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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Measuring the Immeasurable?  The Intangible Benefits of Digital Information2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences  2019, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 2019, p. 6176-6185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of digital information are mostly viewed as intangible, meaning that they can be hard to measure. This lack of measurements makes the benefits difficult to compare and communicate, creating problems for e.g. decision-making and the strategic development of specific digital information. Therefore, I conducted a literature review to find out how the combination of intangible benefits and measurements are dealt with in the information systems field. I found that we measure the intangible benefits of information systems or information technology. Here, the measurement method is divided into input, rule, and output. The input consists of predetermined individual benefits, areas of predetermined benefits, or interpreted benefits from respondents. The rule follows an accepted theory or contextual adjusted rules, and the output (benefit) can be seen as either financial or non-financial. The avenue for further research focuses on the digital information as the primary resource, not information systems or information technology.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ahmad, Awais
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Determining Testbed Requirements for Technology Enhanced Speech Rehabilitation after Stroke -the Informed Co-workers' View Point2019In: GLOBAL HEALTH 2019: The Eighth International Conference on Global Health Challenges / [ed] Hassan Khachfe, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2019, p. 20-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses and discusses the identified requirements for technology enhanced systems for speech rehabilitation after a stroke. To stroke patients, a speech injury can be devastating, impacting their abilities to speak, listen, read, and write. Therefore, speech therapy is recommended as early as possible. To address the challenge with a growing percentage of older adults, therapy should include a variety of Technology Enhanced Systems (TES) to support the idea of independent living. These systems must be adapted to the patients' needs and speech therapy requirements. Based on a design science approach, requirements were determined from an analysis of ten semi-structured interviews with knowledgeable informants. Findings indicate several important requirements, such as: TES should be motivating, joyful, individualised and built on patients' needs and on speech therapists' professional knowledge. Furthermore, TES services must be user-friendly and provide training in each patient's mother tongue. Added to these requirements are ease of including close relatives as supporting persons, as well as accessibility through portable devices.

  • 3.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Critical Factors for Human Computer Interaction of eHealth for Older Adult2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 the 5th International Conference on e-Society, e-Learning and e-Technologies, Vienna: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, Vol. 5, p. 58-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The percentage of older adults increases globally with an increased need for medical care. To support the idea of successful active aging, e-health seems to be an interesting concept. This study was conducted as a systematic literature study, with the aim to identify and discuss determinant factors in the Human computer interaction of eHealth for older adults. The important main research question to answer was: What are the critical challenges to address for an improved human computer interaction in technology enhanced health care systems for older adults? Findings show that there are several critical factors to consider, with trust, personal integrity, technological acceptance, e-health literacy and accessibility of ICT as the most determinant. If the found challenges are addressed, it might be possible to achieve the identified aim of independent living. The recommendation is a human computer interaction that is elderly centred, and involves the elderly users in the design process. However, no ICT enhanced system will be user-friendly enough to take away the need for social and technological support.

  • 4.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Testbed requirements for technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation to support independent living2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An identified global phenomenon is that, as the percentage of older adults increases, new challenges arise for medical care and rehabilitation. Several research studies have presented e-health as a promising concept to support the idea of independent living among patients with chronic diseases. The Mid Sweden region has a relatively old population and is a region where people live with long distances to the nearest hospital or health care centres. This study had a focus on defining testbed requirements for a technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation adapted to the specific region. The focal research question to answer in this study was: What are the requirements and their associated benefits and barriers of using technology-enhanced systems instead of traditional techniques for stroke rehabilitation in the Mid Sweden region? With Design Science as the overall research strategy, data was collected by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the field of stroke rehabilitation. A deductive thematic analysis was conducted where important themes were grouped into the four main requirement categories of: Technical, Human-computer-interaction, Clinic and Sustainability. Beside the more specific requirements, an interesting finding was the division of stroke rehabilitation into the categories motoric, cognitive and speech rehabilitation; also, how technology enhanced solutions might be used in these categories. Each category has a potential for a successful use of technology enhanced services, but as the standard procedure in traditional stroke rehabilitation each patient needs a personalised treatment.   

  • 5.
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Users’ activities and impediments from motivation to deployment in Open Government Data – a process framework2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Informatik.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Users' activities for using Open Government Data: A process framework2019In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 13, no 3/4, p. 213-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This research aims to develop a user process framework with activities and their variations for the use of open government data (OGD) based on empirical material and previous research. Open government data (OGD) is interoperable data that is shared by public organisations (publishers) for anyone (users) to reuse without restrictions to create new digital products and services. The user process was roughly identified in previous research but lacks an in-depth description. This lack can hamper the ability to encourage the use and the development of related theories.

