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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Attitudes towards participation in business development programmes: An ethnic comparison in Sweden2015In: European Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 2046-9012, Vol. 39, no 1, 59-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are any differences between the attitudes towards participation in development programmes of entrepreneurs who are immigrants and those who are native-born. Design/methodology/approach – Several statistical methods, including a binary logistic regression model, were used to analyse a unique, firm-level dataset collected by the Swedish Small Business Forum in October and November 2012. The dataset was based on a questionnaire composed of 60 closed questions that was completed by 531 participants representing 395 companies. Findings – Based on the analysis of 15 different attitude variables, the empirical findings are that immigrant managers/owners are more likely to show a positive attitude to participation in development programmes, in terms of nine of those attitude variables, than their native counterparts. Because there are no data about second generation of immigrants in the sample, thus, this category may have had an impact on the results. However, there is no possibility to identify any impact on the results. Originality/value – There is no prior research focusing specifically on this question, and to the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that has attempted to deal with the issue. This study is based on a recent and unique database, and provides new evidence on the relationship between ethnicity and attitude towards participation in development programmes among entrepreneurs. Its context is different from that of prior research.

  • 2.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Exploring the financing gap between native born women- and immigrant women-owned firms at the start-up stage: Empirical evidence from Swedish data2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 2, 157-173 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence which identifies the impact of ethnicity and other relevant variables on external capital acquisition among Swedish women-owned businesses at start-up. Design/methodology/approach: Several methods have been employed to analyze the sample including a binary logistic regression model. The sample consists of 836 women-owned businesses in southeast Sweden; 97 immigrant-owned, 739 native born-owned. Findings: The results indicate that there are partly significant differences between native women-owned firms and immigrant woman-owned businesses at start-up. Unlike the native-owned firms, the immigrant woman-owned businesses rely more on loans from family members and less on bank loans. Practical implications: The results reveal that age has a positive impact on loans from family members, while the additional job outside one's own business, the amount of the owner's personal start-up capital and firm size positively influenced access to capital from banks. The owners' level of education, previous business experience, the legal form taken by the firm and the industry affiliation conversely played no significant role in explaining the women owners' attitudes toward loans from either friends or the bank. Originality/value: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first empirical investigation addressing this issue in the Swedish context. 

  • 3.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Gender and informal financing at Start-up Stage2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Gender as a determinant of informal capital in the financing of small firms' start-ups: Swedish data2015In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 24, no 2, 249-267 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the differences in informal capital acquisition between female- and male-owned firms in the start-up stage in Sweden. A binary logistic regression model is used to analyse a sample including 836 female- and 1928 male-owned firms in 2008, providing 47,022 observations. The results indicate that the main explanatory variable, gender, is significant in distinguishing between female- and male-owned firms with regards to the use of informal capital in terms of loans from family members. Thus, female-owned firms tend to rely more on loans from family members than male-owned firms. The findings also indicate that one control variable, namely owners previous experience of starting up a company, negatively influences the use of loans from family members as a financing source in the start-up stage. This study is based on a unique and large sample including many different variables compared with previous research. Knowledge on the differences between Swedish female- and male-owned firms in using informal capital in the start-up stage is limited and ambiguous. The presented results contribute to research into small firm financing by adding insight into the relationships between informal capital acquisition, gender, and other relevant variables.

