to achieve sustainability with the help of digitization.

     

    The report is based on a qualitative method, in which the result is gathered from two interviews and two policy documents, respectively, in order to be compared and discussed in the report's concluding discussion and conclusion part. The result shows that it is the human transformation that is of significant importance both at national and local level, but that there is no clear link to the sustainability work in the national digitization strategy. Instead of focusing on what abilities that are required to be able to use digital techniques or technologies, one should instead focus on how digitalization contributes to the sustainability work in order to eliminate unnecessary processes or steps.

     

  • 6.
    Aslam, Muhammad Shehryar
    et al.
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Khan, Alishba
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Atif, Abeera
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Qureshi, Hassaan Khaliq
    National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Exploring Multi-Hop LoRa for Green Smart Cities2019In: IEEE Network MagazineArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing popularity of Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based smart city applications, various long-range and low-power wireless connectivity solutions are under rigorous research. LoRa is one such solution that works in the sub-GHz unlicensed spectrum and promises to provide long-range communication with minimal energy consumption. However, the conventional LoRa networks are single-hop, with the end devices connected to a central gateway through a direct link, which may be subject to large path loss and hence render low connectivity and coverage. This article motivates the use of multi-hop LoRa topologies to enable energy-efficient connectivity in smart city applications. We present a case study that experimentally evaluates and compares single-hop and multi-hop LoRa topologies in terms of range extension and energy efficiency by evaluating packet reception ratio (PRR) for various source to destination distances, spreading factors (SFs), and transmission powers. The results highlight that a multi-hop LoRa network configuration can save significant energy and enhance coverage. For instance, it is shown that to achieve a 90% PRR, a two-hop network provides 50% energy savings as compared to a single-hop network while increasing 35% coverage at a particular SF. In the end, we discuss open challenges in multi-hop LoRa deployment and optimization.

  • 7.
    Aydogan, Emre
    et al.
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Yilmaz, Selim
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Sen, Sevil
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    A Central Intrusion Detection System for RPL-Based Industrial Internet of Things2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8758024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Internet-of-Things (IoT) is revolutionizing the IT sector, it is not mature yet as several technologies are  still being offered to be candidates for supporting the backbone of this system. IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is one of those promising candidate technologies to be adopted by IoT and Industrial IoT (IIoT). Attacks against RPL have shown to be possible, as the attackers utilize the unauthorized parent selection system of the RLP protocol. In this work, we are proposing a methodology and architecture to detect intrusions against IIoT. Especially, we are targeting to detect attacks against RPL by using genetic programming. Our results indicate that the developed framework can successfully (with high accuracy, along with high true positive and low false positive rates) detect routing attacks in RPL-based Industrial IoT networks.

  • 8.
    Beije, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pix2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the creation of a new game framework named Pix and a comparison between it and the game engine Godot. The purpose is to create a game framework that focuses on making the workflow streamlined for the pro- grammer and at the same time giving the programmer a lot of creative power. Pix uses C# as programming language which runs on the .NET Core platform. Pix is built with Entity Component System (ECS) design which means that the design is data-oriented and that it focuses on composition. Thus the ECS design brings with it a clear separation between logic and data. The ECS design also makes it easy to write multithreaded code and to serialize the game world state. The comparison against Godot shows clear differences between how you use them and the philosophy about how the users become familiar with them. The obvious difference between them is that the main time spent working with Godot will be in the graphical user interface. In Pix on the other hand you will only work in a text-editor or an IDE if you do not create your own editor. The coding in Godot is done primarily with the script language GDScript. It is made for creating common game functionality but can’t be used to extend the engine with new advanced functionality. Thus to integrate new more advanced features Godot will need to be recompiled. Being forced to recompile the engine to add new advanced features results in that extending the engine can both be time consuming and challenging. In Pix there is no difference between coding game functionality and extending the framework. This equality in Pix between coding game functionality and extending the framework brings with it that when you can make a game in Pix you can also extend the engine with more functionality. The differences results in that Godot is simpler to learn but also gives the regu- lar user less power. Pix is the opposite of that. I you look at the workflow of us- ing Pix and combine that with the technologies Pix is built upon you can see that Pix differentiates itself from the already existing alternatives. The work- flow Pix provides and the technologies it is built upon shows that Pix can be a good alternative for creating complex games that doesn't need the most ad- vanced graphical features.

  • 9.
    Blank, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Handlingsplaner och diskussion: Samarbetsverktyg2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discloses the implementation of a collaboration tool in the form of action plans and discussion functionality in behalf of the company ZonderaCom AB (Zondera). The current tool used for this purpose is inflexible, have a hard time meeting customer requirements and therefore needs to be replaced. The new application is part of a larger entity where user management and database schemas are already in place. The functionality of this application consists of issue management, chat/discussion, document management, notes, sharing and printing. For users with higher permissions a summary view will also be available. The application is implemented using ASP.NET Core MVC, Entity Framework (EF) and SQL Server as the database engine. A SPA-based approach is used where the UI (User Interface) is dynamically rendered and loaded via Ajax and partial views. The source code for the application is largely omitted from this report due to business reasons. Interface’s and database schemas are used to display code and database structure.

  • 10.
    Bonafini, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Depari, Alessandro
    Univeristy of Brescia, Italy.
    Ferrari, Paolo
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Pasetti, Marco
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Rinaldo, Stefano
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. University of Brescia, Italy.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Exploiting localization systems for LoRaWAN transmission scheduling in industrial applications2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm contaminated industrial world, allowing for innovative services. The wireless communications seem to be particularly attracting, especially when complement indoor and outdoor Real Time Location Systems (RTLS) for geo-referencing smart objects (e.g. for asset tracking). In this paper, the LoRaWAN solution is considered for transmitting RTLS data. LoRaWAN is an example of Low Power Wide Area Network: it tradeoffs throughput with coverage and power consumption. However, performance can be greatly improved with limited changes to the standard specifications. In this work, a scheduling layer is suggested above the regular stack for allocating communication resources in a time slot channel hopping medium access strategy. The main innovation is the time synchronization, which is obtained opportunistically from the ranging devices belonging to the RTLSs. The experimental testbed, based on commercially available solutions, demonstrates the affordability and feasibility of the proposed approach. When low-cost GPS (outdoor) and UWB (indoor) ranging devices are considered, synchronization error of few microseconds can be easily obtained. The experimental results show the that time reference pulses disciplined by GPS have a maximum jitter of 180 ns and a standard deviation of 40 ns whereas, if time reference pulses disciplined by UWB are considered, the maximum jitter is 3.3 μs and the standard deviation is 0.7 μs.

