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  • 1.
    Abbasi, M.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cornell, A.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm.
    Fabrication of Spin-Coated Ti/TiHx/Ni-Sb-SnO2 Electrode: Stability and Electrocatalytic Activity2018In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 165, no 9, p. H568-H574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel three-layer anode having the composition Ti/TiHx/Ni-Sb-SnO2 (Ti/TiHx/NATO) was successfully prepared by a spin-coating and pyrolysis process aiming at a long service lifetime and good electrocatalytic properties for ozone formation. The TiHx as an interlayer was produced by electrochemical cathodic reduction of a coated layer of the TiOx on the titanium substrate. Spin coating and thermal decomposition were used to deposit the Sn-Sb-Ni precursor on the surface of the prepared Ti/TiHx electrode. Cyclic and linear scanning voltammetry, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to reveal the electrode performance and morphology. Results show that the onset potential for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of Ti/TiHx /NATO is higher than for Ti/NATO. They also indicate that the service lifetime of the Ti/TiHx/NATO is twice as long as the Ti/NATO at a current density of 50 mA.cm(-2) at room temperature. Electrochemical ozone generation and degradation of the methylene blue were investigated to confirm selectivity and activity of the electrodes. After 5 min electrolysis, a current efficiency for ozone generation of 56% was obtained the electrode with TiHx while 38% was obtained on Ti/NATO under same conditions. The results also confirm that the Ti/TiH x /NATO has a higher kinetic rate constant and decolorization efficiency for removal of the methylene blue compare to the Ti/NATO. The rate constant for the pseudo-first ordered reaction of methylene blue degradation showed high values of 350 x 10(-3) min(-1) for Ti/NATO and 440 x 10(-3) min(-1) for Ti/TiHx/NATO. 

  • 2.
    Hedenstedt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet; AkzoNobel.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Ahlberg, Elisabet
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    In-Situ Raman Spectroscopy of α- and γ-FeOOH during Cathodic Load2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 9, p. H621-H627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water reduction on corroded iron surfaces is technologically and fundamentally important. Here, the technological interest originatesfrom the chlorate process where water reduction is the main cathodic process. Fundamentally, water reduction on oxide surfaces raisesquestions on the stability of the oxide and the nature of electrocatalytic surface sites. Two iron oxyhydroxides,α-andγ-FeOOH,were electrodeposited on titanium substrate and their reduction processes were followed in detail with in-situ Raman spectroscopy,using low incident laser power to avoid sample damaging. Polarization to negative potentials show two reduction peaks forγ-FeOOHand one peak forα-FeOOH prior to hydrogen evolution. The characteristic Raman peaks gradually disappear as the potential ismade more negative but no new peaks can be observed.δ-FeOOH was detected as an intermediate phase upon oxidation of thereduced surface layer. This indicates that Fe(OH)2is formed during cathodic polarization and initially re-oxidized to the isostructuralδ-FeOOH. Characteristic Raman signals of the original phases appear upon further oxidation in air.

  • 3. Ljungberg, K.
    et al.
    Söderberg, A.
    Tiensuu, A-L
    Johansson, S.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Buried Cobalt Silicide Layers in Silicon Created by Wafer Bonding1994In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 141, no 10, p. 2829-2833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A buried conductive layer in silicon has been created using wafer bonding technique, with a cobalt interfacial layer.Co-coated silicon wafers were brought into contact with either similar or uncoated wafers at room temperature. CoSi2 wasthen formed through a solid-phase reaction, during an anneal at 700 to 900°C. A 700 Å buried CoSi2-layer, with a resistivityof approximately 21 µ cm, was achieved. Good adhesion, as measured by tensile strength testing, between the wafers wasachieved. Transmission electron microscopic investigations (Co-coated wafer bonded to bare silicon) showed that thesilicide has not grown into the opposite wafer, and that an amorphous layer exists between the silicide and the siliconsurface. The presence of such a layer has been confirmed by electrical characterization.

  • 4.
    Pasquariello, Donato
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Oxidation and induced damages in oxygen plasma in situ wafer bonding2000In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 147, no 7, p. 2699-2703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present our in situ, oxygen plasma‐activated wafer bonding process. By keeping one wafer on the anode and the other on the cathode, we have an asymmetric plasma load on the wafers, making our bonding process interesting for low‐temperature applications where damage or defect‐sensitive active layers are bonded to less sensitive carrier wafers. As a step in optimizing the discharge parameters for plasma bonding applications, the effect of the self‐bias voltage on surface energy, oxidation rates, and damage is investigated. An optimum in surface energy was found at moderate self‐bias voltages, both at room temperature bonding and after low‐temperature annealing at 200°C. This is explained by the fact that at these voltages there is a minimum oxide thickness, which promotes the diffusion of water from the bond interface, and also by the fact that at these voltages we have the best surface cleaning conditions. Also, the surface oxide generated by the oxygen plasma seems to be reactive. With our in situ oxygen‐plasma‐activated wafer bonding process there was a major increase in surface energy for wafers bonded at moderate self‐bias volt‐ages compared to conventional wafer bonding performed in ambient air.

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