  • 5.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden .
    The determinant of external financing at the start-up stage: Empirical evidences from Swedish data2014In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 10, no 1, 124-141 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small firms in general have limited access to funding, which is a major problem for entrepreneurs. In particular, this problem is evident for women and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of the study is to examine empirically the impact of gender, ethnicity and other relevant variables on the access to external financing of new small firms. A sample of 2,764 female- And male-owned small businesses, based on a unique and large database gathered through interviews, was investigated employing binary logistic regression models. The results suggest that both gender and ethnicity are significant explanatory variables influencing the access to external capital at the start-up stage. Entrepreneurs' age, experience of starting businesses and education, as well as additional jobs beside their own business, are other variables that influence the way in which entrepreneurs finance their business. Moreover, firm characteristics in terms of personal start-up capital, firm size and legal form have an impact on financing behaviour at start-up. Since the knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of the variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start-up.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Svenska handelshögskolan i Helsingfors.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rehn, Alf
    Åbo Akademi.
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Högskolan Jönköping.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering2015 (ed. 1:1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Louise
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Blom Haraldsson, Elina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Rörelsekapitalshantering i svenska SME-företag: Hur kundfordringar påverkar ett företags tillväxt och lönsamhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies which are active on the market are in need of capital to finance their operations. In cases where external funding is not possible, the alternative is to see what is available within the company. Working capital binds large quantities of capital and consists of accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory, and liquid assets. The management of these may result in the company having access to more liquid assets which can lead to increased profit and greater competitiveness. The aim of the study is to gain an understanding and investigate the effect of two performance variables by companies effectively use of trade receivables in Swedish small and medium-sized wholesale enterprises. The study focuses on studying the performance variables profit and growth. A company's age and size is also checked against these performance variables. To meet the aim, collection and analysis of 2675 corporate accounts has been made. The results show that profitability and growth are both affected positively by the use of accounts receivable in the working capital. This result proves that the management of working capital and value creation is important when working capital is considered to be the core of a business.

  • 8.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Berglund, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Going concern varningar och finansiell stress2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and purpose – The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to describe and analyze the proportions of going concern warnings (GCW) among Swedish limited companies that went bankrupt in 2014. This study will analyze if the auditor's propensity of issuing GCW increases if companies are financially distressed from three different definitions of financial stress. The thesis also analyzes whether there are differences in the propensity to issue a GCWbetween authorized and approved auditor, and between the Big N firms and non-Big N firms. Previous research has not analyzed and compared different definitions of financial stress and GCW.Methodology – This bachelor thesis is a quantitative research and 939 companies were included in the survey. The variables in the study were collected separately and then added together to examine how the independent variables financial stress, the auditor's competence and the size of the firm affects the dependent variable GCW. Statistical processing has beendone by measuring regression and 2-proportionstest.Findings – The results show that the propensity that a Swedish auditor issues a GCW is low, the accuracy is 24,8 percent. The tendency that the auditor issues a GCW will increase if companies are financially distressed. The results are consistent with previous studies. The definition of financial distress are significant when we compare them with each other. Auditor competence are crucial for the issuing of GCW, however, auditor competence are not crucial for the issuing of GCW to financially distressed companies. The results shows no difference with the auditor´s propensity to issuing GCW among the Big N auditors and non-Big N auditors.Conclusions – Our conclusion is that an auditor's assessment of the going concern process remains problematic. There is a strong relationship between all the definitions of financial distress and GCW. When we compare the definitions of financial distress with each other, we found a difference. Two of the definitions, we can consider to be helpful in assessing the GCW.

  • 9.
    Adolfsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Jämtländska Gaseller: En Studie om Tillväxtfaktorer Hos Små och Mellanstora Företag i Jämtland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Adolfsson, Josefin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Att leda och känna som chef: En studie kring användningen av emotionellt arbete bland kvinnor i chefspositioner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership and organizational research has historically been seen from a male perspective, this has led to the fact that women in management positions partly have been neglected in the field of research on leadership. To contribute to a better understanding of women's experiences and conditions in managerial positions this paper is based on a women perspective. The importance of emotions in leadership, is a relatively new phenomenon, one aspect that holds within that area is emotional labor. Emotional labor is about how people actively create and guide their emotions in line with social structures and institutions influence. The purpose of this paper is to explore and increase the understanding of emotional labor of women in management positions. Seven women in managerial positions has been interviewed, and the answers from these women have then been analyzed and discussed. The results show that women in the study use emotional labor both in terms of surface acting and deep acting. Furthermore, the results show that company's expectations and guidelines serve as emotional control, that to some extent control the women's use of emotional labor. A deeper understanding of emotional labor among women in management positions is discussed to create more knowledge about conditions and patterns that may need to be strengthened or broken. This understanding may be important both for companies in general, but also for policy makers who want to increase the number of women in management positions.