    Design/methodology/approach - A three-stage research approach was used. Firstly, a tentative framework was created from previous research and empirical material. This stage involved three different literature reviews, data mapping, and seven interviews with OGD experts. The empirical material was analysed with inductive analysis, and previous research was integrated into the framework through concept mapping. Secondly, the tentative framework was reviewed by informed OGD experts. Thirdly, the framework was finalised with additional literature reviews, eight interviews with OGD users, and a member check, including all the respondents. The framework was used to guide the data collection and as a tool in the analysis.

    Findings -The user process framework covers activities and related variations, where the included phases are: start, identify, acquire, enrich, and deploy. The start varies relating to the intended use of the OGD. In the identify phase, the user is exploring the accessible data to decide if the data is relevant. In the acquire phase, the user is preparing for the delivery of the data from the publisher and receiving it. In the enrich phase, the user is concocting and making something. In the final deploy phase, the user has a product or service that can be provided to end-users.

    Research limitations/implications - The framework development has some limitations: the framework needs testing and development in different contexts and further verification. The implications are that the framework can help guide researchers towards relevantand essential data of the user process, be used as a point of compari-son in analysis, and be used as a skeleton for more precious theories.

    Practical implications - The framework has some practical implications for users, publishers, and portals. It can introduce users to the user process and help them plan for the execution of it. The framework can help publishers understand how the users can work with their data and what can be expected of them. The framework can help portal owners to understand the portal's role between users and publishers and what functionality and features they can provide to support to the user.

    Originality/value - In previous research, no user process with an in-depth description was identified. However, several studies have given a rough recall. Thus, this research provides an in-depth description of the user process with its variations. The framework can support practice and leads to new research avenues.

  • 7.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Jungselius, Albert
    Stockholms universitet.
    Boman, William
    Stockholms universitet.
    Chat yourself into the society: The development of an audio-visual online environment for the newly arrived2019In: INTED2019 Proceedings, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, Vol. 13, p. 553-557Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large groups of refugees have arrived in Sweden during the last years with a peak in 2015 when there were around 1.3 million asylum applications. Many of the newly arrived are still not yet integrated into the Swedish society and language skills is a key factor for a successful inclusion and integration process. There is a need for new digital language learning tools, not least for informal self-learning. The aim of the study is to describe and discuss the development and evaluation of an audio-visual online tool for informal language learning as a complement to formal language training.

    The overall research strategy has been action research with a qualitative investigation where data were gathered in a mix of usability tests, observations and interviews. Main informants were 12 students from three separate courses on Swedish for newly arrived. Since the group of informants constitute an exposed group, personal details have been kept as anonymous as possible.

    Findings indicate that several design concepts were useful and appreciated by the test group, but several users wanted an alternative to the Facebook based login. Gamification seemed to be a promising way to increase motivation, and many participants perceived that a feature with direct translation of messages would be a good way to improve the language learning. Furthermore, there were requests for tool mechanisms to filter conversation partners by gender and by interests.

       

  • 8.
    Hedmark, Alice
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Undersökning av webbsidors säkerhet vid användning avFacebook Login: Vidareutveckling och analys av OAuthGuard2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Single Sign-On (SSO) is an authentication process that allows

    a developer to delegate the authentication responsibility to a

    dedicated service. OAuth 2.0 is an authorization framework

    that often serves as a base for authentication layers to be built

    upon that in turn allows for SSO. An identity provider is the

    service that is responsible for handling user credentials and

    the authentication, two common identity providers are

    Google and Facebook that implement SSO with the

    authentication layers OpenID Connect respectively

    Facebooks own authentication layer. It has been shown that

    many clients using OAuth 2.0 as base for SSO make faulty

    implementations leading to security issues, a number of

    studies has proposed solutions to these issues but faulty

    implementations are continually being made. To create

    various tools to promote security in these contexts is a

    method where OAuthGuard has been developed with the

    vision to also directly protect the common website user

    directly from the browser. OAuthGuard has been used in an

    earlier study to analyze the security of clients using Google

    SSO and discovered that 50% of the analyzed clients had

    flaws, no comparable study has been done for clients using

    Facebook SSO, which is the second largest third party log in

    variant. This study made a comparable investigation for

    Facebook SSO clients with a further developed version of

    OAuthGuard and found that these clients suffer from flaws

    with a similar trend as the previous study with Google-SSO

    clients, although fewer Facebook-SSO clients suffer from

    these flaws. When further developing OAuthGuard a

    dumber of difficulties was discovered and the future of these

    kind of tools needs to be investigated. Further analysis needs

    to be done to assess if Facebook-SSO should be

    recommended over Google-SSO from a security perspective

    and also further exploration of new methods to promote

    security needs to be done.

