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  • 1.
    Anderson, Karen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Education and training for records professionals2007In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 94-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the definitions of and the differences between education and training and the role of each in nurturing and supporting lifelong learning for records professionals: records managers and archivists.

     

    Design/methodology/approach – General definitions of “education”, “training”, “competence” and “competencies” have been deliberately selected as an accessible starting-point for reflection. Different models for competencies and the lack of consensus on what constitutes an appropriate competency model for the profession are considered.

     

    Findings – Education provides new professionals with knowledge of theory of the discipline and helps them to explore current practice. It provides the information-seeking skills and encourages a reflective habit that underpins independent lifelong learning. Training focuses on acquisition of specific skills and competencies necessary in the workplace. More is needed for a viable professional future; education for research is essential to the development of professional knowledge and for the survival of education programmes in universities.

     

    Practical implications – Professional associations as leaders of opinion and practice have an important role in finding the way forward. Although competency standards are more appropriate for evaluating training programmes, professional associations which have embraced competency standards have attempted to use them to evaluate education programmes, but prefer not to consider evaluating training programmes and training providers.

     

    Originality/value – This paper aims to raise awareness of the need to give appropriate weight to education, training and research to ensure that records professionals are known for high levels of competence as well as productive reflection and creative forward thinking.

     

     

  • 2.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Open data?: Data, information, document or record?2014In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 163-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of the article is to investigate what characterizes the information constructs that the archival discourse and the open data discourse communicate in text, and what their similarities and differences are. This article proposes that it is possible to see the open data initiative and modern archival practice as two discourses that have used different terminology to express and communicate their messages in the literature. In this article, we have applied a hypothesis-like assumption that the information constructs used in open data are actually nothing other than records, as they are in the archival discourse. Design/methodology/approach – This article is based on a mixed method approach.Aquantitative text analysis (word count) was carried out in a large set of documents representing the open data discourse and in the archival discourse. This was followed by a qualitative text analysis. Findings – It was found that both discourses did focus on records. However, the opendata discourse very seldom used the term record, but used information and data much more frequently. The archival discourse used the term information almost as often as record. A possible adaption of communication strategies can be identified, targeting a much wider audience through a user-centered approach. This could be an indication of a change in the archival discourse, which seems to be moving from a discourse that is very much regulated by law toward a discourse that is more focused on benefit and usability. Originality/value – This research indicates that it is possible to interpret both the open data and the archival discourse as one united discourse, an effect derived from working with e-government. There is an ongoing harmonization of the words used, and in the studied archival discourse, a more user- and business-oriented focus can be seen.

  • 3.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Situating trust challenges of online trade2019In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 272-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer an improved understanding of trust challenges in online trade, providing examples of issues that should be addressed for a trustworthy online environment. It also aims to illustrate how records and recordkeeping can contribute in terms of enabling trust and accountability. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on results from a self-ethnographic study of online trade (Engvall, 2017); the results are analyzed further. Kelton, Fleischmann and Wallace’s (2008) model for trust is used to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the challenges and where they should be addressed. Findings: This paper recognizes that there are different types of trust challenges at different levels – individual, between clients and businesses and at a societal level – that should be addressed at these levels in different ways. Originality/value: This paper provides an understanding of trust challenges in the online environment. 

  • 4.
    Engvall, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    User participation: what can be learned from the information systems domain?2019In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 320-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Many records professionals are involved in the design and development of recordkeeping systems. To design recordkeeping systems that meet user needs, their perspectives have to be included in the design process. The purpose of this paper is to explore what can be learned from the domain of information systems (IS) regarding user participation in design, and then to reflect on what related to the recordkeeping dimension should be further considered. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a review of literature in the IS development field about user participation. Findings: Analysing how users participate in IS development reveals several aspects of interest for records professionals. There are different approaches to, purposes of and driving values in user participation, which should be transparent. For user participation to be successful, an infrastructure has to be in place. The idea of user participation may be a way to include the secondary values of records in the near term, but it may also challenge traditional roles. New issues, such as the archivist’s role as a trusted third party, should be analysed further. Originality/value: This study uses knowledge from the information system field to acquire new knowledge about user participation in design, and relate it to the recordkeeping domain. This study addresses issues surrounding user participation, which has been indicated as an area in need of further development in archives and information science.

