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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Biasoletto-Tjellströma, Gustaf
    Schagatay, Erika K.A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Pulmonary gas exchange is reduced by the cardiovascular diving response in resting humans2008In: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, ISSN 1569-9048, E-ISSN 1878-1519, Vol. 160, no 3, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diving response reduces the pulmonary O2 uptake in exercising humans, but it has been debated whether this effect is present at rest. Therefore, respiratory and cardiovascular responses were recorded in 16 resting subjects, performing apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 ◦C). Duration of apneas were predetermined to be identical in both conditions (average: 145 s) and based on individual maximal capacity (average: 184 s). Compared to apnea in air, an augmented diving response was elicited by apnea with face immersion. The O2 uptake from the lungs was reduced compared to the resting eupneic control (4.6 ml min−1 kg−1), during apnea in air (3.6 ml min−1 kg−1) and even more so during apnea with face immersion (3.4 ml min−1 kg -1). We conclude that the cardiovascular djustments of the diving response reduces pulmonary gas exchange in resting humans, allowing longer apneas by preserving the lungs’ O2 store for use by vital organs.

  • 2.
    Engan, Harald K.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jones, Andrew M.
    Univ Exeter, Coll Life & Environm Sci, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Ehrenberg, Fanny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves dry static apnea performance2012In: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, ISSN 1569-9048, E-ISSN 1878-1519, Vol. 182, no 2-3, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation has been reported to lower resting blood pressure, reduce the oxygen (O-2) cost of sub-maximal exercise, and improve exercise tolerance. Given the proposed effects of NO3- on tissue oxygenation and metabolic rate, it is possible that NO3- supplementation might enhance the duration of resting apnea. If so, this might have important applications both in medicine and sport. We investigated the effects of acute NO3- supplementation on pre-apnea blood pressure, apneic duration, and the heart rate (HR) and arterial O-2 saturation (SaO(2)) responses to sub-maximal and maximal apneas in twelve well-trained apnea divers. Subjects were assigned in a randomized, double blind, crossover design to receive 70 ml of beetroot juice (BR; containing similar to 5.0 mmol of nitrate) and placebo juice (PL; similar to 0.003 mmol of nitrate) treatments. At 2.5 h post-ingestion, the subjects completed a series of two 2-min (sub-maximal) static apneas separated by 3 min of rest, followed by a maximal effort apnea. Relative to PL, BR reduced resting mean arterial pressure by 2% (PL: 86 +/- 7 vs. BR: 84 +/- 6 mmHg; P = 0.04). The mean nadir for SaO(2) after the two sub-maximal apneas was 97.2 +/- 1.6% in PL and 98.5 +/- 0.9% in BR (P = 0.03) while the reduction in HR from baseline was not significantly different between PL and BR. Importantly, BR increased maximal apneic duration by 11% (PL: 250 +/- 58 vs. BR: 278 +/- 64 s; P = 0.04). In the longer maximal apneas in BR, the magnitude of the reductions in HR and SaO(2) were greater than in PL (P <= 0.05). The results suggest that acute dietary NO3- supplementation may increase apneic duration by reducing metabolic costs. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Calbet, José A L
    Insufficient ventilation as a cause of impaired pulmonary gas exchange during submaximal exercise2007In: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, ISSN 1569-9048, E-ISSN 1878-1519, Vol. 157, no 2-3, p. 348-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange were determined during prolonged skiing (approximately 76% of V(O2, max); cardiac output=26-27 L min(-1)) using diagonal technique (DIA) for 40 min followed by 10 min of double poling (DPOL) and 10 min of leg skiing (LEG). Exercise caused approximately 2-5% reduction of arterial oxygen saturation Sa(O2). For a given cardiac output and V(O2), DPOL presented higher V(E), lower Pa(CO2) and a more efficient pulmonary gas exchange, revealed by higher PA(O2) and Pa(O2) and lower A-aD(O2). The A-aD(O2) widened 2 mmHg L(-1) of cardiac output increase. However, for a given cardiac output and V(O2), exercise mode had an important influence on pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange. Highly trained cross-country skiers' present about 2 units reduction in Sa(O2) from resting values during submaximal exercise at 76% of V(O2, max). Half of the reduction in saturation is accounted for by the rightward-shift of the oxygen dissociation curve of the haemoglobin. The exercise duration has almost no repercussion on pulmonary gas exchange in these athletes, with the small effect on Sa(O2) associated to the increase in body core temperature.

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