  • 9.
    Hellerstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Game-based learning: a long history2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies on Game-based learning (GBL) start out in the era of Tetris and PacMan and are limited to digital learning games. However, the GBL concept has a long pre-history with board games like Kalaha, Xiangxi, Chess and other forms of game having been used for thousands of years in educational contexts, training strategic and tactical thinking, as well as language skills, mathematics and other subjects. Games and play-based learning were well-known didactic ideas in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire. The oldest African board games were built more than 5000 years ago.

    The aim of this study is to analyse and discuss ideas on the role of games in education from a historical perspective. A literature study was carried out with a focus on the intellectual history of educational theory, followed by discussions of a number of key texts. Authors have analysed the changing conceptions of play and games in the context of the philosophy of education. 

    Findings indicate that the view of games and game-based learning varies between the studied époques.  However, the idea of complementing theoretic and abstract education with concrete and motivating play seems to have a constant value. A concept that for several reasons can be even more important in contemporary, technology enhanced mass education. 

  • 10.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Arkenback, Charlotte
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ekström, Sara
    Högskolan i Väst.
    Ericsson, Elin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ryberg, Thomas
    Aalborgs universitet.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Fuentes, Ana
    Högskolan i Väst.
    Gustafsson, Ulrika
    Umeå Universitet.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Utterberg, Marie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Critical Imaginaries and Reflections on Artificial Intelligence and Robots in Postdigital K-12 Education2019In: Postdigital Science and Education, ISSN 2524-4868, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 427-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly suggested that emerging technologies will revolutionize education. In this paper, two such emerging technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and educational robots (ER), are in focus. The aim of the paper is to explore how teachers, researchers and pedagogical developers critically imagine and reflect upon how AI and robots could be used in education. The empirical data were collected from discussion groups that were part of a symposium. For both AI and ERs, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they operates, the need for more knowledge about these technologies, how they could preferably be used, and how the emergence of these technologies might affect the role of the teacher and the relationship between teachers and students, were outlined. Many participants saw more potential to use AI for individualization as compared with ERs. However, there were also more concerns, such as ethical issues and economic interests, when discussing AI. While the researchers/developers to a greater extent imagined ideal future technology-rich educational practices, the practitioners were more focused on imaginaries grounded in current practice.

  • 11.
    Humble, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Developing Computational Thinking Skills In K-12 Education Through Block Programming Tools2019In: 12th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville (Spain), 11-13 November 2019, Valencia (SPAIN), 2019, Vol. 12, p. 4865-4873Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequently mentioned reason for learning and integration programming in K-12 education is the development of computational thinking. However, there have been some differences in previous research concerning how computational thinking skills are developed through programming activities. An increasingly popular tool for programming in K-12 education is block programming. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss potential opportunities and challenges in developing computational thinking skills through the use of block programming tools in K-12 education.

    The study has been conducted as a literature review where findings have been gathered and structured according to facets from a computational thinking framework presented by Valerie J. Shute, Chen Sun and Jodi Asbell-Clarke (2017) in ‘Demystifying computational thinking. Educational Research Review, 22, 142-158'. The gathered data was further analysed through content analysis and with the use of deductive coding. In the literature search the following keywords where mainly used and combined with the Boolean operators ‘or’ and ‘and’: computational thinking, block programming, K-12, education, opportunities, challenges. The literature search where further filtered with a publication time frame between 2015 and 2019, with the exceptions of backward-searches.

    Findings show that there are both opportunities and challenges in using block programming tools to develop computational thinking skills. Where some are specific for the block programming approach, while other are more general. The conclusion of the study is that computational thinking skills should be targeted explicit in block programming activities for the desired development to occur. Author recommendation is that a variety of programming tools and approaches are used in computational thinking activities to encourage curiosity and progress.

  • 12.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Artificial Intelligence in Education - a Promise, a Threat or a Hype?2019In: Proceedings of the European Conference on the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, EM-Normandie Business School Oxford, UK, 31 October-1 November 2019 / [ed] Paul Griffiths and Mitt Nowshade Kabir, England: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, p. 149-156, article id ECIAIR.19.005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of creating intelligent machines and artificial intelligence (AI) have been around for centuries, and can be traced back to at least to the 14th century. Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) is a much younger discipline, but during the last 25 years there have been achievements in a number of fields which have made impact on education. Critical voices have been raised against the over-optimism in contemporary AI research. Less have been written about the high expectation of AIED and its potential impact on education. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss AIED from the teacher perspective. 