  • 11.
    Borg, Madelene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Is It True2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study deals with a minor part of a larger project where several people are involved. The purpose of the project is to offer a service to counteract the spread of false information on the internet. One part of this is to create a prototype to test how such a service can look and function. The question that is answered by the study is how this can be achieved with the help of web development. The study's goal has been to develop and propose solutions to parts of the prototype on client side. Methods and tools used are React, Git, Scrum, Visual Studio Code, Jira and Microsoft Teams. The prototype will consist of a plugin for web browsers, a website and a database. The study will result in and visually show solutions to the parts developed by the author. It will also appear how the prototype is constructed in its entirety. The study has shown suggestions on how a service of this type can work but also that there are many things that need to be solved to enable the project to be realized.

  • 12.
    Bosse, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications – Heinrich Hertz Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Research Intstitutes of Sweden AB.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Martini, Maria G.
    Kingston University, London, UK.
    Ramzan, Naeem
    University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    CSIRO Data61, Kensington, Australia.
    A common framework for the evaluation of psychophysiological visual quality assessment2019In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, E-ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of perceived quality based on psychophysiological methods recently gained attraction as it potentially overcomes certain flaws of psychophysical approaches. Although studies report promising results, it is not possible to arrive at decisive and comparable conclusions that recommend the use of one or another method for a specific application or research question. The video quality expert group started a project on psychophysiological quality assessment to study these novel approaches and to develop a test plan that enables more systematic research. This test plan comprises of a specifically designed set of quality annotated video sequences, suggestions for psychophysiological methods to be studied in quality assessment, and recommendations for the documentation and publications of test results. The test plan is presented in this article.

  • 13.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things2019In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy / [ed] Paolo Mori, Steven Furnell and Olivier Camp, Setúbal, Portugal: SciTePress, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 623-630Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is in the booming age of its growth, therefore a vast amount of applications, projects, hardware/software solutions, and customized concepts are being developed. The proliferation of IoT will enable location-based services to be available everywhere for everyone, and this will raise a large number of privacy issues related to the collection, usage, retention, and disclosure of the user’s location information. In order to provide a solution to this unique problem of IoT, this paper proposes Location Privacy Assured Internet of Things (LPA-IoT) scheme, which uses the concepts of Mix-Zone, location-obfuscation along with context-awareness. To the authors’ best knowledge, the proposed LPA-IoT scheme is the first location-based privacy-preserving scheme for IoT that provides flexible privacy levels associated with the present context of the user.

  • 14.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    School of Engineering (DEI/ISEP), Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), 4200-072 Porto, Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Security Risk Analysis of LoRaWAN and Future Directions2019In: Future Internet, ISSN 1999-5903, E-ISSN 1999-5903, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRa (along with its upper layers definition—LoRaWAN) is one of the most promising Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technologies for implementing Internet of Things (IoT)-based applications. Although being a popular technology, several works in the literature have revealed vulnerabilities and risks regarding the security of LoRaWAN v1.0 (the official 1st specification draft). The LoRa-Alliance has built upon these findings and introduced several improvements in the security and architecture of LoRa. The result of these efforts resulted in LoRaWAN v1.1, released on 11 October 2017. This work aims at reviewing and clarifying the security aspects of LoRaWAN v1.1. By following ETSI guidelines, we provide a comprehensive Security Risk Analysisof the protocol and discuss several remedies to the security risks described. A threat catalog is presented, along with discussions and analysis in view of the scale, impact, and likelihood of each threat. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this work is one of the first of its kind, by providing a detailed security risk analysis related to the latest version of LoRaWAN. Our analysis highlights important practical threats, such as end-device physical capture, rogue gateway and self-replay, which require particular attention by developers and organizations implementing LoRa networks.

  • 15.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sari, Alparslan
    Department of Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Security Implications of Fog Computing on the Internet of Things2019In: International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), IEEE, 2019, article id 8661909Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the use of IoT devices and sensors has been rapidly increased which also caused data generation (information and logs), bandwidth usage, and related phenomena to be increased. To our best knowledge, a standard definition for the integration of fog computing with IoT is emerging now. This integration will bring many opportunities for the researchers, especially while building cyber-security related solutions. In this study, we surveyed about the integration of fog computing with IoT and its implications. Our goal was to find out and emphasize problems, specifically security related problems that arise with the employment of fog computing by IoT. According to our findings, although this integration seems to be non-trivial and complicated, it has more benefits than the implications. Index Terms—IoT, IIoT, vulnerabilities, trust, end-device, confidentiality, integrity, availability.

  • 16.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Detecting Intrusions in Cyber-Physical Systems of Smart Cities: Challenges and Directions2019In: Secure Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Cities / [ed] Riaz Ahmed Shaikh, Hershey, USA: IGI Global, 2019, p. 74-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacing the smart cities with cyber-physical systems (CPSs) improves cyber infrastructures while introducing security vulnerabilities that may lead to severe problems such as system failure, privacy violation, and/or issues related to data integrity if security and privacy are not addressed properly. In order for the CPSs of smart cities to be designed with proactive intelligence against such vulnerabilities, anomaly detection approaches need to be employed. This chapter will provide a brief overview of the security vulnerabilities in CPSs of smart cities. Following a thorough discussion on the applicability of conventional anomaly detection schemes in CPSs of smart cities, possible adoption of distributed anomaly detection systems by CPSs of smart cities will be discussed along with a comprehensive survey of the state of the art. The chapter will discuss challenges in tailoring appropriate anomaly detection schemes for CPSs of smart cities and provide insights into future directions for the researchers working in this field.

  • 17.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Preserving Location Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems2019In: 2019 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trending technological research platform is Internet of Things (IoT)and most probably it will stay that way for a while. One of the main application areas of IoT is Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), in which IoT devices can be leveraged as actuators and sensors in accordance with the system needs. The public acceptance and adoption of CPS services and applications will create a huge amount of privacy issues related to the processing, storage and disclosure of the user location information. As a remedy, our paper proposes a methodology to provide location privacy for the users of CPSs. Our proposal takes advantage of concepts such as mix-zone, context-awareness, and location-obfuscation. According to our best knowledge, the proposed methodology is the first privacy-preserving location service for CPSs that offers adaptable privacy levels related to the current context of the user.

  • 18.
    Bygdeson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Utvecklingen av Spotalike2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this assignment has been to study the product Spotalike and develop a new version to make the product more attractive. The studying of the product was done with the help of user data, such as how Spotalike is being used, what target audience it has, why it's being used, etc. The new version of Spotalike was planned by making design sketches and prototypes which were created as a first step in order to get a better picture of what the result would be. The new version is not available to the public, but it is fully functional and works locally. The solution that was concluded was to develop a music player which is built on the founding principles of the old Spotalike. The music player is developed with React and is powered by Spotify. Besides the old functions there are also new functions that has been implemented, and the interface has been redesigned. There is currently no new user data available to determine the result of the development, since the new version of Spotalike hasn't been made public yet.

