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  • 1.
    Bayat, Nazlin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cieslar, M.
    Faculty of Mathematic and Physics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    In-Situ Study of Phase Transformations during Homogenization of 6005 and 6082 Al Alloys2017In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 725, p. 504-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermetallic β-Al5FeSi phase and coarse Mg2Si particles have negative effects on extrudability and workability of 6xxx Al alloy billets. To achieve extruded products with a high surface quality as-cast billets are therefore heat-treated before extrusion. During heat treatment the undesired intermetallic particles, i.e., β-AlFeSi platelets, are transformed to a rounded α-Al(FeMn)Si intermetallic phase. This transformation was studied in-situ by TEM for 6005 and 6082 Al alloys. It was observed that the Mg2Si particles precipitate in the Al matrix at about 250 °C; this precipitation also occurred at the edge and faces of beta intermetallic particles, and the Mg2Si particles were the preferred sites for α-Al(FeMn)Si particle nucleation. The transformation proceeded faster and at lower temperatures, 350–450 °C, than what has been reported earlier for homogenization studies of bulk samples and industrial billets. This could be associated with the thin characteristic of used samples in TEM giving contribution from fast surface diffusion, but it was also concluded that the phase boundary layer diffusion was important for the understanding of how the transformations proceed.

  • 2.
    Dong, N.
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China.
    Yin, M.
    University of Science and Technology of China.
    Ning, Lixin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Guo, H.
    University of Science and Technology of China.
    Zhang, W.P.
    University of Science and Technology of China.
    Spectroscopic analysis of LiKGdF5 : Er3+, Sm3+ single crystal2006In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 424, no 1-2, p. 334-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature photoluminescence spectra were measured under the selective excitation to the energy levels of Gd3+,Er3+ and Sm3+, respectively. Corresponding transitions were assigned with the help of fluorescence decay measurements. By assuming that the rare earth ion is in C-2v symmetry instead of the actual C-2, crystal field calculations were carried out based on the deduced experimental energy level data of Er3+ and Sm3+. The theoretical result is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  • 3.
    Edvardsson, Sverker
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Åberg, Daniel
    Uppsala university.
    The energy matrix using determinantal product states applied to Ho:YAG2000In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 303-304, p. 280-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A program written in C is applied for calculations of energy levels and wavefunctions of the lanthanides or actinides. Standard non-relativistic phenomenological operators are used. Simple determinantal product states are used to form the basis set. The complete energy matrix is diagonalized with all operators interacting simultaneously thus allowing mixing of all quantum numbers. The crystal field splitting can also be studied via the standard crystal field hamiltonian as well as the magnetic field influence on the energy levels. The program is here applied to the technologically interesting trivalent ion holmium which is used to form extremely strong magnets as well as the medical eye-safe laser Ho:YAG. Both experimentally fitted and calculated self-consistent crystal field parameters are used to study the energy structure. Crystal ionic polarizabilities with electron correlation included are partly calculated. Zeeman split levels are also studied.

  • 4. Åberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Edvardsson, Sverker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The crystal dependent open-shell polarizability of f-elements: higher order contributions2000In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 303-304, no 24 May, p. 345-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has earlier been shown that the use of a self consistent multipole electrostatic model to derive the crystal field parameters (CFP) actually gives the correct curve shape when the CFP are plotted against the various rare-earth ions (S. Edvardsson, M. Klintenberg, The use of CI calculated polarizabilities to study rare-earth CFP dependencies in the laser host RE:YLF. Mater. Sci. Forum, 1999;315-317:407). It is also known that the electrostatic contribution is important for the lower order parameters. In this connection; our primary interest is to revisit this model and investigate theoretically some aspects of the dipole polarizability (alpha(D)). A few approximations were done in the earlier calculations: the treatment of unfilled shells, the neglect that also higher order terms of the type A(10)r(t)C(0)(t) contribute with t odd (not only the A(10)r(1)C(0)(1) term), correlation effects and second order contributions in perturbation theory. The solutions of the inhomogeneous Schrodinger equation are solved by a powerful numerical method. The problem is reformulated and results instead in a simple linear equation system (symmetric tridiagonal matrix) which is stable and fast to solve. The various theoretical results will be used in future applications.

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