    This study was carried out as a SWOT-analysis, with data gathered from a literature study. Main keywords in the literature search were: artificial intelligence, artificial intelligence in education, AIED, teacher perspective, education and teacher. Themes and patterns in the four main categories where further processed as a deductive-inductive thematic analysis. 

    Findings indicates that there are both promises and threats for the teacher in the contemporary AIED. In several aspects the field seems to be in a state of hype but as other hype areas there is a potential for maturing and with concrete applications in daily teaching and learning activities. Recommendations is to learn from traditional AI and to open up for an informative and nuanced discussion concerning the role of AI in education. Otherwise there is a risk for artificial education instead of artificial intelligence in education. 

  • 13.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Learning Analytics For Programming Education: Obstacles And Opportunities2019In: 12th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Seville (Spain), 11-13 November 2019, Valencia (SPAIN), 2019, Vol. 12, p. 6159-6166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years the field of Learning Analytics have been frequently mentioned in discussions of addressing challenges in education, as well as a means to analyse and draw upon students' strengths in educational contexts. Prognoses for the future labour market show an increasing need of programmers, yet studies show that programming education struggle with student dropout, poor academic performance and low pass rates. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss potential obstacles and opportunities in using learning analytics tools for forecasting student success in relation to course outcomes in programming education.

    This study was carried out as a literature review with a theorical framework for Learning Analytics presented by Yassine, Kadry and Sicilia (2016) in “A framework for learning analytics in moodle for assessing course outcomes”. In 2016 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON) (pp. 261-266). IEEE.” as the basis for a content analysis with deductive coding. Main keywords in the literature search was: learning analytics, programming, education, course, tool, obstacles, opportunities. Keywords were combined with the Boolean operators “and” and “or”. The literature search was limited to recently published research (between years 2015 and 2019).

    The study shows that learning analytics tools, if thoughtfully used, is an opportunity to forecast student success and improve educational design, both from the student perspective and from the teacher perspective. Learning analytics tools does not necessarily have to build on quantitative big data analyses only. From a teacher perspective it could be more valuable with a mixed method approach in the strive to improve existing course design. As pointed out in several research studies students’ and teachers’ integrity have to be respected. Today’s virtual learning environments provide huge amounts of learning data, but as in all other types of research, this should build on informed consent. Finally, in a new approach of learning analytics the analyses preferably should include some teaching analytics as well, to better improve course design and learning outcomes.

  • 14.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teacher Perception Of Obstacles And Opportunities In The Integration Of Programming In K-12 Settings2019In: EDULEARN19 Proceedings, Palma (Spain): The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, Vol. 11, p. 350-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The act of programming can be traced back to the 19th century and Ada Lovelace. In the context of history, the idea to combine programming with mathematics and technology is not strange. Today programming is a much more widespread phenomenon. But the relevance of programming in mathematics and technology is still very obvious. However, with the mandatory addition of programming in K-12 setting a debate has been sparked concerning the impact on teaching activities. The aim of this study was to analyse and discuss possible obstacles and opportunities in integrating programming in K-12 settings from a teacher perspective. The two important main questions to answer were: 1) which are teachers' perceived obstacles and opportunities in the integration of programming in K-12 setting? 2) which are the differences and similarities in expectation between teachers with and without earlier programming experience?

    This study was carried out inspired of action research with the objective of improving an existing programming course for mathematic and technology teachers. Action research is a strategy that do not only strive to generate new knowledge but also has the aim to improve real world phenomena. Authors in this study had the double roles of being teachers and researchers, with the idea of establishing a cyclical process where course participants feedback should lead to extensions of the future course versions. Data were collected in the teacher training course and consist of 44 submitted essay answers on the question: In which aspects might programming be a positive and/or negative enhancement of you daily teaching? Collected data were grouped into categories with the use of content analysis.

    Results indicate that there are both perceived opportunities and perceived obstacles among teachers concerning integrating programming in mathematics and technology. An obvious finding was the mix of positive and negative attitudes in the vast majority of essays. In the category of obstacles many teachers brought up the risk of time trouble in both their professional development and in their teaching activities. In the category of opportunities several teachers mentioned the potential of programming as a new and motivating learning tool in their subjects. Finally, it seems important for the participants to get concreate takeaways from the course that could be used in their daily teaching activities.

  • 15.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teacher-supported AI or AI-supported teachers?2019In: Proceedings of the European Conference on the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, EM-Normandie Business School Oxford, UK, 31 October-1 November 2019 / [ed] Paul Griffiths and Mitt Nowshade Kabir, England: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 157-164, article id ECIAIR.19.007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, AI has a rapid dissemination and is becoming involved in many new areas. One of these areas is education, with AI in education (AIED) as an emerging research topic. When AIED will be applied in educational settings, would AI be implemented as a teacher support, or will the teachers support the AI systems? The aim of this study was to analyse contemporary research on AIED and discuss its possibilities and challenges. 