  • 11.
    Ahlbom, Frida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Cognitive Distance and Innovation Performance: Where is the empirical literature directing us?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to shed some light on the concept of cognitive distance in relation to innovation performance, due to the various uses of the concept in literature, and lack of a clear overview. This study investigated the uses of the different concepts and the different results that are the outcome of innovation studies.Methodology – The study is conducted through a literary review using 28 relevant studies that have been search for in Business Source Premier. The studies have been analyzed using Provan et al (2007) typology of interorganizational network research.Key findings - The results show that the different uses of the concept and difference in results of the researched studies are due to the fact that scholars are researching different subjects on different levels. The differences are due to the different methodological approaches, investigated area and level of which the research is conducted. Significant finding is that most results in the researched studies agree that with cognitive distance, there is a higher chance forinnovation.

  • 12.
    Ahlström, André
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bankbranschen: En studie om branschstruktur och konkurrensstrategi i Enköping2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Akindele, Hawawu
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Wahib, Khouloud
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The Speed of Internationalization among Born-Global SMEs: A Case Study of High Teck SMEs2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    United Nations University - WIDER.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Connectivity at a cost: The economic dynamics of connectivity restoration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological literature shows that there is a species-area relationship between habitat size and the equilibrium number of species that will thrive in a habitat. There is also a literature on habitat fragmentation showing that, if a larger habitat is broken up into smaller fragments, the long run equilibrium species number will decline in each of the remaining fragments according to the same relationship. Both in the United States and in Europe there is ongoing work on reversing habitat fragmentation in river systems, with fish ladders and other measures being introduced to restore connectivity in river systems that have previously been subdivided into smaller habitats by hydropower and other developments. However, even if connectivity is restored, the new and higher equilibrium species number will be reached only after extended periods of time. This means that measures to restore connectivity entail incurring one-time investment costs (and possibly continuous long run increases in maintenance costs as well) in order to gain habitat improvements that will generate increasing value over time upto the point where the new, better equilibrium is reached. In this paper, we set up a theoretical model to investigate what the conditions are for such an investment to be socially profitable, and link the model to empirical data from measures to restore river system connectivity which show how quickly this recovery tends to occur in practice. We find that even in cases where it would have been socially preferable not to build a hydropower installation in the first place, connectivity-restoring measures affecting the installation are not necessarily socially profitable. Under a wide range of plausible assumptions about discount rates, investment costs and productivity losses, decommissioning the hydropower plant once its economic lifespan is past is a better option, from the social planner’s perspective, than carrying out measures while the plant is still economically viable.

  • 15.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, 51-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 16.
    Alm Hansell, Therese
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hur ökar en butik lättast sin försäljning?: En undersökning som visar hur effektiva dofter är sommarknadsföringsmedium2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Al-Saddawi, Besma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Topchijan, Karina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Svenska börsbolags val av ramverksmodell för internkontroll och riskhantering: Vilken påverkan har valet av modell på bolagen?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies’ efforts to organize their risk management have become increasingly important and there are several systems that boards have to choose from to createstructure around the companies’ internal control and risk management. The aim of this study was to identify which framework for internal control and risk management that listed Swedish companies follow and what effects the choice have on the companies.This study was conducted based on three models: COSO's framework model for ERM,COSO's framework model for internal control and the Swedish Code of Corporate Governance. COSO's ERM model is considered the most comprehensive of theseframeworks in the accounts of a company's internal control and risk management. The requirements from the Swedish Code of Corporate Governance on the other hand areconsidered the least precise and comprehensive. A company’s choice of framework according to previous research affects among other things the assurance of a company's stakeholders and as a result it’s cost of capital.Some common factors in the choice of framework among the surveyed companies were mapped. Based on the purpose of this study and previous research the following variables was selected: average cost of capital, presence of risk manager, board independence ratio and industry affiliation. The study covered 54 companies listed on Large Cap and empirical data was collected mainly from the companies’ annual reportsfrom 2012. Results from the survey showed that the framework for internal control wasthe most applied among the surveyed companies, while the ERM framework was the least applied. The companies applying the ERM framework had the lowest cost of capital, while companies applying the Swedish Code of Corporate Governance had the highest cost of capital. The industrial sector is the most common segment among the companies applying the ERM framework. Risk Manager proved to be most prevalent among the companies applying the ERM model. Regarding the boards independence degree companies applying the framework for internal control has the highest independent degree.