  • 19.
    Bylin, Jenniefer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Riskanalys av självkörande fordon i hamnområden: En kvalitativ studie för interna transporter av containrar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, companies face constant challenges, as the business must constantly be developed in order to compete. As new ports are being built in already existing ones, other opportunities are often made available to develop further and reduce costs and risks. Replacing some labour against automation is one of them. The study aims to ensure the risks of using selfdriving vehicles for the movement of containers in port areas. The work has been carried out at SCA in Tunadal for their new coming terminal. The aim of the study was to examine the risk associated with manpower versus self-driving vehicles exist. If, based on a safety aspect, it is profitable to go towards a more automated business. To carry out the study, documents have been collected describing the accidents in the port, two persons who are extra responsible for the accidents in the port have been interviewed and observations have been made to also see how the self-driving vehicle is to be applied to reality. When processing the data, THERP - Technique for human error rate prediction has been used for mapping the current situation. FMEA - failure mode and effects analysis and FTA - Fault tree analysis has been used to map the future situation with automation. The result shows that from a safety perspective, it is safest to use self-driving vehicles, as it is the human slips that represent the greatest risks in port areas.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    eDiscovery-samverkan för digitalt bevarande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To solve the problems of long-term digital preservation, there must be an interaction between man, the process and the technology. Data processing is an important step to secure the digital long-term storage of documents, and to use collaborative surfaces with common platforms, for preparation between archive institutions. In a computer network that should automatically be able to find and communicate with other equipment in the same network, we use different systems daily to open our files, which in the original file format has a "built-in" format, which in a certain way organizes data to be read and processed by a computer program. Here, the collection of the material is required to be done correctly. The need for contact areas for collaboration is great and an activity for solutions that enable, among other things, to comply with legislation on information retention is ongoing. Authorities and many companies that have not yet noticed the problem have the need for solutions.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, August
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Åqvist, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lean´s påverkan på arbetsmiljön: En kvalitativ studie över effekterna på arbetsmiljö och hälsa vid införande av Lean2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many organizations that choose to introduce Lean production in their operations, as these are the concepts that have made the greatest progress in terms of efficiency programs. Since Lean focuses on maximizing customer benefit and minimizing waste of resources in an organisation's business processes, it is often forgotten that the introduction also affects the staff. The purpose of the study is to investigate what effects on the working environment and health that employees in the private sector experience after an introduction of Lean production as a strategy within their organization. The aim of the study has been to answer how a Lean introduction affects the working environment and health. The study is based on Almondy's latest improvement work on the shrinkage process. With the help of an interview study and a general literature study, we have examined what effects a Lean introduction has on the work environment and health. The interview study was conducted at Almondy AB, which is a food producer based in Gothenburg. Searching the literature is done in article databases with keywords linked to the area. By means of a comparative analysis method, the result has been analyzed. There are studies that show that the effects vary depending on the point of view they have had and in which industry the survey was conducted. This means that the effects get a large spread and therefore it is difficult to give a general picture of the effects. The results of the interview study show a positive effect on the work environment as they describe that the physical moments in the process have decreased. The results of the literature study show that more studies are needed to be able to demonstrate the general effects that Lean has on the working environment. But the literature study suggests that there are both negative and positive effects on the work environment and health when introducing Lean. The conclusion suggests that Almondy has had a positive impact on their physical work environment since there has been a decrease in deviation reports. If someone wants to study further in the field, Lean production should be investigated in several industries and examine all aspects of a Lean introduction linked work environment and health.

     

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Olivia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Auktorisering i system för digitalt bevarande2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to investigate, analyze and clarify the relationship between authorization and security policy for digital preservation system. Information security comes into focus when digital preservation systems are discussed. The handling of electronic documents in digital preservation systems is now widespread and a large part of many activities. This means that the business must ensure that it protects against the loss of information stored in the digital preservation system. Authorization and security policy are relevant to archive and information science because digital objects in digital preservation system are to be protected from unauthorized access. With a qualitative method the research will go through security policy, systems and models for access architecture. With open approach and open questions, the research will be summarized with a discussion on the most important conclusions for access management for digital preservation system, which are mainly built on roles. It is of great importance that the company uses roles and authorization levels to ensure that everyone knows with certainty what to do and what they cannot do.

  • 23.
    Davidsson, Viola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Att välja e-arkiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitization has exploded over the past 30 years and unfortunately the archives have not been able to do so. Many municipalities have not yet taken the step out and introduced e-archives, from a survey conducted by the National Archives in 2010, it turned out that only one-fifth of Sweden's municipalities had introduced e-archives, which is very little considering how much progress digitalization has made.

    There are two purposes for this thesis; The first is to do a small survey to capture reasons why some municipalities have introduced e-archives and others not. The other is to show what requirements there are on e-archives regarding legal aspects, security, user-friendliness and what cost the introduction of e-archives entails. The thesis is aimed at municipalities with about 10,000-30,000 inhabitants, where there are no equal opportunities for finance and competence that a larger municipality has.

    The issues are:

    What are the requirements for e-archives regarding legal aspects, security, user-friendliness and can the municipalities bear the cost of e-archives?

    Why did some municipalities get started with e-archives and others not?

    Method for this is a combination of literature study and interview study. Interviews have been done with two suppliers of e-archives, who want to be anonymous in this paper and 4 municipalities, of which two have introduced e-archives and two do not have e-archives. These municipalities have chosen because they are municipalities with about 10 000-30 000 inhabitants (to whom the report is directed). They were also chosen because they are close to each other purely geographical and can thus give a fair picture of the result.

    All the questions were answered in the result section.

    Requirements for legal aspects are the Freedom of the Press Decree. 2, which states that all Swedish citizens have the right to access public documents. The Archives Act regulates what is required for archives, what the purpose is, what it is supposed to do, and that the authorities are to care for their archives.

    In terms of cost, there was the ambition to get an economic picture of what e-archives cost. One municipality submitted price information and the other municipality referred to SKL kommentus which has confidentiality on the price information. The suppliers also did not issue price information and because of this, a comparison could not be made. However, there are some tips on how to think about procurement instead.

    Regarding security, there are examples of what one can think of, such as authorization control in the e-archive to protect the archive from unauthorized persons.

    With regard to accessibility, this essay has chosen to mean how accessible the e-archive is to the public and also the disabled. Therefore, Ales e-archive has been reviewed and the single Post and Telecom Agency's - Guidance for web development has Ale municipality reached 44 %, so they have a bit left.

    In response to the second question, it emerged after the interview study that the biggest reason why the municipalities did not get started with e-archives is that they lack competence and thus a fiery person who drives the issue and resources.

  • 24.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Division ICT - Acreo.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB.
    View Position Impact on QoE in an Immersive Telepresence System for Remote Operation2019In: 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how different viewing positions affect a user's Quality of Experience (QoE) and performance in an immersive telepresence system. A QoE experiment has been conducted with 27 participants to assess the general subjective experience and the performance of remotely operating a toy excavator. Two view positions have been tested, an overhead and a ground-level view, respectively, which encourage reliance on stereoscopic depth cues to different extents for accurate operation. Results demonstrate a significant difference between ground and overhead views: the ground view increased the perceived difficulty of the task, whereas the overhead view increased the perceived accomplishment as well as the objective performance of the task. The perceived helpfulness of the overhead view was also significant according to the participants.