    This study was carried out as a literature review, where found themes and patterns have been categorised in a thematic analysis. Important main keywords in the search where: human-compatible AI, teachers, education, human-supported AI, AI-supported humans, AI in education. Keywords have been combined with Boolean operators to find articles containing information that was important to answer the research question. 

    In the deductive analysis found themes and patterns where grouped into the categories: teacher-supported AI, AI-supported teachers, teacher-compatible AI. Findings indicate that many studies lack a clear distinction between teacher-supported AI and AI-supported teachers. The recommendation is teacher-compatible AI, and that the combination of humans and AI is stronger than just one of them.

  • 16.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sällvin, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    On the Role of Unplugged Programming in K-12 Education2019In: Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on e-Learning, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark, 7-8 November 2019 / [ed] Rikke Ørngreen, Mie Buhl and Bente Meyer, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019, p. 224-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of programming in K-12 setting is a global phenomenon with different implementations in different countries. In Sweden this is a rapid process where programming should be a part of K-12 mathematic and technology with an implementation during 2018 and 2019. The time frame has been narrowly defined, but there are few directives considering which types of programming that should be used. Three main programming types are textual programming, block programming and unplugged programming, this study has a focus on unplugged programming. The research question to answer was: Which are K-12 teachers attitudes on the role of unplugged programming in education? 

    The research study has been a qualitative cross-sectional study with the aim to collect teachers' attitudes towards unplugged programming halfway through their introductory programming course. Cross-sectional study is an approach to capture snapshots of an ongoing process at a given point in time. Data were collected from discussions and online postings during a workshop in the above-mentioned programming course. Participants postings have been grouped into categories in a content analysis based on the frequency of occurrence and relevance for answering the research question. 

    Findings show that most teachers see a benefit of unplugged programming as a means to learn the fundamental programming concepts in their teaching and learning activities. However, there are different opinions on when this unplugged introduction should occur. Some teachers also pointed out that unplugged programming could be used as an alternative to block programming and textual programming when the digital environment lacks or fails. Conclusions are that unplugged activities are a valuable complement to block programming and textual programming, but teachers have different opinions on the optimum age group for unplugged programming activities. The recommendations for K-12 teachers is to seriously consider the unplugged complement, both for pedagogical reasons and as a never-failing analogue backup. 

  • 17.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sällvin, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Teacher Challenges And Choice Of Programming Tools For Teaching K-12 Technology And Mathematics2019In: Education and new developments (END2019) / [ed] Mafalda Carmo, Porto, Portugal: inScience Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 431-435Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current ongoing process in many countries today is to implement programming in K-12 education. With this comes challenges for the involved teachers on how to best teach and integrate programming in their subjects. On the other hand, the introduction of programming could also open opportunities for programming as a new and improved way of learning and understanding technology and mathematics. For Swedish K-12 teachers this should be rapidly implemented, but without any concrete guidelines for how or for which tools to use. The aim of this study was to explore teachers' perceptions of learning and integrating programming in technology and mathematics, and their preferences of programming tools. 

    The overall research strategy was a case study approach, with two instances of a programming course as the case study units. In both course instances the main choice has been between block programming with Scratch, and textual programming with Python. Data was collected in a combination of submitted essays, programming assignments and workshop observations. Findings from a content analysis of the submitted essays have been compared to workshop observations, and to the analysis of programming assignments. 

    Results suggests that the main challenge in learning and integrating programming is the perceived time trouble. In parallel, many teachers highlight the potential benefits of renewing their teaching and learning sessions with programming-based problem solving. Considering the choice between block programming and textual programming several teachers brings up the idea of combining the two rather than excluding one of them. Furthermore, there seems to be minor differences in the preferences of programming tools between teachers with different subjects and different age groups of students. Finally, the most positive finding is the improved self confidence that many teachers show, when their own ability to manage programming in their classrooms increase after learning the fundamentals of programming.  

  • 18.
    Humble, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Sällvin, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Programmering i matte och teknik2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att introducera programmering i grund- och gymnasieskola är en pågående process i många länder. I Sverige ska detta inledningsvis ske som en del av matematik och teknik där programmering är tänkt att användas som ett verktyg för problemlösning. Flera forskningsstudier har presenterat vilka fördelar detta skulle kunna föra med sig, men det är svårare att hitta riktlinjer för hur det ska genomföras. Till exempel, hur och när yrkesverksamma lärare ska fortbilda sig inom grundläggande programmering.