  • 18.
    Altin, Stina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Khwaiter, Nada
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Revisorers granskning av redovisning till verkligt värde2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lately the development in accounting standards has undergone a change regarding how assets and liabilities should be recognized and assessed. The traditional historical cost accounting has been replaced with fair value accounting (FVA). According to previous research, this has resulted in some complications. As the valuation of assets and liabilities differ depending on the information available, FVA has shown to have a lower reliability compared to historical cost accounting. In addition, the auditors have faced difficulties in their audits of the financial reporting regarding their competence and independence. Because of this, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) has developed a framework illustrated in three levels of a hierarchy that describes how fair value should be valued and reported for assets and liabilities. This study aims to describe and analyze Swedish auditors' view of FVA in general and on the three levels of the hierarchy. More specifically, the study aims to examine the extent to which Swedish auditors feels able to ensure the reliability of RTVV and the degree to which Swedish auditors consider themselves to be competent and independent in reviewing RTVV. To answer the purpose of the study, our sampling frame consisted of Swedish qualified auditors. Due to contact with a representative from a big4 office in Sundsvall we managed to reach 459 total 3800 auditors scattered all over Sweden. Of these 46 respondents answered our questionnaire. These formed the basis of our analysis and conclusion. The results indicate that Swedish auditors face challenges when it comes to the examination of RTVV, especially when it comes to the examination of the hierarchy levels at which various information is available. Based on the review of the hierarchy levels, we conclude that the auditors find problems on level 3 when it comes to ensuring the reliability and their competence. This is not considered to be a limitation on level 1 and 2. The results also show that the auditors find that independence is not a problem at any of the hierarchy levels. However, a low response rate, 10 percent, shows that the results should be interpreted with caution.

  • 19.
    Altuntas, Muhammed Emin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Marketing Management Theories: Applicable on Online Video Platforms?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Anamul, Hoque
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Children's influence on family purchase decisions in India and Western Countries2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s influence on the processes of family purchase decisions depends on number of parameters and situations. Children exercise various methods to influence their parent’s decision-making on buying. This influence varies from one product to another. It depends on parents’ education, their profession, income, whether the parent is single and working or if both parents are working and also family type, and types of product. Children and youth consumers’ behaviour are not the same all over the world; rather, it is dependent on culture, education, family system, children’s influences, media effects, socialisation, communication in socialisation, sex role orientation (SRO), demographics, decision process stages and influence of product category, among others. Even in the Nordic countries, there are different attitudes towards and opinions about regulation and deregulation. This research considers children in the age group of 8–13-years-old and their parents in India and western countries. The deductive approach was used in this study. The aim of this paper is to show how children influence purchase decisions in families in India and western countries. Hence, the aim of this paper is not only to explore the dimensions in India and western countries but also to identify directions for future research.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Östman, Emelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Kunders uppfattningar om servicekvalitet på revisionsbyråers rådgivningstjänster2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, audit firms primarily have offered auditing to their customers, but gradually alsostarted to offer other services, such as advisory. However, audit firms in Sweden have beenable to rely on revenues from audit, since the audit has been statutory for a long time. In 2010the audit was abolished for the smallest limited companies, which led to 53 percent opt out.The audit firms must place great emphasis on understanding how customers perceive otherservices such as advisory and adjust to the customers’ needs in order to offer good servicequality.

    This master thesis aims to examine the customers’ perceptions of service quality in advisorywithin the Swedish audit industry. An underlying purpose is to describe and analyzedifferences in opinion between different groups of customers.

    To achieve this, a number of various service attributes is identified and grouped into servicedimensions, which are able to reflect the concept of service quality. These service dimensionsare attention to customer, trust, facilities, customer service and cost. The sampling frame forthe questionnaire consisted of 2579 active limited companies registered in Sundsvall. Thequestionnaire was sent to 400 companies and of these 112 answered. The analysis was doneby using two methods, one of them is the Kano model that categorizes the service dimensionsand service attributes according to how they should be treated by the audit firm. Thesecategories are taken-for-granted, proportional, delighter and neutral. This model wascomplemented with a weighted measurement.