  • 25.
    Ekman, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Implementation av Lean i traditionell verkstadsmiljö: En fallstudie i ett kollektivtrafikbolag2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how Lean can be implemented in a traditional workshop environment for a public transport company within the bus industry in Sweden. Public transport companies in Sweden suffer from the same problem and there are low margins. Lean can be a way to increase its margins and in this study it focuses on an ongoing Lean implementation and also previous implementations within the fall company. The study is made as a case study with a mixed method, it contains both qualitative and quantitative parts and that the approach is abductive.

    The information about the ongoing Lean implementation and previous initiatives has been gathered from interviews and observations. Since then, the information has been analyzed and discussed to come to a conclusion. It is that Lean can be implemented in a traditional workshop environment, but with different results. It depends on how you do it and the study shows that if you choose to include management from the beginning and educate them before the implementation starts, chances are that it will be successful. Only then does the study show that it is a winning concept. Another problem is also the inherited way of working in this environment, it is more or less affected by a bygone era when the business was municipal and did not have the same return requirements as today.

    The case company on which the study was made has previously implemented Lean, but without success, largely because management was not included. It was an external party that carried out the implementation, which made it difficult for the maintenance management to see the purpose and the purpose of the implementation which was thus excluded. On the other hand, the ongoing implementation has gained a completely different attachment to the management, much because the implementation goes through them. Maintenance management has also been trained in advance before implementation began, which the study shows was one of the success factors.

  • 26.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Butun, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), Porto, Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Formal security analysis of LoRaWAN2019In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 148, p. 328-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) protocols are receiving increased attention from industry and academia to offer accessibility for Internet of Things (IoT) connected remote sensors and actuators. In this work, we present a formal study of LoRaWAN security, an increasingly popular technology, which defines the structure and operation of LPWAN networks based on the LoRa physical layer. There are previously known security vulnerabilities in LoRaWAN that lead to the proposal of several improvements, some already incorporated into the latest protocol specification. Our analysis of LoRaWAN security uses Scyther, a formal security analysis tool and focuses on the key exchange portion of versions 1.0 (released in 2015) and 1.1 (the latest, released in 2017). For version 1.0, which is still the most widely deployed version of LoRaWAN, we show that our formal model allowed to uncover weaknesses that can be related to previously reported vulnerabilities. Our model did not find weaknesses in the latest version of the protocol (v1.1), and we discuss what this means in practice for the security of LoRaWAN as well as important aspects of our model and tools employed that should be considered. The Scyther model developed provides realistic models for LoRaWAN v1.0 and v1.1 that can be used and extended to formally analyze, inspect, and explore the security features of the protocols. This, in turn, can clarify the methodology for achieving secrecy, integrity, and authentication for designers and developers interested in these LPWAN standards. We believe that our model and discussion of the protocols security properties are beneficial for both researchers and practitioners. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents a formal security analysis of LoRaWAN.

  • 27.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Halmstad Högskola.
    Ferrari, Nico
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Dynamic User Authentication Protocol for Industrial IoT without Timestamping2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757984Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) technology has succeed ingetting a great attention in the industry where it has been ableand still can solve many industrial intractable issues. The emergingtechnology is suffering from severe security shortcomings.Authentication is a cornerstone of IoT security as it presents the measures of checking the legitimacy of communication’s entities.The Industrial IoT (IIoT) technology has special conditions, resulting from a lack of resources and a shortage of security skills. As far as we can tell, from the literature, IIoT user authentication has not been studied extensively. In 2017 Tai et al. presented an authenticated key agreement for IoT networks. Here we prove that Tai et al. is susceptible to sever security weaknesses, such as;i. stolen smart card attack, ii. unknown key share attack, iii. node capturing attack. In this research article, we offer an innovative IIoT user authentication scheme that can achieve secure remote user authentication without timestamping that requires precise synchronization, it only needs Hashing and Xor-ing. We examine the efficiency of our presented scheme using Tmote Sky node over an MSP430 microcontroller using COOJA simulator as well aswe show its correctness using Scyther verification tool.

  • 28.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pereira, Nuno
    The Polytechnic of Porto (IPP), Portugal.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Key Distribution Protocol for Industrial Internet of Things without Implicit Certificates2019In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 906-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of the Internet of Things (IoT) in industry, called the Industrial IoT (IIoT), is supporting the introduction of very desirable improvements such as increasing production flexibility, self-organization and real-time and quick response to events. However, security and privacy challenges are still to be well addressed. The IIoT requires different properties to achieve secure and reliable systems and these requirements create extra challenges considering the limited processing and communication power available to IIoT field devices. In this research article, we present a key distribution protocol for IIoT that is computationally and communicationally lightweight (requires a single message exchange) and handles node addition and revocation, as well as fast re-keying. The scheme can also resist the consequences of node capture attacks (we assume that captured nodes can be detected by the Gateway and previous works have shown this assumption to be acceptable in practice), server impersonation attacks and provides forward/backward secrecy. We show formally the correctness of our protocol and evaluate its energy consumption under realistic scenarios using a real embedded platform compared to previous state-of-the-art key-exchange protocols, to show our protocol reliability for IIoT.

  • 29.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Records roles in Corporate Sustainability Reporting: An explorative study of corporate sustainability reporting from an archives and information science perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Calls for more responsible companies, have led to initiatives and legislations of sustainability reporting, in order to improve corporate transparency and accountability regarding companies economic, environmental and social impact.

    The aim of the research was to explore records roles in corporate sustainability reporting, which is discussed from an archives and information science perspective. Records are regarded as evidence of business activities and therefore crucial to accountability and decision-making processes. A sustainability report is a record, and records are also used to create a sustainability report.

    The thesis is based on a qualitative explorative methodology with interviews as data gathering technique. Interviews were carried out with four employees at three different companies who work with sustainability reporting, a sustainability consultant who works with sustainability reporting, and an auditor who assesses the  companies´ annual and sustainability reports. The interviews have addressed records’ role in different aspects of sustainability reporting, exploring how sustainability reports are created, used and pluralized. As well as how the records, generated as an effect of the reporting process, are used, what impact they have on the business and efficiency of the process. The thesis also explore respondents´ perspectives on reliability and credibility of the reports in relation to records qualities. Results from the interviews have been analysed with the lens of Records Continuum Model and the ISO standard for records management, ISO 15489-1:2016.