    Författarna till den här artikeln är samtliga undervisande lärare på en programmeringskurs på Mittuniversitetet som riktar sig specifikt till yrkesverksamma lärare i matematik och teknik på grund- och gymnasienivå.

    I samband med att denna kurs har gått så har forskning bedrivits utifrån två huvudsakliga frågor: 1) Vilka hinder och möjligheter ser lärare i att integrera programmering i matematik och teknik? 2) Vilka styrkor och svagheter ser lärare med att använda textbaserad, block- och analog programmering som verktyg i matematik och teknik?

    Resultaten från dessa studier har publicerats på internationella konferenser. Nedan följer en kortare introduktion till några centrala begrepp inom forskningsfältet samt en sammanfattning av de mest framträdande resultaten från vår forskning.

  • 19.
    Isaksson, Leonard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    En enkätstudie rörande systemutvecklingsansatser och   metodologier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has   focused on system development approaches and system development   methodologies. The purpose of the study has been to present a view on the   current situation of different development approaches (agile, traditional,   iterative and hybrid) and methodologies by highlighting the situation from a   number of perspectives. Questions that are answered are: which system   development approaches and methodologies that can be said to be most   frequently used based on the respondents, if the mentioned approaches can be   given certain characteristics based on a selection of factors and the   respondents' attitude towards the approach they practice. The study has been   conducted as a survey where the answers have been obtained via social media.   The result shows that agile methodologies dominate and that they are often   included in various forms of hybrid and agile approaches. Furthermore, it has   not been possible to create an in-depth knowledge of the approaches based on   the selected factors. Finally, it is noted that project members who practice   an agile approach have a great confidence in the approach and have a strong   conviction that it contributes to increase the quality of the software.

  • 20.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson Bergström, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Orchestrating learning as an emergent practice in the use of location-based games with mobile devices2019In: Emergent practices and material conditions in learning and teaching with technologies / [ed] Teresa Cerratto Pargman and Isa Jahnke, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, p. 163-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses the inclusion of location-based games and mobile devices in an educational setting that embraces both indoor and outdoor sessions. The study was built on a framework including learning as a social and collaborative phenomenon. Two case units, in terms of a 5th grade Social Science class and a 6th grade Mathematics class, were included in the study. Each case unit embraced an indoor preparing session, an outdoor session including mobile devices and the location-based game Pokémon GO, and an indoor follow-up session. The chapter aims at contributing to the understanding of how students and teachers together, in an emergent practice of orchestrating learning, apply mobile devices and location-based games in their educational setting. From this aim, the following research question unfolds: How could location-based games and mobile devices be applied by students and teachers to orchestrate learning in middle school settings? Data were gathered by semi-structured group interviews and video recordings with 20 students and two teachers. Moreover, documents such as lesson plans were included in the dataset. In the study, it was found that students and teachers participated in a shared and emerging practice of orchestrating learning and teaching. In this practice students and teachers acted as co-designers to orchestrate the application of location-based games and mobile devices in the educational setting. Findings suggest that an orchestration including a combination of a collaborative approach to learning, location-based games and activities that embrace outdoor and indoor sessions has the potential to vitalise and enhance traditional classroom-based education. However, there is not a guarantee that all students will concentrate on the given task, and just as in an ordinary classroom setting, teaching and learning also require careful orchestration. 

  • 21.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Håkansson Lindqvist, Marcia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teachers’ beliefs about professional development: Supporting emerging networked practices in higher education2019In: Networked professional learning: Emerging and equitable discourses for professional development / [ed] Littlejohn, Allison; Jaldemark, Jimmy; Vrieling-Teunter, Emmy and Nijland, Femke, Springer, 2019, p. 147-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades society has gone through changes related to social and technological development. These changes have impacted higher education. This has led to emerging networked practices that professionals and the organisations they work within need to respond to. An answer to this challenge to higher education is efforts in professional development. This chapter discusses teachers’ beliefs about such professional development. Particularly, it focuses on how networked practices in higher education are supported and fostered by professional development projects. The study was based at a Swedish university and included the dissemination of beliefs of teachers from three different departments that participated in two development projects. The data materials were collected by using semi-structured interviews from a sample of 19 teachers. The results revealed that professional development concerns beliefs on both individual and collective levels. Within these levels teachers related their professional development to both social and technological networks.

