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  • 1.
    Alam, Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Online surface characterization of paper and paperboards in a wide-range of the spatial wavelength spectrum2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 258, no 20, p. 7928-7935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper industry, surface topography is the essence of both paper and paperboard, and accurate topographical measurements are equally essential in order to achieve a uniform smooth surface. The traditional laboratory methods measure only a few samples from the entire tambour and there are other obvious limitations to this approach. Online measurements may be of significant value to improve the surface quality throughout the production. Roughness is one of the topography components and the majority of techniques measure paper by means of a single predictor of average roughness, R a which is inadequate in providing a comprehensive characterization of the surface. Measurements, in a wide range ofwavelengths, can characterize topography components such as roughness, waviness, cockling, etc. Online measurements were taken for various grades of 8 paper reels, containing the wireside and topsides for newspaper, and uncoated and coated sides of paperboards. Their surfacecharacterization, in the spatial wavelength spectrum, from 0.1 to 10 mm was obtained. This article presents the online characterizationresults which have efficiently distinguished the surfaces of same family materials including the edge and the middle position reels of fine coatedpaperboard. Online measurements were taken, at Iggesund Paperboard Pilot Coater in Sweden, by using a recently developed OnlineTopography (OnTop) device which is based on the principle of light triangulation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Powell, John
    Laser Expertise Ltd., Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The absorptance of steels to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG laser light at room temperature2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 11, p. 5017-5028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of absorptance is important for the analysis and modelling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the absorptance data presently available considers only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidised) alloys, which are actually being processed in manufacturing. This paper presents the results of absorptance measurements carried out at room temperature on as-received engineering grade steels including hot and cold rolled mild steel and stainless steels of various types. The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with an Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053 and 527 nm, which means that the results are also valid for Nd:YAG radiation at 1064 and 532 nm). The absorptance results obtained differ considerably from existing data for polished, pure metals and should help improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models. Some clear trends were identified; for all materials studied, the absorptance was considerably higher than the previously published values for the relevant pure metals with polished surfaces. For all 15 samples the absorptance was higher for the green than for the infrared wavelength. No clear trend correlating the absorptance with the roughness was found for mild steel in the roughness range Sa 0.4-5.6 μm. A correlation between absorptance and roughness was noted for stainless steel for Sa values above 1.5 μm.

  • 3. Bocelli, S
    et al.
    Guizzetti, G.
    Marabelli, F.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Experimental identification of the optical phonon of CoSi2 in the infrared1995In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 91, no 1-4, p. 30-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A weak but clear optical structure was detected at 329 cm−1 by both reflectance and transmittance measurements in the far infrared on a 430 Å film of CoSi2 grown on Si(100). This is the first observation of the IR vibrational mode of the cubic structure of CoSi2 and the result is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations. In order to characterize the sample, the reflectance was extended up to 5.2 × 104 cm−1 and the refractive index was also directly obtained in a more limited spectral range by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The IR structure was then quantitatively analyzed by means of a fit procedure, obtaining the values of ω0 = 327 cm−1 for the phonon energy, of γ = 10.5 cm−1 for the damping parameter and of 0.006 electronic charges for the screened effective ionic charge.

  • 4.
    Graça, Juliana Santos
    et al.
    Federal University of São Carlos, Center for Sciences and Technology for Sustainability, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.
    Miyazaki, Celina Massumi
    Federal University of São Carlos, Center for Sciences and Technology for Sustainability, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.
    Shimizu, Flavio M.
    University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.
    Volpati, Diogo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mejía-Salazar, J. R.
    University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.
    Oliveira Jr, Osvaldo N.
    University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.
    Ferreira, Marystela
    Federal University of São Carlos, Center for Sciences and Technology for Sustainability, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.
    On the importance of controlling film architecture in detecting prostate specific antigen2018In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 434, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunosensors made with nanostructured films are promising for detecting cancer biomarkers, even at early stages of the disease, but this requires control of film architecture to preserve the biological activity of immobilized antibodies. In this study, we used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to detect Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) with immunosensors produced with layer-by-layer (LbL) films containing anti-PSA antibodies in two distinct film architectures. The antibodies were either adsorbed from solutions in which they were free, or from solutions where they were incorporated into liposomes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG). Incorporation into DPPG liposomes was confirmed with surface plasmon resonance experiments, while the importance of electrostatic interactions on the electrical response was highlighted using the Finite Difference Time-Domain Method (FDTD). The sensitivity of both architectures was sufficient to detect the threshold value to diagnose prostate cancer (ca. 4 ng mL−1). In contrast to expectation, the sensor with the antibodies incorporated into DPPG liposomes had lower sensitivity, though the range of concentrations amenable to detection increased, according to the fitting of the EIS data using the Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption model. The performance of the two film architectures was compared qualitatively by plotting the data with a multidimensional projection technique, which constitutes a generic approach for optimizing immunosensors and other types of sensors. 