    Results show that records are key assets that provide evidential information that enables different functions and benefits –both to companies that report and to stakeholders. Primary benefits of the reporting that have been emphasized are that it enables transparency and accountability, informed decision-making, management of risks, compliance with legislation, ability to demonstrate corporate responsibility and meeting sustainability goals, greater business efficiency, evidence-based analysis and development activities, formation of business culture and identity, and protection of corporate and collective memory about the corporates’ work regarding sustainability. Records are also valuable assets for governance and continuous improvements. It enables to monitor trends and assessment on how the company meets its targets.

    The thesis gives an increased understanding of records’ role in a socio-economic context. It also suggests some areas for further research and development in order for sustainability reporting to further support a sustainable development. One of the major tasks would be to make pluralization of sustainability-related records more efficient, in order to facilitate further utilization of the information. This may enhance corporate accountability and decision making based on sustainability criteria, and would make the work more efficient for companies. The global records governance environment can be improved further, in order to support  global sustainable development. Important is also to raise awareness about the role of trustworthy records.

  • 30.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Situating trust challenges of online trade2019In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 272-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer an improved understanding of trust challenges in online trade, providing examples of issues that should be addressed for a trustworthy online environment. It also aims to illustrate how records and recordkeeping can contribute in terms of enabling trust and accountability. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on results from a self-ethnographic study of online trade (Engvall, 2017); the results are analyzed further. Kelton, Fleischmann and Wallace’s (2008) model for trust is used to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the challenges and where they should be addressed. Findings: This paper recognizes that there are different types of trust challenges at different levels – individual, between clients and businesses and at a societal level – that should be addressed at these levels in different ways. Originality/value: This paper provides an understanding of trust challenges in the online environment. 

  • 31.
    Engvall, Tove
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bunn, Jenny
    University College London.
    Flinn, Andrew
    University College London.
    Michetti, Giovanni
    Sapienza University of Rome.
    Gänser, Georg
    InterPARES Trust.
    Cai, Yingfang
    The State Archives Administration of China.
    Henttonen, Pekka
    University of Tempere.
    The role of the records professional2019In: Trusting Records in the Cloud / [ed] Luciana Duranti & Corinne Rogers, London: Facet Publishing, 2019, 1, p. 223-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With digitalization, professional roles changes. New tasks, skills and collaboration with other professions are needed. This chapter highlight core responsibilities and expertise that records professionals contribute. It also highlight examples from initiatives with open data in Sweden and United Kingdom, as well as development of digitization of accounting in China. 

  • 32.
    Eriksson, John
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Karlsson, Tobias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Visualiseringsverktyg för migrerad kod: Ersättare till Guardien2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Java is one of the most widely used programming languages used today. CSN that previously used 4 GL tool should now migrate to Java development, which means that there is a need for a tool to show dependencies and relationships in the migrated and newly developed Java code. The GuardIEn was previously used in the old code base, but that tool will be wound up after CSN's after migration to Java. The overall purpose of the project is to create a graph database with data that is scanned with the tool jqAssistant. This database is then used by a Java backend that retrieves relationships and nodes from the graph database which is then used with a separate web interface in Angular to visualize all relations between program code

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Företagspresentation: Med WordPress och fokus på användbarhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this project has been to develop a website of the type of company presentation with opportunities for time booking for an organic hairdressing salon. The project's focus has been on usability and typography adapted for the web. In order to achieve usability, the project has been carried out based on various methods such as examination of similar systems, investigation to find out users' wishes, user stories, personas and scenarios and a few simpler usability tests. The personas with scenarios that have been developed have then been the basis for the work with the website together with a requirement list. In order to give the company its graphic profile, basic design and layout, a mood board and wireframes have been created. A responsive website prototype has then been developed where parts produced for the graphic profile and images are included. Based on the prototype, a website has been developed with its own theme in the content management system WordPress, to begin with on a local web server and the database MariaDB and finally on a web hosting server. The site's theme, typography, and its features have been developed using HTML, CSS and PHP. Finally, a number of plugins have been installed for various purposes such as contact forms, user role management, time booking, backup, security aspects and search engine optimization. An accessibility test has been carried out with a tool to help evaluate how accessible the content is in both the website prototype and the final website. The report follows the development of a website whose content has been analyzed in the results based on design and construction as well as usability based on design principles, Nielsen's Usability Heuristics, web guidelines and typography. The methods described, used and implemented to achieve usability have probably contributed positively to the development of a website to present a company and its services. Despite this, there is further development potential of the website.

  • 34.
    Falenius, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jarl, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lean – En utveckling från produktion till välfärd och service: En litteraturstudie av hur Lean utvecklats från produktion till välfärds- och servicebranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study consists of two studies around Lean. The studies are limited to two databases and three different sectors, the industry sector where Lean originated from, and the welfare and service sectors.

    The first study is a quantitative pilot study on published articles. The purpose was to get an understanding of what extent the different sectors get published, compared to each other. The result was illustrated in a graph where 40 articles per year were proportionally divided between the three sectors.

    The main study is a literature review where a scoring matrix was used to cull the selected articles. The remaining articles where compared to the “Toyota house” to answer the research questions:

    In what way has the definition of Lean changed from the manufacturing-based improvement philosophy it originated as, to the concept that is used in different sectors today?

    How does the specific sector affect the implementation of Lean, is there a difference in the Lean that is described in the literature compared to the Lean that is used in the welfare or service sectors?

    The study found in the chosen literature is that the sectors that are new at using Lean are using less of the tools available and in a smaller part of the organization, instead of using it on the whole organization. Many case studies where found that describes what tool was used, but not how they were used. One sector with many published articles was the construction sector, but they were overlooked due to the limitations of the study.

  • 35.
    Farag, Hossam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Enabling Time- and Mission-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have gained importance as aflexible, easier deployment/maintenance and cost-effective alternative to wired networks,e.g., Fieldbus and Wired-HART, in a wide-range of applications. Initially,WSNs were mostly designed for military and environmental monitoringapplications where energy efficiency is the main design goal. The nodes in the network were expected to have a long lifetime with minimum maintenance while providing best-effort data delivery which is acceptable in such scenarios. With recent advances in the industrial domain, WSNs have been subsequently extended to support industrial automation applications such as process automation and control scenarios. However, these emerging applications are characterized by stringent requirements regarding reliability and real-time communications that impose challenges in the design of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) to effectively support time- and mission-critical applications.

    Typically, time- and mission-critical applications support different traffic categories ranging from relaxed requirements, such as monitoring traffic to firm requirements, such as critical safety and emergency traffic. The critical traffic is mostly acyclic in nature and occasionally occurs at unpredictable time instants. Once it is generated, it must be delivered within strict deadlines. Exceeding the delay bound could lead to system instability, economic loss, or even endanger human life in the working area. The situation becomes even more challenging when an emergency event triggers multiple sensor nodes to transmit critical traffic to the controller simultaneously. The unpredictability of the arrival of such a type of traffic introduces difficulties with regard to making a suitable scheduling that guarantees data delivery within deadline bounds. Existing industrial standards and related research work have thus far not presented a satisfactory solution to the issue. Therefore, providing deterministic and timely delivery for critical traffic and its prioritization over regular traffic is a vital research topic.