  • 22.
    Khisro, Jwan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Identifying Traces of Boundary Object Properties in Data Hub Development Narratives: Two Cases from Scandinavian Electricity Market2019In: AMCIS 2019 Proceedings, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technology enables multi-relational collaborations between parties with different experiences, knowledge, values, and goals. Regarding digital technology triggering enterprise transformation, boundary object as theoretical model for understanding such differences in development is not well understood, especially the ways boundary object emerges in practice. We inquired what traces of boundary object properties can be identified in data hub development narratives. An interpretive approach was chosen for understanding experience-centered narratives that origins from interviews conducted in two separate studies of national development of data hubs for the electricity market in Denmark and Sweden respectively. Through a literature review covering boundary objects, nine prosperities were chosen for the theoretical frame used in the interpretation of the narratives. The conclusion was that boundary object properties were part of the narratives of the data hub developments early on in the in-use taking processes and even before the digital artifact was taken into use.

  • 23.
    Lindberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Isberg, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    BusinessIntelligence Systems effekter på sjukvården: Utvecklingoch test av modell2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish   healthcare system today has longer queues than before, low treatment rates   and lack of accessibility, treatment and service. Business Intelligence   System (BIS) purpose is to support organizations and businesses in different   types of decision-making that in turn can make the operations more efficient.   The purpose of this thesis is to develop and test a model that describes the   effects that BIS have on the healthcare system according to previous research   on Swedish healthcare staff and their experiences of these systems. The study   has been carried out through qualitative interviews with respondents who work   with BIS in the Swedish healthcare system. A model developed from previous   research has according to the purpose of this study been developed and tested   against the collected empirical data to see if the effects that the previous   research has identified are in line with what Swedish healthcare staff has identified.   The entire model which consists of BIS basic functionality and BIS effects on   healthcare has been tested against another respondent who did not participate   on any interview but instead performed a thorough analysis of the whole   model. What were tested by this respondent were the model’s flow, structure   and constituents. The result of this study came to the conclusion that the   basic functionality of the model developed and the identified effects are in   accordance with the effects identified by the Swedish healthcare staff they   receive from the BIS within their work.

  • 24.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ahmad, Awais
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    A game-based approach for motoric stroke rehabilitation: defining the requirements2019In: Proceedings of ECGBL 2019 / [ed] Lars Elbaek and Gunvor Majgaard, Reading, UK, 2019, Vol. 13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global phenomenon with an increased percentage of older adults is clearly identified in the Mid Sweden region. With a population that is older than the average, the need for medical care and rehabilitation is also higher. All diseases have their specialised treatments and rehabilitation requirements, and this study has a focus on defining requirements for game-based motoric stroke rehabilitation. The important research question to answer was: How might a game-based approach to motoric stroke rehabilitation support the idea of independent living?

    This study was carried out as a Requirement-Focused Design Science project, with the aim to define requirements for a stroke rehabilitation testbed. Requirements have been outlined with the Design science idea of asking the experts to explain their predictions of what they think will produce the effects. Eight domain experts with different professional roles were interviewed to obtain a multi-stakeholder perspective on technology enhanced and game-based stroke rehabilitation. Patterns and themes in the interview answers created categories in a thematic analysis. Furthermore, the concept was discussed with research colleagues with rich experience of e-health.

    All of the interviewed experts had a surprisingly positive attitude toward the game-based approach, but with the strong recommendation of an individualised rehabilitation schedule. There are large variations in both the rehabilitation needs and the stroke patients’ digital skills. An interesting comment from one of the informants was to involve dancing activities, as a complement to the game-based rehabilitation. Out of the three discussed stroke rehabilitation categories: cognitive, motoric and speech rehabilitation, motoric stroke rehabilitation seems to be the one with the highest potential for a game-based approach to support independent living. The outlined requirements could be an important part in the future implementation of a testbed for stroke rehabilitation

  • 25.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Hoff, Camilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    The Introduction Of Programming In Compulsory School: A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective2019In: ICERI2019 Proceedings, Valencia, Spain: IATED , 2019, Vol. 12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in many other countries, the Swedish Government have decided to digitalise the school system with programming as an important component. The implementation of programming in the Swedish school system is planned to take place in a short period of time. In the subjects of mathematics and technology, teachers are supposed to use programming as a tool for problem solving in their daily teaching. However, programming is a discipline in which most mathematic and technology teachers in compulsory school lack knowledge and skills. The aim of this study was to identify and discuss opportunities and obstacles for teachers in the process of involving programming as a teaching and learning tool in mathematics. The investigation of opportunities and obstacles was aligned to studies of the plans for school management, and to the plans for the municipality regarding the introduction of programming in K-12 education.

    This study was conducted as a qualitative cross-sectional study conducted during the time period for the introduction of programming in the Swedish schools. To get a snapshot of the current situation data was gathered by semi-structured interviews with three teachers, a school leader and a digitalisation strategist. Informants were selected in a purposive sample, with the idea of interviewing persons with knowledge that could help to meet the research aim.