  • 5.
    Kallberg, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Archivists 2.0: redefining the archivist´s profession in the digital age2012In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 98-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - public organizations are investing in e-government development and e-services to improve the interaction and services to the citizens. Archivists need to  act more pro-active to capture and manage records in order to be accessible both in the present and in the long-term. Archivists need to understand the conceptual context and business processes in which the records are created. This study aims to focus on an ongoing process within a specific context, which may have direct, but also future implications for archivists`professional identity. Professional identity is understood as a sense of shared understandings an skills, experiences, common way of perceiving problems and their possible solutions. This study is meant to answer the overall research question and sub questions: What is the status of archivist professionals`positions and practice within public organizations? What organizational effect has the change from paper-based to electronic record keeping had on archivists`professional positions and practice within organizations? How do archivists perceive themselves in their professional roles, i.e. identity? Are there any critical competence issues that need to be solved that are connected to new requirements in working methods related to electronic record keeping? and How do archivists define their skills and working performance?

    Design/methodology/approach - The data presented and analyzed in this article are based on a literature review and an empirical study. The literature covers areas related to archivists`professional practice and future role. The empirical study is based on interviews with nine municipality archivists at nine different Swedish municipalities identified by the Swedish Association of Local Government and Regions as "good example" e-government municipalities. All interviews were undertaken during January and March 2011.

    Findings - The findings provide information on how archivists define their current and future professional role in relation to the organization and the development of information technology: the status of archivist professionals`positions and practice, for example, within public organizations. It explores the importance of strategic approaches to managing electronic records - from their creation throughout their whole existence, including long-term preservation - and considers necessary changes to the professional image and the skills they need.

    Orginiality/value - This article will be of interest to record keeping practitioners working in the shift to e-government in local contexts and also to educators, as there appears to be a shift in the skills and knowledge required by those working in local government.

  • 6.
    Kallberg, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Issues with contact centres: as a new interface between public organisations and citizens2013In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 90-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various levels of government offer citizens different channels and services using information technology (IT). Within e-government different types of “e-services” are used. The communications are made through a user interface consisting of an e-service application. E-services are used for digital management of routine matters: records are created, received, maintained, used and disposed during the processes of capturing and maintaining evidence about business activities and transactions. Besides e-services, public administrations are establishing new channels organised as contact centres, in order to interact more efficiently with the citizens. The establishment of contact centres could be seen as an expression of an integrated approach to manage and control information flows in order to improve and ensure effective services. The purpose of this paper is to identify recordkeeping challenges related to public organisations’ e-government development and documentation practice. The data presented and analysed are based on a qualitative study of Swedish local governments’ (municipalities) establishment and implementation of contact centres during 2011. The study was designed as a multiple case study, using interviews as a data collection method. The findings demonstrate that the establishment of contact centres has other motives than the traditional need to use information as evidence for decision making: namely internal business process development and cost savings. The information is captured proactively and serves different purposes, which challenges the strong bond between processes, legislation, organisation and accountability. This paper will be of interest to record-keeping practitioners working in the shift to e-government. Information is captured in new ways where the same information serves several interests. This research addresses the importance of including research in the beginning of the life of the record in relation to the influence made by the creator and the social construction of the record as part of archival thinking and research.

  • 7.
    Kallberg, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    'Shaping a Profession?' A New Professional Context and Changing Status for Registrars in Sweden2013In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 177-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – In order to work more efficiently with internal and external processes, public organisations are working with reorganisation and centralisation of documentation practices as part of a holistic approach to manage and control information flows. The registry function has a long tradition built on legislative requirements concerning registration of official documents in order to fulfil the citizens’ right to access information. The study demonstrates challenges related to recordkeeping legislative awareness within a public organisation and how a changing context may impact on the registrars’ status.

    Methodology The data presented and analysed is based on a longitudinal case study of a centralised registry function project undertaken by a Swedish local government body (a municipality). Interviews have been used as the primary data collection method.

    Findings The findings identify challenges that result from a lack of recordkeeping skills and recordkeeping legislative awareness that needs to be solved in order to reach a successful implementation. Even though the registry function is identified as strategically important, the registrars have not reached the status ‘expert’. Changing context does not necessarily lead to a change in status. It is a more complex process, which includes attitudes, knowledge and skills.  

    Research limitations/implications – The research is limited by being a case study in a single organisation in the Swedish public sector context.

    Practical implications The findings could be useful for public organisations that intend to reorganise and centralise documentation practices. Furthermore, the findings contribute to recordkeeping practitioners and also to stakeholders within public organisations.