    Motivated by the aforementioned challenges, this work aims to enable real-timecommunication for time- and mission-critical applications in IWSNs. In this context, improved Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are proposed to enablea priority-based channel access that provides a timely delivery for acyclic critical traffic. The proposed framework starts with a stochastic modelling of the network delay performance under a priority-oriented transmission scheme, followed by two MAC approaches. The first approach proposes a random Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) mechanism to improve the transmission efficiency of acyclic control traffic that is generated occasionally as a result of observations of an established tendency, such as closed-loop supervisory traffic. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol analytically in terms of the expected delay and throughput. Numerical results show that the proposed random CCA mechanism improves the shared slots approach in WirelessHART in terms of delay and throughput along with better transmission reliability.

    The second approach introduces a slot-stealing MAC protocol based on a dynamic deadline-aware scheduling to provide deterministic channel access in emergency and event-based situations, where multiple sensor nodes are triggered simultaneously to transmit time-critical data to the controller. The proposed protocol is evaluated mathematically to provide the worst-case delay bound for the time-critical traffic and the numerical results show that the proposed approach outperforms TDMA-based WSNs in terms of delay and channel utilization.

  • 36.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    DeP-D: A Decentralized Primal-Dual Optimization Algorithm for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757934Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) are emerged as flexible and cost-efficient alternatives to the traditional wired networks in various monitoring and control applications within the industrial domain. Low delay is a key feature of delay-sensitive applications as the data is typically valid for a short interval of time. If data arrives too late it is of limited use which may lead to performance drops or even system outages which can create significant economical losses. In this paper, we propose a decentralized optimization algorithm to minimize the End-to-End (E2E) delay of multi-hop IWSNs. Firstly, we formulate the optimization problem by considering the objective function as the network delay where the constraint is the stability criteria based on the total arrival rate and the total service rate. The objective function is proved to be strictly convex for the entire network, then a Decentralized Primal-Dual (DeP-D) algorithm is proposed based on the sub-gradient method to solve the formulated optimization problem. The performance of the proposed DeP-D is evaluated through simulations and compared with WirelessHART network and the results show that the proposed DeP-D can achieve at least 40% reduction in the average E2E delay.

  • 37.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Brescia University, Brescia, Italy.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Priority-Aware Wireless Fieldbus Protocol for Mixed-Criticality Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 2767-2780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor networks are becoming popular for critical monitoring and control applications in industrial automation systems. For such type of applications, providing reliable real-time performance regarding data delivery is considered as a fundamental challenge. The problem becomes more prominent with mixed-criticality systems, where different data flow with different levels of criticality (importance) coexist and characterized by different requirements regarding delay and reliability. In this paper, we propose a wireless fieldbus protocol to enable real-time communication and service differentiation for cluster-based mixed-criticality networks. A process monitoring scenario of plastic extrusion is used to define the protocol requirements and elaborate the working principle of the proposed work. In our proposed protocol, each data flow is scheduled for channel access based on its criticality level using a distributed prioritized medium access mechanism that ensures a guaranteed channel access for the most critical traffic over other traffic types. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed analytically using a discrete-time Markov chain model to evaluate the performance in terms of delay and throughput. Moreover, the extensive simulations are conducted to prove the analytical claims and different performance assessments are provided, which also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared with the related existing work.

  • 38.
    Ferrari, Nico
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Context-Based Authentication and Lightweight Group Key Establishment Protocol for IoT Devices2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of the Internet of Things is driven by advancements of the Internet with the interconnection of heterogeneous smart objects using different networking and communication technologies. With the rapidly increasing

    number of interconnected devices present in the life of a person, providing authentication and secure communication between them is considered a key challenge. The integration of Wireless Sensor Networks in the Internet of Things creates new obstacles due to the necessity of finding a balance between the resources utilization and the applied security solutions. In multicast group communications, the energy consumption, bandwidth and processing overhead at the nodes are minimized in comparison to a point-to-point communication system. To securely transmit a message in order to maintain confidentiality of the data and the user’s privacy, usually involves human interaction or the pre-agreement upon some key, the latter unknown to an external attacker. In this thesis, the author proposed an authentication

    protocol based on the similar context between the correct devices and lightweight computationally secure group-key establishment, avoiding any kind of human involvement. The goal is achieved by having the devices calculate a fingerprint from their ambient context and through a fuzzy commitment scheme generating a commitment respectively opening value which is used to generate a common secret key between them. The tests are effected on real world data accumulated from different environments. The proposed scheme is based on elliptic curve cryptography and cryptographic one-way accumulators. Its feasibility is analyzed by implementing the group key establishment phase in the Contiki operating system and by simulating it with the Cooja simulator. Furthermore, the applicability of

    the protocol is analyzed and justified by an analysis of the storage overhead, communication overhead, and energy consumption. The simulator shows an energy consumption of only 112 mJ per node for group key establishment.

    The results obtained in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of the scheme, it’s computational, and communication costs are further comparable to other similar approaches.

  • 39.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    An Implemented Open Source Blockchain Market for Smart Grids and Microgrids Using Autonomous Agents2019In: COINS '19 Proceedings of the International Conference on Omni-Layer Intelligent Systems, ACM Digital Library, 2019, Vol. F148162, p. 116-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a system for creating an implemented open energy market for future smart grid systems, microgrids, the Internet of Things, and the Industrial Internet of Things. We also investigate and analyze different aspects of blockchain technologies for this purpose in order to choose the appropriate methods, technologies, and approaches for realizing and implementing the system as an open source project. Based on this analysis, we present our resulting functional implementation of this energy market. Including measurements and a quantitative evaluation of the implementation itself. Showing the potential of the approach, where this implantation can be applied, showing its drawbacks, and finally our planned future work.

  • 40.
    Fredin, Elias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    GNSS undersökning: För bättre precision i smartphones2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to receive a position from a smartphone user is very valuable. Wit- hout this many applications would not work at all. For many applications the existing position libraries are not good enough, for example augmented reality applications which requires millimeter precision for a good experience. The goal of this report is to study if GNSS positioning can be improved for smartphones.The study focuses mostly on Android and has the goal of using the method “trilateration” to combine multiple satellites position and their distance to a receiver in order to calculate a real position. The projekt consists of two parts: and Android application and a Java Tomcat server. The android applica- tion uses the programming library “Location” to access raw GNSS-data for cal- culating the distance between the receiver and the satellites, which is called “pseudorange”, and the server functions as a REST API which provides GALI- LEO satellites current position. The project tries to combine these parameters in the Application to create a position. Although the report did not succeed in com- bining these parameters to calculate a position, it does describe of it is still pos- sible; which applications has succeeded before and what others ought to think about when starting similar studies. This project would require a bit more time to reach its end goal, but the fact that raw GNSS-data has become available to all developers on Android is a promising development since others may conti- nue or do their own research. This project focuses solely on GALILEO satelli- tes, mostly to time constraints. In future works all available satellite constella- tions should be used for better results.