    Findings shows that several factors affect the introduction of programming in the daily teaching and learning activities. There are external factors such as government decisions, curricula and the municipality's digitalisation strategies, and also school management decisions, functioning technology and infrastructure. Other found factors were teaching tools, teachers’ lack of time, and their need for professional development. Teachers are largely dependent on further professional development as they perceive programming to be an almost entirely new topic.

    Recommendations to facilitate the introduction of programming in compulsory school are:

    1) Allocate time for teachers to study programming and for joint reflection and discussion on programming,

    2) Provide clear information about what teachers are expected to learn in their professional training,

    3) Teacher support on how to cope with the increased amount of programming content in their teaching and finally,

    4) Guidance to find new teaching and learning tools that can help teachers to use programming in a meaningful way in mathematics and technology.

  • 26.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson Bergström, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Augmented Education: Location-Based Games for Real-World Teaching and Learning Sessions2019In: Augmented Reality Games I / [ed] Vladimir Geroimenko, Springer, 2019, p. 217-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS-equipped smartphones have enabled the construction of location-based games. In augmented reality (AR), fantasy worlds are mapped to real-world settings. Two location-based AR games that use historical markers as points of interest are Ingress and Pokémon GO. This chapter describes and discusses how PokéStop statues in Pokémon GO can be used in primary school outdoor sessions. A case study was conducted on how fifth-grade students learned about local history, social sciences and humanities during game sessions. Findings suggest that AR could be an inspiring  extension in educational settings, if activities are aligned to the surroundings and learning objectives and outdoor gaming activities are followed up in more traditional classroom sessions.

  • 27.
    Mozelius, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ulfenborg, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Persson, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Teacher Attitudes Towards The Integration Of Programming In Middle School Mathematics2019In: INTED 2019 Proceedings, Valencia: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2019, p. 701-706Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Involving computer programming in primary school is an urgent issue in many countries, and in Sweden this should be done during 2018. In Mathematics this will a rapid and mandatory process for teachers that often lack programming proficiency. There are several studies conducted on the student impact of programming and the potential learning outcomes. Less has been published on the teacher attitudes and the teacher perspective of programming in primary school. The aim of this study was to explore and discuss teacher attitudes towards the introduction of programming in middle school.

    The study was carried out as a qualitative cross-sectional study with the idea of capturing the attitudes and beliefs amongst middle school teachers during the second half of the 2018 spring semester. Eight Mathematic teachers were selected for semi-structured interviews that were carried out by distance with rich media communication tools. Audio-recorded answers were analysed and divided into five predefined categories in a deductive thematic analysis. Interviewees have been kept as anonymous as possible through the process, and they all participated on a voluntary basis with the option to quit the interviews immediately at any moment.

    A main finding was that the majority of teachers are positive about the introduction of programming in middle school mathematics, although some challenges and shortcomings were identified. Furthermore, the interviewed teachers’ beliefs are that computer programming could have a positive impact on students’ mathematic skills through improved their problem-solving ability and improved their logical thinking. Some teachers also brought up the idea of programming as a way of creating energy and motivation in middle school mathematics. However, the fast introduction of programming will probably create stress on teachers without earlier programming experience. Teachers’ recommendation for facilitating and coping with stress is to provide courses in fundamental programming as soon as possible.

  • 28.
    Söderquist, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Tiny Security: Evaluating energy   use for security in an IoT application2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IoT devices are   increasingly used in the process of gathering scientific data. In   environmental monitoring IoT devices can be used as remote sensing devices to   collect information about e.g. temperature. To keep data reliable, various   security aspects have to be considered. Constrained devices are limited by   memory size and battery life, a security solution has to be developed with   this in mind. In this study an IoT security solution was developed in collaboration   with a research group in environmental science at Umeå University. We   selected commonly used algorithms and compared them with the goal to provide   authentication and integrity for an IoT application, while minimizing energy   use running on an Atmega 1284P. The results showed that the encryption   algorithm AES-256-GCM is a good choice for a total security solution.   AES-256-GCM provides authenticated encryption with additional data while, in   relation to the other tested algorithms, using energy at a low level and   leaving a small program size footprint.

  • 29.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Designa och utvärdera samverkansövningar med utgångspunkt i Community of Inquiry2019In: Festskrift till Björn Fjæstad: Utvecklingen av en forskningsmiljö: Ett verksamhetsnära engagemang på distans / [ed] Erna Danielsson, Roine Johansson, Anna Olofsson, Susanna Öhman, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2019, p. 69-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 29 of 29
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