    Originality Registrars as an occupational group in Sweden have not been the focus of any extensive academic research. In view of its new strategic importance the registry function has benefitted from organisational restructuring; research is needed on registrars as a possible future ‘records management profession’, which does not currently exist in Sweden.

  • 8.
    Klareld, Ann-Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Recordkeeping in an outsourcing public agency2018In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implications of an outsourcing policy for public recordkeeping. The research question addressed is: What are the current impediments to create, capture, organize, and pluralize records produced by contractors to whom work has been outsourced?

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper uses the four dimensions of the Records Continuum Model (RCM) as a sructure for understanding what important aspects of recordkeeping that can be affected by an outsourcing policy, and discuss the consequences for the creation of public archives. An investment project at a Swedish public agency with a far-reaching outsourcing policy in the form of a client-contractor model is used as a case to exemplify the problem.

    Findings

    The findings indicate that the legal framework for recordkeeping needs further development, or clarification as to how it should be interpreted in the outsourcing context. More case studies are needed to provide richer data about recordkeeping challenges arising from outsourcing and further opportunities for theoretical analysis using the Records Continuum Model.

    Originality/value

    The RCM has been used in a first attempt to understand various aspects of records management practices and what principles need to be taken into account when making such significant organizational structural and cultural changes.

  • 9.
    Klareld, Ann-Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    The ‘Middle Archive’: Exploring the Practical and Theoretical Implications of a New Concept in Sweden2015In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 149-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study how the concept "middle archive" is related to the Swedish archival theory and practice, by exploring its background and its practical and theoretical implications. The overarching aim is to increase the understanding of the interrelations between the archival theory and practice, with a special focus on changes occurring in the digital environment in Sweden. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative study of texts produced between 2010 and 2013, which were read and analyzed iteratively. The research design and analysis is inspired by Dryden (2014) who recommends taking the context into account. The three types of digital repository developed by Millar (2010) are used as a comparison to further extend the understanding of the concept of the "middle archive". Findings – The findings indicate that the "middle archive" was introduced as a solution to practical problems of managing digital records, and that there is a need to further discuss how the term relates to existing theoretical, legal and administrative contexts. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited to contemporary Sweden. The researcher did not follow the discussions and drafts which contributed to the development of the final definitions of the "middle archive". Originality/value – The study contributes to the research and development of archival concepts, with a special focus on recent developments in Sweden. The paper highlights some of the challenges relating to archives and records in the context of e- government development.

  • 10.
    Klett, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Theory, regulation and practice in Swedish digital records appraisal2019In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 29, no 1/2, p. 86-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Digital records appraisal and aspects of archival values in theory, regularization and practice are explored. This paper aims to reflect upon the appraisal process, responsibility and norms for value creation in a digitalized environment. The research question was how do appraisal theory, normative rules and appraisal practice meet the aims of values in digital archives?

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study triangulated appraisal theory, normative values and participants’ views about archival values in appraisal practice in a Swedish setting. Content analysis were used to explore normative documents and interviews. Appraisal theories of the Swedish Nils Nilsson and the Canadian Terry Cook were interpreted. The result was related to theories on public values, the nature of responsibility and relations between the state and citizens.

    Findings

    The results show influences between theory, norms and practice. Changes in norms and practice do not follow the development of digitalization. Responsibility is focused on tasks, which exposes risks of accountability control and knowledge of appraisal grounds. The paper concludes that access requirements and user needs may prompt change in appraisal processes. In the light of digitalization, “primary and secondary value” are merely a matter of use and usability in a time and space (continuum) perspective.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study is based in Sweden where extensive right of access to public records and default preservation are norm.

    Originality/value

    The result shows how allocated responsibilities impinge on a re-active digital appraisal process.

  • 11.
    Sundqvist, Anneli
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Troselius, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Comparative Study of Metadata Schemes at Swedish Governmental Agencies2012In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 7-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to study the development and implementation of metadata schemes in Swedish governmental agencies, in order to gain a better understanding of recordkeeping practices in contemporary organisations and of the use of metadata and practical implementation of metadata schemes.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on two case studies. The data have been collected through qualitative interviews, e-mail correspondence and analysis of documentary sources, and analysed with help of the records continuum model and the conceptual framework presented in the international standard for metadata, ISO/TS 23081.