  • 41.
    Freyschuss, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    System för digital skyltning till Fitness4You2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes development of a digital signage system for the client Fitness4You. The goal was to develop a system that can dynamically handle the content that Fitness4You wants to promote via screens located in their facilities. The system's user interface was developed in Angular, which has the task of managing and distributing the content that’s created. The server-side of the system was developed in PHP using Slim Framework with MariaDB as a database. To present the content that was created, the single-board computer Raspberry Pi were used. However, the choice to use Raspberry Pi as a media player was not obvious and questions were raised about how its performance would manage a web-based system. Theories that touches on what digital signage is and how the different technologies behave and how they work together are discussed. The report also touches on parts of the entire life cycle of the project and discusses requirements, modeling, design and code development. The project resulted in an executable system that can manage and present user-created content. However, the system still has some way to go before it can be delivered to Fitness4You. After a short but relatively demanding test, it turned out that the Raspberry Pi is a very capable small computer.

  • 42.
    Försth, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    When your finger isn't enough: New ways to increase the accessibility of mobile phones2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study has been to answer three questions. The questions are Can you navigate in a different way than with your fingers, Do you lose any functionality in the application when you are not using your fingers and is the solution a reasonable way to navigate. The study consist of two parts, the first is to create a navigation library with different navigation methods and the second part is to evaluate the navigation methods using user tests. The study shows that it is possible to navigate without the use of fingers and address problems and solution to navigate without the use of fingers. The study shows how different navigation methods perform compared to each other and compared to navigating with the use of fingers.

  • 43.
    Gardner, Angelica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Improving the Chatbot Experience: With a Content-based Recommender System2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chatbots are computer programs with the capability to lead a conversation with a human user. When a chatbot is unable to match a user’s utterance to any predefined answer, it will use a fallback intent; a generic response that does not contribute to the conversation in any meaningful way. This report aims to investigate if a content-based recommender system could provide support to a chatbot agent in case of these fallback experiences. Content-based recommender systems use content to filter, prioritize and deliver relevant information to users. Their purpose is to search through a large amount of content and predict recommendations based on user requirements. The recommender system developed in this project consists of four components: a web spider, a Bag-of-words model, a graph database, and the GraphQL API. The anticipation was to capture web page articles and rank them with a numeric scoring to figure out which articles that make for the best recommendation concerning given subjects. The chatbot agent could then use these recommended articles to provide the user with value and help instead of a generic response. After the evaluation, it was found that the recommender system in principle fulfilled all requirements, but that the scoring algorithm used could achieve significant improvements in its recommendations if a more advanced algorithm would be implemented. The scoring algorithm used in this project is based on word count, which lacks taking the context of the dialogue between the user and the agent into consideration, among other things.

  • 44.
    Gebremichael, Teklay
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lightweight Cryptographic Group Key Management Protocols for the Internet of Things2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is increasingly becoming an integral component of many applications in consumer, industrial and other areas. Notions such as smart industry, smart transport, and smart world are, in large part, enabled by IoT. At its core, the IoT is underpinned by a group of devices, such as sensors and actuators, working collaboratively to provide a required service. One of the important requirements most IoT applications are expected to satisfy is ensuring the security and privacy of users. Security is an umbrella term that encompasses notions such as confidentiality, integrity and privacy, that are typically achieved using cryptographic encryption techniques.

    A special form of communication common in many IoT applications is group communication, where there are two or more recipients of a given message. In or-der to encrypt a message broadcast to a group, it is required that the participating parties agree on a group key a priori. Establishing and managing a group key in IoT environments, where devices are resources-constrained and groups are dynamic, is a non-trivial problem. The problem presents unique challenges with regard to con-structing protocols from lightweight and secure primitives commensurate with the resource-constrained nature of devices and maintaining security as devices dynamically leave or join a group.

    This thesis presents lightweight group key management protocols proposed to address the aforementioned problem, in a widely adopted model of a generic IoT network consisting of a gateway with reasonable computational power and a set of resource-constrained nodes. The aim of the group key management protocols is to enable the gateway and the set of resource-constrained devices to establish and manage a group key, which is then used to encrypt group messages. The main problems the protocols attempt to solve are establishing a group key among participating IoT devices in a secure and computationally feasible manner; enabling additionor removal of a device to the group in a security preserving manner; and enabling generation of a group session key in an efficient manner without re-running the protocol from scratch. The main challenge in designing such protocols is ensuring that the computations that a given IoT device performs as part of participating in the protocol are computationally feasible during initial group establishment, group keyupdate, and adding or removing a node from the group.

    The work presented in this thesis shows that the challenge can be overcome by designing protocols from lightweight cryptographic primitives. Specifically, protocols that exploit the lightweight nature of crypto-systems based on elliptic curves and the perfect secrecy of the One Time Pad (OTP) are presented. The protocols are designed in such a way that a resource-constrained member node performs a constant number of computationally easy computations during all stages of the group key management process.

    To demonstrate that the protocols are practically feasible, implementation resultof one of the protocols is also presented, showing that the protocol outperforms similar state-of-the-art protocols with regard to energy consumption, execution time, memory usage and number of messages generated.

  • 45.
    Gebremichael, Teklay
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lightweight IoT Group Key Establishment Scheme from the One Time Pad2019In: 2019 7th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Cloud Computing, Services, and Engineering (MobileCloud), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Secure group communication in the Internet ofThings (IoT) entails the establishment and management of one or more group keys to provide group security services such as confidentiality of group messages. The main challenges in establishing a group key consist in designing a group key establishment scheme that is feasible for nodes with limited computational capabilities. In this paper, we propose a lightweight group key establishment scheme based on fast symmetric-key encryption. We show a mechanism for designing a lightweight and secure IoT group key establishment and management scheme whose security is underpinned by the perfect secrecy provided by the One-time-pad. We then argue that the scheme is convenient for IoT group applications where nodes are resource-constrained. We prove that our scheme is secure under a threat model where the attacker has sufficiently large computational power. We also prove that the scheme provides desired group security properties such as confidentiality, key secrecy and independent group session keys generation.