    The result shows that the service dimensions trust and cost are perceived as taken-for-granted,the service dimension customer service is perceived as proportional and the servicedimensions attention to customer and facilities are perceived as neutrals. The serviceattributes are generally perceived in the same way as the service dimensions they belong to.No service dimensions and service attributes are perceived as delighters. In the weightedmeasurement it is possible to see a pattern, which is the same among service dimensions andservice attributes. The taken-for-grantees are most important, followed by the proportionals,while the neutrals are least important for the perceived service quality. The most importantservice dimensions are trust and cost, while the least important service dimension is facilities.The difference between customers to Big 4 firms and customers to non Big 4 firms is howeverbigger than the difference between customers who buy both advisory services and auditingand customers who only buy advisory services.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Modin, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bostadsprisets bestämmande faktorer: Är det fundamentala eller psykologiska krafter som styr?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka huruvida våra utvalda variabler visar något sambandmed bostadsprisutvecklingen på den svenska marknaden. Vi har valt att studera totalt tolvstycken variabler i vår undersökning varav två av dessa är beroende variabler och de andra tioär oberoende variabler. Dessa undersöks månadsvis mellan september 2005 till september2013, vilket innebär att antalet observationer uppgår till 1152 st.Vi fokuserar på bostadsrätts- och villapriser på den svenska marknaden och studien innefattarhela landet. Vi använder oss endast av rådata i form av sekundärdata som vi hämtat från olikadatabaser.De beroende variablerna vi studerar är pris per kvadratmeter för bostadsrätter och snittprisför villor. De oberoende variabler i vår undersökning är: MFI utlåningsränta bostadslån, MFItotal utlåning hushåll, MFI total inlåning hushåll, antal sålda objekt bostadsrätter, antalsålda objekt villor, konfidensindikatorn, hushållets syn på den egna ekonomin om 12 mån,hushållets syn på den egna ekonomin i dagsläget, hushållets inställning till att bygga ellerköpa bostad inom 12 mån och reporäntan.Resultaten visar att det finns ett starkt positivt samband mellan antalet sålda objekt ochbostadspriserna. Även variablerna konfidensindikatorn, hushållets ekonomi om 12 mån samtMFI total inlåning visar på ett signifikant samband med bostadspriset.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Ouchterlony, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Revisionsberättelsen under förändring: en kvalitativ studie om revisionsberättelsens informationsvärde för kreditgivare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Östergren, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Relationen mellan styrelsens diversitet, innovativa företag och hållbarhetsredovisningens sociala aspekter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe and statistically analyse the relationship between the board diversity and CSD (corporate social disclosure) with innovative firms as mediating variable. As a CSD contains several categories this study focuses on the social aspects: product responsibility, labour practices and decent work, society and human rights. In order to achieve the study's purpose, a quantitative study with deductive approach has been carried out. Data have been collected from the GRI (Global reporting initiative) database in which atotal of 202 multinational firms, which have outlined their CSD according to the most recent recommendations made by GRI, have been derived and thereby formed the study's sample. Data have been analysed by means of a structural equation model and a path analysis. The result indicates that there is a positive relation between board diversity, in terms of education and gender, and innovative firms. Furthermore, the study indicates a relation between innovative firms and CSD regarding all social aspects except product responsibility. Thestrongest relation exists between the various social aspects in the CSD. The mediating effect of innovative firms is lower than expected in the study.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Ulrica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Starmann, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The choice of brand clothing: Brands or not?: A study among young adults and teenagers in the United States of America2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Andrae, Nina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Kullberg, Pierre
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Vilka egenskaper behöver en ledare besitta?: En undersökning med fokus på den autentiska-, situationsanpassade- samt den transformativa ledarskapsteorin2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Braunerhjelm, Lotta
    Roxenhall, Tommy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Nära ekonomiska nätverksrelationer2015In: Trovärdighet och förtroende i ekonomiska relationer / [ed] Öhman, P., Lundberg, H., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 201-217 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lidén, GustavMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.Nyhlén, SaraMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hållbarhetens många ansikten - samtal, forskning och fantasier2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna publikation Hållbarhetens många ansiktenär en del av de resultat som kommer frånprojektet Hållbart Samhällsbyggande (HåSa):Från mellersta Norrland till Europas glesabygder. HåSa-projektet har via Tillväxtverketbeviljats stöd ur den Europeiska regionalautvecklingsfonden och i denna antologi harmånga aktörer som ingår i projektet medverkat.Arbetet med publikationen inleddes vid enworkshop i Sollefteå i slutet av september 2016.Vi drevs då av en strävan efter att hållbarhetsarbetetpå flera sätt behöver gå snabbare och blimer omfattande och att vi behöver samarbetaöver ämnesgränser inom akademin, men äventillsammans med aktörer utanför akademin.Ett drygt år senare finns nu denna antologi,efter både kreativt och intensivt samarbete, ochden utgör ett konkret resultat av de tankar somföddes i Sollefteå.