    Findings – The results from this study show that the agencies had similar reasons to develop metadata schemes, namely to established a unitary and consistent description of records, to enhance retrieval and exchange of information, and to provide external users access to records in compliance with the 24/7-agency vision. The agencies have, however, chosen different approaches to metadata and based their schemes on different models. This has affected the possibility of capturing contextual relations and transactionality, and thus of guaranteeing the evidential properties of records. The agencies are to various extents covering the different aspects of recordkeeping. None of the agencies are, however, acting in all dimensions of the records continuum model.

    Originality/value – The paper shows how the records continuum model can be used as an analytical tool in the study of recordkeeping practices. It further contributes with empirical findings to a field where still little research is done. The paper can also be of value to practitioners seeking to develop and implement metadata schemes for records.

  • 12.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Enterprise Content Management and the Records Continuum Model as strategies for long-term preservation of digital information2013In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Södertörn högskola.
    Public Information Directive (PSI) implementation in two Swedish municipalities2018In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 2-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper examines the implementation of the Public Sector Information (PSI) directive in two Swedish municipalities amidst a changing information management landscape impacted by e-government development. Government information is currently looked upon as a “gold mine” and “raw material” to be explored by interested parties. The PSI directive grants European citizens a right to access government information flows (PSI) in order to develop new electronic services. The Swedish government implemented its PSI directive in July 2010. Swedish municipalities have to embrace the directive and make the PSI available to the general public. The literature review highlighted a number of critical issues that should be addressed if PSI initiatives are to succeed. This study revealed that the two municipalities had different resource capacities, and the levels of e-government development varied. This meant that the implementation of the PSI directive also varied. The bigger municipality with a bigger budget had implemented the PSI directive and was publishing data sets on its website, while the smaller municipality with a smaller budget only published a few documents. This paper, therefore, argues that the municipalities should have the same capacity if the PSI is to be a democratic endeavor to serve all citizens. Good quality PSI will also require the municipalities to embrace a records and information continua thinking, which highlights the necessity to proactively and holistically manage the information for pluralization in different contexts. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds on interviews that were conducted with four municipal officers. The number of respondents is quite small because the focus was specifically on people who were responsible for the implementation of the PSI directive in the municipalities. The respondents were identified through their fellow colleagues and they also recommended each other. Pickard refers to this kind of approach as a snow-bowling approach. Through interviews and observation, one participant advises on issues that need further inquiry and, hence, directs the researcher to another person who might offer more answers. A general interview guide approach was used to solicit answers to issues such as the implementation of the PSI directive, guidelines for PSI publication, if terms such as big data and open data were being used in the municipalities, if the municipalities had an information governance plan and how it was understood, if the information systems were well aligned to meet with the requirements of the PSI directive, how e-government development affected information management and information security and if the municipalities had information security guidelines. Findings: The Swedish government requires its administrations to engage in e-government development. This development has led to increased amounts of information that the municipalities have to effectively manage and make available to the general public. However, the municipalities operate under different conditions. Municipalities that are financially stronger are better placed to invest in measures that will lead to better quality PSI. All municipalities are, however, expected to implement the PSI directive. The two municipalities that were the subjects of this study had different information management environments and the capacity to invest in information management systems that would facilitate the management of their information resources. The budgetary constraints faced by smaller municipalities might impact the implementation of the PSI directive and, hence, hinder the publication of the PSI. e-Government is meant to be an inclusive project, and the PSI is meant for all citizens with innovative ideas. There is a risk that citizens who belong to poorer municipalities might not be equally privileged compared to those living in resourceful municipalities. This poses a democratic challenge that should concern all people interested in an open and inclusive society. Originality/value: Little research has so far been published on the implementation process of the PSI directive. The discourses that have started to emerge discuss the challenges of open data without paying much attention to the creation, capture and the management aspects of the PSI. The originality of this paper, therefore, lies in the application of the records and information continua thinking, which highlights dimensions that enhance information management and the democratic challenges that will be caused by the data divide, as municipalities have different capabilities when it comes to the publication of the PSI.