  • 46.
    Ghafoor, Mubeen
    et al.
    COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Tariq, Syed Ali
    COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Abu Bakr, M.
    COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Jibran,
    COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Zia, Tehseen
    COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Perceptually Lossless Surgical Telementoring System Based on Non-Parametric Segmentation2019In: Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics, ISSN 2156-7018, E-ISSN 2156-7026, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 464-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bandwidth constraint is one of the significant concerns of surgical telementoring, especially in rural areas. High-Efficiency Video Coding (H.265/HEVC) based video compression techniques have shown promising results for telementoring applications. However, there is a tradeoff between the quality of video received by the remote surgeon and the bandwidth resources required for video transmission. In order to efficiently compress and transmit real-time surgical videos, a hybrid lossless-lossy approach is proposed where surgical incision region (location of surgery) is coded in high quality while the background (non-incision) region is coded in medium to low quality depending on the nature of the region. The surgical incision region is detected based on an efficient color and location-based non-parametric segmentation approach. This approach takes explicitly into account the physiological nature of the human visual system and efficiently encodes the video by providing good overall visual impact in the location of surgery. The results of the proposed approach are shown in terms of video quality metrics such as Bjontegaard delta bitrate (BD-BR), Bjontegaard delta peak signal-to-noise ratio (BD-PSNR), and structural similarity index measurement (SSIM). Experimental results showed that in comparison with default full-frame HEVC encoding, the proposed surgical incision region based encoding achieved an average BD-BR reduction of 77.5% at high-quality settings (QP in range of 0 to 20 in surgical incision region and an increasing QP in skin and background region). The average gain in BD-PSNR of the proposed algorithm was 6.99 dB in surgical incision region at high-quality setting, and the average SSIM index came out to be 0.9926 which is only 0.006% less than the default full-frame HEVC coding. Based on these results, the proposed encoding algorithm can be considered as an efficient and effective solution for surgical telementoring systems for limited bandwidth networks.

  • 47.
    God, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Investerare & start-ups med fokus på hållbar utveckling: Discrete Choice Experiments för att undersöka investerares benägenhet att investera i hållbar utveckling2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable development becomes more and more important with an increasing number of catastrophic and long-term changes to the environment due to global warming. This also means that all the actors in the society needs to take their responsibility to combat this development. One of these actors are the private sector where the investors plays a large part in which companies that gets to develop their ideas and make a difference in the world. So, the question is: are investors taking that responsibility today and invest in start-ups with a focus on sustainable development in their business plans. This thesis aims to study how inclined investors are to invest in start-ups with a focus on sustainable development in their business plan. This is tested though Discrete Choice Experiments where 14 investors got to choose between three different companies with different levels of focus on sustainable development. Company A with the least amount of sustainability, company B with some focus and company C with a high focus on sustainable development. The Discrete Choice Experiments were distributed through a survey format where the companies were represented with a Business Model Canvas each and the investors first got to choose between company A & B, then A & C, and then company B & C. The results show that investors chose company A with the least amount of focus on sustainable development in 26 percent of the cases, company B with some focus in 45 percent, and company C with a high amount of focus in 29 percent of the cases. The study also shows a variation between different groups of investors, i.e. the investors who identified themselves as women were more inclined on investing in more sustainable options then men, and angel investors showed a clear willingness to invest in sustainability compared to venture capitals. The conclusions of the study are that its purpose was fulfilled and that the research questions was answered, investors showed an inclination to investing in companies with some focus on sustainable development but not too much. The results of the study can be used by companies in need of investments since they can see what group they should focus on to increase their chances. It is despite this also important to remember that the reliability and the validity of the study can be criticised with flaws for example in the reputability of the results. Future research within the area should study larger populations of investors to see if the same patterns repeat itself in other groups. It should also split the different attributes of the business model to see if different attributes play a larger part when investors decide which company to invest in.

  • 48.
    Grimaldi, Simone
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Real-time Interference Identification via Supervised Learning: Embedding Coexistence Awareness in IoT Devices2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 835-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy sampling-based interference detection and identification (IDI) methods collide with the limitations of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) IoT hardware. Moreover, long sensing times, complexity and inability to track concurrent interference strongly inhibit their applicability in most IoT deployments. Motivated by the increasing need for on-device IDI for wireless coexistence, we develop a lightweight and efficient method targeting interference identification already at the level of single interference bursts. Our method exploits real-time extraction of envelope and model-aided spectral features, specifically designed considering the physical properties of signals captured with COTS hardware. We adopt manifold supervised-learning (SL) classifiers ensuring suitable performance and complexity trade-off for IoT platforms with different computational capabilities. The proposed IDI method is capable of real-time identification of IEEE 802.11b/g/n, 802.15.4, 802.15.1 and Bluetooth Low Energy wireless standards, enabling isolation and extraction of standard-specific traffic statistics even in the case of heavy concurrent interference. We perform an experimental study in real environments with heterogeneous interference scenarios, showing 90%–97% burst identification accuracy. Meanwhile, the lightweight SL methods, running online on wireless sensor networks-COTS hardware, ensure sub-ms identification time and limited performance gap from machine-learning approaches.

  • 49.
    Große, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sources of Uncertainty in Swedish Emergency-Response Planning2019In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 758-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing importance of enhancing modern society’s resilience, planning for critical infrastructure protection has become essential. However, such national planning must contend with many types of uncertainty. This paper characterises sources of uncertainty that are associated with a lack of knowledge, as exemplified by Swedish planning of emergency power supplies. The planning under investigation concerns civil protection from the negative effects of a power shortage. A decision process is intended to support this national strategic management goal by identifying and prioritising electricity consumers who are critical to society at the local, regional and national levels. The analysis of related documentation yields three sources of uncertainty (S) interrelated with this multi-level planning (MLP) for emergency response: (S1) the planning process in general, (S2) the decision-making process in particular and (S3) the direction and guidance alongside these processes. Interviews with decision-makers reveal a detailed specification of these sources of uncertainty. The results thus provide a solid basis for further goal-directed improvement of national MLP approaches. Moreover, this specification contributes to scholarly debate on the systemic effects of sources of uncertainty due to a lack of knowledge. Lastly, the findings constitute a thinking framework that is suggested as a foundation for analytical work in similar complex planning environments as well as for evidence-based communication to the wider public concerning risks and resilience.

  • 50.
    Große, Christine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Blind spots in interaction between actors in Swedish planning for critical infrastructure protection2019In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, p. 424-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failures in the power supply threaten the safety of developed countries, as they are increasingly dependent on electricity to maintain important societal functions through critical infrastructure. To protect electricity-dependent critical infrastructure, Sweden has implemented a multi-level planning, called Styrel, which involves national-, regional- and local-level actors. This study focuses on interactions among key actors and their roles in the planning as well as the Swedish crisis management system. With evidence from interviews and a survey among the actors, analyses indicate blind spots in the current proceeding, such as the reliance of the outcome of the process on the actors’ commitment to achieve a common understanding of the importance of infrastructure assets and participate in collaborations. This paper reveals that actors lack awareness, knowledge, capability and resources to fulfil their roles in the national planning for critical infrastructure protection. By highlighting interrelations, this study contributes to the international discussion of identification, prioritisation and protection of critical infrastructure to mitigate consequences of power failures for a depending society.

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