  • 29.
    Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Skärningspunkter som grund2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikter: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén och Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, 12-17 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Hanken Sch Econ, Dept Management & Org, Helsinki, Finland.
    Processes in collaborative entrepreneurship: a longitudinal case study of how multiple actors exploit a radically new opportunity2014In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 10, no 4, 713-726 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this longitudinal case study, the authors integrate the theory on social movement with the entrepreneurship literature on opportunity discovery, evaluation, and exploitation. They construct a model on collaborative entrepreneurial processes in which multiple partners are involved in identifying, forming, and exploiting an opportunity. Three interdependent subprocesses are identified: (1) the opportunity conceptualization dialogue, (2) resource mobilization and, (3) legitimacy building, which significantly contribute to our understanding of how individuals across different organizations become engaged in collaborative entrepreneurial processes. The model of collaborative entrepreneurial processes complements traditional models of the entrepreneurial process, which place the individual entrepreneur at the center of the process and does not consider group mobilization processes in which the actors aim to be creative and innovative in collaborating with actors from other organizations or firms.

  • 31.
    Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Coopetition in a public/private context: A study of drivers, dynamics and outcomes in value-creation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Andresen, Edith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    ”Sveriges största trygghetsboende”: hur hållbart är det.2017In: Hållbarhetens många ansikten: samtal, forskning och fantasier / [ed] Edith Andresen, Gustav Lidén, Sara Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2017, 21-29 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, SE-901 87, Sweden.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Entrepreneurial renewal in a peripheral region: the case of a winter automotive-testing cluster in Sweden2013In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 25, no 5-6, 371-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper generates new insights into renewal processes that may occur in peripheral regions. Key findings are presented from an explorative study on a regionally clustered automotive-testing industry, located in northern Sweden. The findings suggest that despite theoretically unfavourable conditions it is possible to progress regional industry after a peripheral setting's socio-economic relapses. Moreover, this research shows how, notwithstanding the importance of profitable service offerings, an entrepreneurial environment can be encouraged within a peripheral region and subsequent renewal achieved by advancing local networks, improving internationalization and enhancing local infrastructures related to a service-based regional industry. Consequently this research offers us a glimpse into a pioneering service-based renewal case which, in essence, differs from previously reported entrepreneurship scholarship.

  • 34.
    Arnell, Amanda
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Martin, Anna Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Revisionspliktens avskaffande: - en jämförelse mellan 2008 med 20142015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Arnold, Jenny
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bergnér, Rebecca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Faktorer som stärker commitment inom nätverk och även bidrar till ökad innovation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Arthur, Eric Emile
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Jonsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Sponsorship in sports as a means of marketing tool: Case study of Öfk football team2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Arvidsson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Svedenberg, Andrea
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    En jämförelse mellan konkursbolag och kontrollbolag ur ett mikroperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Aslanidou, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Unveiling early internationalisation patterns of born global entrepreneurial firms from the Indian IT and ITeS sector: a case stydy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Axelborg, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Prestanda, kapitalstruktur och storlek i ett livscykelperspektiv: - Empiriskt bevis från svenska SME-företag i konsultbranschen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on the business lifecycle model and will investigate the age effect on corporate performance, size and equity ratio and also what relationship the size has to performance. With panel data taken from the Swedish SME consulting firms between the years 2009-2013, we have analyzed the business performance based on different age stages. We found evidence that age has a significant positive effect on the size and equity ratio of businesses and a negative impact on performance. Furthermore, we also found evidence thatthe size can have a negative or positive effect on performance depending on the size measure used, total sales has a positive impact on profitability and number of employees causes a decrease in both growth and profitability. Distinct stages of the life cycle model has also been found in the population studied.