  • 5.
    Hjelm, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Full Band Monte Carlo Study of Bulk and Surface Transport Properties in 4H and 6H-SiC2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 184, no 1-4, p. 194-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bulk and surface electron transport properties of the 4H and 6H polytypes of silicon carbide (SiC) are studied using a full band Monte Carlo (MC) program. The model for the electrons is based on data from a full potential band structure calculation using the density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA). Both SiC polytypes have anisotropic transport properties, but the degree and characteristics of the anisotropy is different. In this study, we show how the anisotropy affects the bulk mobility for intermediate angles between the crystal axis and the plane perpendicular to it. Simulations of surface transport properties have also been performed for semiconductor-interface angles up to 15 degrees from the plane perpendicular to the c-axis. We present results for surface mobility and velocity as a function of the electric field component parallel to the interface plane. In the surface mobility simulations, a semi-empirical model for the semiconductor-insulator interface has been used, where it is assumed that the electrons are reflected in two perpendicular planes.

  • 6.
    Högberg, Björn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Helmersson, Jing
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Study of DNA-Coated Nanoparticles as Possible Programmable Self-Assembly Building-Blocks2006In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 252, no 15, p. 5538-5541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticles coated with single stranded DNA have been shown to efficiently hybridize to targets of complementary DNA. This property might be used to implement programmable (or algorithmic) self-assembly to build nanoparticle structures. However, we argue that a DNA coated nanoparticle by itself cannot be used as a programmable self-assembly building block since it does not have directed bonds. A general scheme for assembling and purifying nanoparticle eight-mers with eight geometrically well-directed bonds is presented together with some preliminary experimental work.

     

     

  • 7. Intarasiri, S.
    et al.
    Hallén, A.
    Lu, J.
    Jensen, J.
    Yu, L.D.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wolborski, M.
    Singkarat, S.
    Possnert, G.
    Crystalline quality of 3C-SiC formed by high-fluence C+-implanted Si2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 11, p. 4836-4842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon ions at 40 keV were implanted into (100) high-purity p-type silicon wafers at 400 oC to a fluence of 6.5×1017 ions/cm2. Subsequent thermal annealing of the implanted samples was performed in a diffusion furnace at atmospheric pressure with inert nitrogen ambient at 1100 oC. Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-E ERDA) was used to investigate depth distributions of the implanted ions. Infrared transmittance (IR) and Raman scattering measurements were used to characterize the formation of SiC in the implanted Si substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to characterize the crystalline quality in the surface layer of the sample. The formation of 3C-SiC and its crystalline structure obtained from the above mentioned techniques was finally confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The 1 results show that 3C-SiC is directly formed during implantation, and that the subsequent high-temperature annealing enhances the quality of the poly-crystalline SiC.