  • 14.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    The impact of information culture on information/ records management: A case study of a municipality in Belgium2014In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 5-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa; Södertörn University College.
    The impact of new public management through outsourcing on the management of government information: The case of Sweden2019In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 29, no 1/2, p. 134-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Using a case study method, the article investigates the impact New Public Management (NPM), through outsourcing has had on the management of government information at the Swedish Transport Agency. In April 2015 the Agency outsourced its IT-operations to IBM company. Some of the IBM sub-contractors had not been cleared by the Swedish Security Service. This exposed the Agency’s information to risk. By outsourcing the IT operations, the General Director of the Agency deviated from the laws governing government information such as the Swedish Security Protection Act, the Personal Data Act and the Publicity and Secrecy Act. Design/methodology/approach: The researcher has applied a case study method as the investigation focuses on a phenomenon in a real-life setting. The case study method entails the use of past studies, which facilitates the exploration and understanding of a complex issue. The phenomenon under investigation is NPM’s impact, through outsourcing, on the management of public information at the Swedish Transportation Agency. Findings: Outsourcing should be foregone by well-formulated contracts that should put into consideration the management of government information and the involvement of all stakeholders such as records managers/archivists, IT personnel, heads of departments, lawyers and business analysts. Outsourcing risks to compromise the two tenets of democracy that is, accountability and transparency which are central to Swedish public administrations’ operations. Research limitations/implications: The study is limited by the fact that it only presents the views of the archivists. This was, however, purposely done because their voice was missing during the discussions that followed after the data breach scandal had become public knowledge. Additionally, archivists are supposed to play a major role in the management of government information at Swedish institutions. Further research that will involve different categories of employees might give a deeper and better understanding of the impact that NPM, through outsourcing, is having on the management of government information and what implications this might have on issues of trust, transparency and accountability. Practical implications: The study demonstrates the need for well-formulated outsourcing contracts that will include information management clauses. It is of crucial importance in a democratic society that access to government information is not compromised as institutions endeavor to achieve efficiency and high-quality service delivery. Social implications: It is government information that gives citizens knowledge about the various processes of government institutions. It is therefore of paramount importance that government information is not left in the hands of unauthorized companies that are involved in the outsourcing activity but should be securely managed and guarded, as the opposite might pose privacy and national security challenges and hence undermine the trust that citizens have in government institutions. Originality/value: The search that the author conducted confirmed paucity in research that discusses issues related to NPM, outsourcing and the management of government information. This paper is therefore a contribution to the discourse from an archives and information management perspective.

  • 16.
    Svärd, Proscovia
    University of South Africa, South Africa; Södertörn University College.
    The woes of Swedish private archival institutions2017In: Records Management Journal, ISSN 0956-5698, E-ISSN 1758-7689, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 275-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the long-term preservation challenges that the Swedish private archives are faced with. In as much as they offer a complement to the public archives and hence offer a nuanced national narrative, they lack both financial and human resources to effectively deal with the digital information management environment. Design/methodology/approach: Participatory Action Research (PAR) was used to identify the challenges of long-term preservation together with the six private archives institutions that were involved in the collaboration. The collaboration was financially facilitated by the Södertörn University. PAR is defined as a systematic investigation, with the collaboration of those affected by the issue being studied, for the purposes of education and taking action or effecting social change. What is distinctive of PAR is the active involvement of people whose lives are affected by the phenomenon under study. Findings: The private archival institutions face long-term preservation challenges such as lack of a digital repository that would facilitate the capture, organization and management of digital records that are of different formats and in a dispersed environment. There are no stringent legal requirements to facilitate the creation and management of the records in a standardized way and the institutions fear that imposing such requirements might deter their clients from depositing archival materials with them. The institutions will also need to espouse the business-oriented archival descriptions where private organizations are concerned to identify relevant archival materials and to promote participatory archival descriptions that would allow the creators to tag their records with metadata. Digital information requires a proactive approach, that is, planning for the long-term preservation of the information before it is created. Private archives need to invest in education packages that will facilitate their clientele’s understanding of the challenges of digital long-term preservation. Research limitations/implications: The findings cannot be generalized to all private archival institutions, as it was only six institutions that participated, but the issues discussed are relevant to most archival institutions. Practical implications: A lot of research has been carried out in the area of long-term preservation, but researchers have not paid enough attention to the woes of the private archives. To sustain a nuanced national narrative, the private archives need all the support to be able to live up to their mission of preserving archives of the private sector that are not captured by the public archival institutions. This is important in a pluralistic society such as Sweden. Highlighting the challenges might enable the institutions to work towards finding common challenges. Social implications: The private archives are part of Sweden’s national heritage. Their preservation matters to the society as a whole and to enhancing the voices of the underrepresented. Originality/value: The literature review revealed that not much research has paid attention to the challenges being faced by the private archives. This paper, therefore, contributes to this knowledge gap. 

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