  • 40.
    Azizsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Kullenstein, Robin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Soliditet: En svensk aspekt i jakten på produktivitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste decennierna har betydelsen av stora börsföretag och aktiemarknaden i sig kommit att få allt större utrymme i gemene mans liv. Detta har möjliggjorts av globaliseringen och dess utveckling av handelsområden utsatta för mindre och mindre handelsrestriktioner. Genom en större tillgänglighet har intresset för aktiemarknaden ökat, även bland allmänheten, vilket har krävt ett större behov av relevant företagsinformation. Detta för att tillgodose såväl företag som investerare med lämpliga investeringsobjekt och samarbetspartners. Företags finansiering konstitueras antingen genom främmande kapital eller eget kapital. Förhållandet mellan dessa två poler för företagets resursuppbyggnad är det som utgör företagets kapitalstruktur. Ett antal tidigare studier presenteras som antyder vilka faktorer som påverkar ett företags val av kapitalstruktur, dessa faktorer kan till exempel vara, risk, lönsamhet, tillväxt, tillgångsstruktur och storlek. Studiens syfte är att analysera soliditetens påverkan på produktiviteten. Studieobjekt för denna studie är svenska företag verksamma inom restaurangbranschen. Studien har utgått från att undersöka soliditet ålder och storleks inverkan för att genom det besvara syftet. Själva undersökningen har genomförts genom en kvantitativ studie på 1201 företags nyckeltal hämtade genom affärsdata.se 2008-2011. Sammanlagt ger det 4804 observationer vilket legat till grund för statistiska beräkningar och analyser med hjälp utav det statistiska programmet SPSS. Resultatet i studien tyder på att soliditeten har ett statistiskt signifikant samband med produktiviteten. Studien bekräftar tidigare forskning i den aspekten att den vidrätthåller den tyngsta hypotesen. Det skulle vara av intresse att studera produktivitetsvariationer inverkan på kapitalstrukturen mellan företag i olika industrisektorer, då olika branscher är olika kapitalintensiva. Det hade slutligen även varit intressant att göra en gränsöverskridande studie och därigenom jämföra förhållandena i Sverige kontra ett land vilket besitter en billigare arbetsgivaravgift och A-skatt.

  • 41.
    Backerholm, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Österlund, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Förhållandet mellan aktiemarknaden och den ekonomiska tillväxten i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, there has been an interest for the relationship between the stock market and economic growth. Previous research has shown mixed results, some researchers concluded that there is a positive relationship, while others concluded that there is no or a negative relationship between the stock market and economic growth. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between the stock market and the economic growth in Sweden. The study was limited to examining quarterly data from Sweden during the period 1987-2016, this gave a population of 120 measurement points. Data was collected and analyzed in a statistic program by a correlation analysis and a regression analysis. The result showed that there is a positive significant correlation between the stock market and the economic growth in Sweden. The result also showed that there is a negative significant relationship between the inflation and the economic growth in Sweden, and that there is a positive significant correlation between investment and the economic growth in Sweden.

  • 42.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Optimal tax and expenditure policy in the presence of migration – are credit restrictions important?2014In: Indian Growth and Development Review, ISSN 1753-8254, E-ISSN 1753-8262, Vol. 7, no 2, 98-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have found an ’inverted U-curve’ relationship between emigration and per capita income. In this paper, we present a theoretical underpinning for this phenomenon based on credit restrictions. We also characterize how the presence of an ’inverted U-curve’ relationship between emigration and per capita income will influence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad. Among the results it is shown that if age dependent taxes are available, the presence of an ’inverted U-curve’ provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise. Thus, our more realistic picture of emigration leads to results that differ from the previous literature.