  • 8.
    Martinez, A
    et al.
    Department of Microelectronics and Information Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Electrum 229, SE-16440 Stockholm.
    Hjelm, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindefelt, Ulf
    Department of Microelectronics and Information Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Electrum 229, SE-16440 Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Monte Carlo Study of low field transport in Al doped 4H-SiC2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 184, no 1-4, p. 173-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ohmic transport of holes in p-type aluminum-doped 4H-SiC samples is investigated using a Monte Carlo (MC) tool based on a full-potential band structure. The temperature and doping dependence of the hole mobility and its anisotropy are calculated and discussed from a physical point of view, where we stress the importance of considering two-band conduction. Acoustic and optical phonon scattering, as well as ionized and neutral impurity scattering, have been considered. The MC program considers incomplete ionization of impurity atoms, and we assume an impurity level with the ionization energy 0.2 eV, corresponding to Al-doped samples. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Martinez, A.
    Sannemo, Ulf
    Numerical study of Bloch electron dynamics in wide band-gap semiconductors2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 184, no 1-4, p. 199-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are using numerical calculations to demonstrate the importance of band to band tunneling in wide band-gap semiconductors. We have considered 4H-SiC, 3C-SiC and wurtzite GaN as prototype semiconductors in the demonstration. Wide band-gap semiconductors allow device operation under very high-applied electric fields, where significant band to band tunneling is expected to occur. Hexagonal wide band-gap semiconductors have a valence band structure with a large number of bands separated by rather small energies. Our calculation shows that this leads to a very significant band to band tunneling even at relatively low electric fields. In cubic wide band-gap semiconductors the tunneling is much less pronounced. However, at the valence band maximum the band separations are small enough to allow significant band to band tunneling. The spin-orbit interaction tends to bend the band near the maximum creating degradation from a parabolic curvature. This bending is found to significantly influence the band to band tunneling process.

  • 10.
    Surmeneva, Maria
    et al.
    National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Lapanje, Ales
    Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Chudinova, Ekaterina
    National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Ivanova, Anna
    National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Loza, Kateryna
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Essen, Germany.
    Prymak, Oleg
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Essen, Germany.
    Epple, Matthias
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Essen, Germany.
    Ennen-Roth, Franka
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Technical Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Essen, Germany.
    Ulbricht, Mathias
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Technical Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Essen, Germany.
    Rijavec, Tomaz
    Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Surmenev, Roman
    National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Decreased bacterial colonization of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V metallic scaffolds with immobilized silver and calcium phosphate nanoparticles2019In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 480, p. 822-829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of an ideal bone graft substitute has been a long-standing effort, and a number of strategies have been developed to improve bone regeneration. Electron beam melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing method allowing for the production of porous implants with highly defined external dimensions and internal architectures. The increasing surface area of the implant may also increase the abilities of pathogenic microorganisms to adhere to the surfaces and form a biofilm, which may result in serious complications. The aim of this study was to explore the modifications of Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds to reduce the abilities of bacteria to attach to the EBM-manufactured implant surface. The layers composed of silver (Ag), calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NPs) and combinations of both were formed on the EBM-fabricated metallic scaffolds by electrophoretic deposition in order to provide them with antimicrobial properties. The assay of bacterial colonization on the surface was performed with the exposure of scaffold surfaces to Staphylococcus aureus cells for up to 17 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the relationships between different surface features of the studied samples and bacterial adhesion. The results indicate that by modifying the implant surface with appropriate nanostructures that change the hydrophobicity and the surface roughness at the nano scale, physical cues are provided that disrupt bacterial adhesion. Our results clearly show that AgNPs at a concentration of approximately 0.02 mg/сm 2 that were deposited together with CaPNPs covered by positively charge polyethylenimine (PEI) on the surface of EBM-sintered Ti6Al4V scaffolds hindered bacterial growth, as the total number of attached cells (NAC) of S. aureus remained at the same level during the 17 h of exposure, which indicates bacteriostatic activity. 

  • 11.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Paper Surfaces for Metal Nanoparticle Inkjet Printing2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 259, p. 731-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread usage of paper and board offer largely unexploited possibilities for printed electronics applications. Reliability and performance of printed devices on comparatively rough and inhomogenous surfaces of paper does however pose challenges.Silver nanoparticle ink has been deposited on ten various paper substrates by inkjet printing. The papers are commercially available, and selected over a range of different types and construction. A smooth nonporous polyimide film was included as a nonporous reference substrate. The substrates have been characterized in terms of porosity, absorption rate, apparent surface energy, surface roughness and material content. The electrical conductivity of the resulting printed films have been measured after drying at 60°C and again after additional sintering at 110°C. A qualitative analysis of the conductivity differences on the different substrates based on surface characterization and SEM examination is presented. Measurable parameters of importance to the final conductivity are pointed out, some of which are crucial to achieve conductivity. When certain criteria of the surfaces are met, paper media can be used as low cost, but comparably high performance substrates for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

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