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  • 1. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Christersson, L
    Linder, S
    Future Production and Utilisation of Biomass in Sweden: potentials and CO~2 mitigation1997In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Dornburg, Veronika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Estimating GHG emission mitigation supply curves of large-scale biomass use on a country level2007In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 46-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the possible influences of a large-scale introduction of biomass material and energy systems and their market volumes on land, material and energy market prices and their feedback to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation costs. GHG emission mitigation supply curves for large-scale biomass use were compiled using a methodology that combines a bottom-up analysis of biomass applications, biomass cost supply curves and market prices of land, biornaterials and bioenergy carriers. These market prices depend on the scale of biomass use and the market volume of materials and energy carriers and were estimated using own-price elasticities of demand. The methodology was demonstrated for a case study of Poland in the year 2015 applying different scenarios on economic development and trade in Europe. For the key technologies considered, i.e. medium density fibreboard, poly lactic acid, electricity and methanol production, GHG emission mitigation costs increase strongly with the scale of biomass production. Large-scale introduction of biomass use decreases the GHG emission reduction potential at costs below 50EURO/Mg CO2eq with about 13-70% depending on the scenario. Biomaterial production accounts for only a small part of this GHG emission reduction potential due to relatively small material markets and the subsequent strong decrease of biomaterial market prices at large scale of production. GHG emission mitigation costs depend strongly on biomass supply curves, own-price elasticity of land and market volumes of bioenergy carriers. The analysis shows that these influences should be taken into account for developing biomass implementations strategies.

  • 3.
    Joelsson, Jonas M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Reduction of CO2 emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 967-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare different options for the use of lignocellulosic biomass to reduce CO2 emission and oil use, focusing on polygeneration of biomass-based motor fuels and electricity, and discuss methodological issues related to such comparisons. The use of biomass can significantly reduce CO2 emission and oil use, but there is a trade-off between the reductions in CO2 emission and oil use. Bioelectricity from stand-alone plants replacing coal-based electricity reduced CO2 emission by 99 kg per GJ biomass input but gave no oil use reduction. Stand-alone produced methanol replacing diesel reduced the CO2 emission with 38 kg and the oil use with 0.67 GJ per GJ biomass, indicating that a potential CO2 emission reduction of 90 kg is lost per GJ oil reduced. CO2 emission and oil use reduction for alternatives co-producing fuel and electricity fall between the stand-alone alternatives. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles using bioelectricity reduced CO2 emission by 75–88 kg and oil use by 0.99–1.2 GJ, per GJ biomass input. Biomass can also reduce CO2 emission and/or oil use more efficiently if fossil-fuel-fired boilers or electric heating is replaced by district heating from biomass-based combined heat and power generation. This is also true if electricity or motor fuel is produced from black liquor gasification in pulp mills or if wood is used instead of concrete in building construction. Biomass gasification is an important technology to achieve large reductions, irrespective of whether CO2 emission or oil use reduction is prioritised.

     

  • 4.
    Näslund Eriksson, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Biofuels from stumps and small roundwood - Costs and CO2 benefits2008In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 32, no 10, p. 897-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analysed and compared costs, primary energy use and CO2 benefits of recovering stumps and small roundwood from thinnings, together with logging residues. Small roundwood, chipped at a terminal or end-user, has a cost comparable to the chip system and a primary energy use comparable to the bundle system used for recovery of logging residues. The small roundwood system with roadside chipping is more expensive. As productivity in the cutting process improves, the small roundwood alternatives become more cost-effective. The stump system has costs in the same range as or lower than the chip and bundle systems. Forestry operations for stump and small roundwood recovery require considerable primary energy, but net recovery per hectare is much greater than for the chip and bundle systems, which means that more fossil fuel can be displaced per hectare of clearcut than with a chip or a bundle system. Stumps and small roundwood from thinnings can become as cost-effective as logging residues in the near future. Furthermore, when stumps and small roundwood from thinnings are also used to replace fossil fuels, the potential CO2 reduction will be about four times as great as when only logging residues are used with a traditional chip system.

  • 5.
    Näslund Eriksson, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles – Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO2 emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO2 emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO2 emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO2 emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects.

     

  • 6.
    Näslund Eriksson, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Costs, CO2- and primary energy balances of forest-fuel recovery systems at different forest productivity2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 610-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we examine the cost, primary energy use, and net carbon emissions associated with removal and use of forest residues for energy, considering different recovery systems, terrain, forwarding distance and forest productivity. We show the potential recovery of forest fuel for Sweden, its costs and net carbon emissions from primary energy use and avoided fossil carbon emissions. The potential annual net recovery of forest fuel is about 66 TWh, which would cost one billion 2005 to recover and would reduce fossil emissions by 6.9 Mt carbon if coal were replaced. Of the forest fuel, 56% is situated in normal terrain with productivity of >30 t dry-matter ha (-1) and of this, 65% has a forwarding distance of <400 m. In normal terrain with >30 t dry-matter ha (1) the cost increase for the recovery of forest fuel, excluding stumps, is around 4-6% and 8-11% for medium and longer forwarding distances, respectively. The stump and small roundwood systems are less cost-effective at lower forest fuel intensity per area. For systems where loose material is forwarded, less dry-matter per hectare increases costs by 6-7%, while a difficult terrain increases costs by 3-4%. Still, these systems are quite cost-effective. The cost of spreading ash is around 40 2005 ha (-1), while primary energy use for spreading ash in areas where logging residues, stumps, and small roundwood are recovered is about 0.025% of the recovered bioenergy.

  • 7.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of climate change on biomass production and substitution in north-central Sweden2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 4340-4355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the effects of climate change on forest production in north-central Sweden, as well as the potential climate changemitigation feedback effects of the resulting increased carbon stock and forest product use. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C over the next 100 years may increase annual forest production by 33% and potential annual harvest by 32%, compared to a reference case without climate change. This increased biomass production, if used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials, can result in a significant net carbon emission reduction. We find that carbon stock in forest biomass, forest soils, and wood products also increase, but this effect is less significant than biomass substitution. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 104 Tg of carbon can occur over 100 years, depending on harvest level and reference fossil fuel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 8.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 2506-2516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In this study we analyze and compare the climate impacts from the recovery, transport and combustion of forest residues (harvest slash and stumps), versus the climate impacts that would have occurred if the residues were left in the forest and fossil fuels used instead. We use cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) as an indicator of climate impacts, and we explicitly consider the temporal dynamics of atmospheric carbon dioxide and biomass decomposition. Over a 240-year period, we find that CRF is significantly reduced when forest residues are used instead of fossil fuels. The type of fossil fuel replaced is important, with coal replacement giving the greatest CRF reduction. Replacing oil and fossil gas also gives long-term CRF reduction, although CRF is positive during the first 10-25 years when these fuels are replaced. Biomass productivity is also important, with more productive forests giving greater CRF reduction per hectare. The decay rate for biomass left in the forest is found to be less significant. Fossil energy inputs for biomass recovery and transport have very little impact on CRF. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 572-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO2equiv if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission.

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