  • 43.
    Bacquenois, Joy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Nutrition and Health Claims in Marketing: a consumer perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing costs in public health due to poor nutrition habits have lead governments and media to react in favor of a healthy trend. This has been a starter point for food manufacturers to include health-related arguments into their communication strategies, also known as nutrition and health claims. Therefore, specific foodstuffs and drinks have emerged since 2003 in the international food industry, giving birth to a growing and lucrative market: the market of functional foods. However, using such claims is not without consequences for the consumer. Among them, confusion and skepticism are investigated, measuring their impact on consumer’s sentiment toward marketing. A study using snowball-sampling was conducted, reaching 119 respondents. Even though confusion (63%) and skepticism (47%) are represented, they do not impact the consumer sentiment of marketing. Rather, it supports the idea that consumers associate marketing with the way businesses work, finding this to be a normal situation. Results highlight the necessity for greater communication of nutrition and health claims.

  • 44.
    BAHADORZADEH, RAHELEH
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    MEHARI, DAHLAK
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Derivathandel: Hur underliggande tillgångar branschvis reagerar vid en warrantintroduktion2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Holmström, Christine
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The impact of international networking capabilities on the performance of international returnee ventures: Evidence from China2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Holmström Lind, Christine
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    The performance of international returnee ventures: the role of networking capability and the usefulness of international business knowledge2016In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 28, no 9-10, 657-680 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sheds light on the international new ventures led by returnee entrepreneurs and investigates the influence of networking capability and the usefulness of international knowledge for the overall performance of so-called international returnee ventures (IRVs). By integrating network theory with a capability view of firm performance, it advances six hypotheses that form a structural model, which is tested with LISREL on a sample of 194 IRVs from China. The findings show that international networking capability has a positive influence on the provision of international business knowledge, which in turn is positively related to the innovation performance, but they have a negative impact on the financial performance. Hence, this study presents a discussion of the usefulness of knowledge gained from the international network relationships of emerging market returnee entrepreneurs.

  • 47.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China; Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala University; Dalarna University.
    International opportunity networks2017In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunity seeking has become increasingly important for explaining firm internationalization, but our understanding of how opportunity is mediated within international networks is limited. This study probes the concept of network-mediated opportunities and attempts to identify what drives a firm's reception of new international opportunities. Based on the notion of opportunity in the entrepreneurship literature with the network view on internationalization, we bring together the concepts of relationships, networks, capabilities, and opportunity in a structural model, where we hypothesize that network-mediated opportunity is dependent on networking capability. This, in turn, is positively influenced by network closure and relational embeddedness. We test the model on a sample of 200 Chinese firms. The analysis partly supports the model, as we find that networking capability is a mediating factor between relational embeddedness and network-mediated opportunity, but does not mediate the relationship between network closure and network-mediated opportunity; on the other hand, we find a direct relationship between network closure and network-mediated opportunity. The paper ends with a discussion of the results and suggestions for future research.

  • 48.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Martin Martin, Oscar
    Public University of Navarre.
    Returnee entrepreneur firms: A knowledge-driven model of internationalization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Martin Martin, Oscar
    Public University of Navarre.
    Returnee Entrepreneurial Firms’ Innovation Performance: The Role of Business Relationships and Resources2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Johanson, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law. Uppsala University.
    Martín Martín, Oscar
    Public University of Navarre, Navarre, Pamplona, Spain.
    Knowledge and internationalization of returnee entrepreneurial firms2017In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 26, no 4, 652-665 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to answer whether and how returnee entrepreneurs’ international experience and returnee entrepreneurial firms’ international market knowledge influence these firms’ internationalization. Anchored in a framework combining an entrepreneurial and knowledge-based view, we develop a model and four hypotheses on the relations between returnee entrepreneurs’ international experience, international market knowledge, international market commitment, and level of internationalization of the returnee entrepreneurial firm. Empirical evidence of the proposed model is derived from a recent sample of Chinese returnee SMEs in knowledge-intensive and high-technology industries. The main finding is that returnee entrepreneurs’ international experience nurtures international market knowledge of returnee entrepreneurial firms, which in turn has a positive effect on these firms’ international market commitment and level of internationalization. In terms of theory, the study extends our understanding of returnee entrepreneurial firms by uncovering the role of returnee entrepreneurs’ international experience and returnee firms’ international market knowledge during their initial and early international expansion.

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