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  • 1.
    Ahokas, Essi K.
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ihalainen, Johanna K.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kyröläinen, Heikki
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mero, Antti A.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Effects of Water Immersion Methods on Postexercise Recovery of Physical and Mental Performance2019In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1488-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 3 water immersion interventions performed after active recovery compared with active recovery only on physical and mental performance measures and physiological responses. The subjects were physically active men (age 20-35 years, mean ± SD 26 ± 3.7 years). All subjects performed a short-term exercise protocol, including maximal jumps and sprinting. Four different recovery methods (10 minutes) were used in random order: cold water immersion (CWI, 10° C), thermoneutral water immersion (TWI, 24° C), and contrast water therapy (CWT, alternately 10° C and 38° C). All these methods were performed after an active recovery (10-minute bicycle ergometer; heart rate [HR] 120-140 b·min, 60-73% from age-calculated maximum HR), and the fourth method was active recovery (ACT) only. Within 96 hours after exercise bouts, recovery was assessed through a 30-m maximal sprint test, maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), self-perceived muscle soreness and relaxation questionnaires, and blood lactate, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and catecholamine levels. The self-perceived feeling of relaxation after 60-minute recovery was better (p < 0.05) after CWI and CWT than ACT and TWI. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the recovery methods in any other marker. In the 30-m sprint test, however, slower running time was found in ACT (p < 0.001) and CWT (p = 0.005), and reduced CMJ results (p < 0.05) were found in ACT when the results were compared with baseline values. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that CWI and CWT improve the acute feeling of relaxation that can play a positive role in athletes' performance and well-being.

  • 2.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Laaksonen, Marko S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers2013In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1239-1252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite crosscountry skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p < 0.05) and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5%) than their junior counterparts (p < 0.05), whereas no differences could be found between the genders. Also, large ranges in economy and gross efficiency were found in all groups. It was concluded that, in addition to v̇O2peak, skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend crosscountry skiers at all performance levels to test not only v̇O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

  • 3. Beaven, Christopher
    Acute salivary hormone responses to complex exercise bouts2010In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1072-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of resistance and plyometric training, or complex training, may yield greater functional gains than either method alone.As steroid hormones respond to exercise stimuli and modulate the functional outcomes, it is possible that complex training creates an enhanced anabolic physiological milieu for adaptation.

    We investigated acute responses of salivary testosterone and cortisol to complex exercise bouts.

    After a standardized warm-up, 16 semiprofessional rugby players performed 1 of 4 exercise bouts in a cross-over manner: power-power; power-strength; strength-power; or strength-strength.Each player completed each of the 4 bouts twice over a 4-week period in a balanced random order such that each player performed a total of 8 bouts.The power block consisted of 3 sets of 3 repetitions of jump squat exercise at 50% of 1-repetition maximum load.The strength block consisted of three sets of three repetitions of box squat exercise at a 3-repetition maximum load.There were 3-minute rest periods between sets and 4-minute rest periods between exercise blocks.Saliva was sampled before, during, and immediately after the exercise bout.

    The greatest overall hormonal responses were a small increase in testosterone (13%; 90% confidence limits +/-7%) and a trivial increase in cortisol (27%; +/-30%) after the strength-power bout.A clear difference was observed between the strength-power and the power-power bouts immediately after exercise for testosterone (10%; +/-8%) and cortisol (29%; +/-17%).The preceding exercise block had little effect on subsequent strength and power performance.

    The hormonal response after the strength-power bout suggests that this exercise sequence provides an enhanced anabolic milieu for adaptation.

  • 4. Beaven, Christopher
    Changes in strength, power, and steroid hormones during a professional rugby union competition2009In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1583-1592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess changes in strength, power, and levels of testosterone and cortisol over a 13-week elite competitive rugby union season. Thirty-two professional rugby union athletes from a Super 14 rugby team (age, 24.4 6 2.7 years; height, 184.7 6 6.2 cm; mass, 104.0 6 11.2 kg; mean 6 SD) were assessed for upper-body and lower-body strength (bench press and box squat, respectively) and power (bench throw and jump squat, respectively) up to 5 times throughout the competitive season. Salivary testosterone and cortisol samples, along with ratings of perceived soreness and tiredness, were also obtained before each power assessment.An effect size of 0.2 was interpreted as the smallest worthwhile change.

    A small increase in lower body strength was observed over the study period (8.5%; 90% confidence limits 67.2%), whereas upper-body strength was maintained (21.2%; 62.7%). Decreases in lower-body power (23.3%; 65.5%) and upper-body power (23.4; 64.9%) were small and trivial.There were moderate increases in testosterone (54%; 627%) and cortisol (97%; 651%) over the competitive season, and the testosterone to cortisol ratio showed a small decline (22%; 625%), whereas changes in perceived soreness and tiredness were trivial. Individual differences over the competitive season for all measures were mostly trivial or inestimable.

    Some small to moderate relationships were observed between strength and power; however, relationships between hormonal concentrations and performance were mainly trivial but unclear.

    Positive adaptation in strength and power may be primarily affected by cumulative training volume and stimulus over a competitive season. Greater than 2 resistance sessions per week may be needed to improve strength and power in elite rugby union athletes during a competitive season.

  • 5. Beaven, Christopher
    Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses following four resistance training protocols in professional rugby players2008In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 426-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acute response of free salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations to four resistance exercise (RE) protocols in 23 elite men rugby players was investigated.

    We hypothesized that hormonal responses would differ among individuals after four distinct RE protocols: four sets of 10 repetitions (reps) at 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with 2 minutes' rest between sets (4 × 10-70%); three sets of five reps at 85% 1RM with 3 minutes' rest (3 × 5-85%); five sets of 15 reps at 55% 1RM with 1 minute's rest (5 × 15-55%); and three sets of five reps at 40% 1RM with 3 minutes' rest (3 × 5-40%).

    Each athlete completed each of the four RE protocols in a random order on separate days. T and C concentrations were measured before exercise (PRE), immediately after exercise (POST), and 30 minutes post exercise (30 POST). Each protocol consisted of four exercises: bench press, leg press, seated row, and squats.

    Pooled T data did not change as a result of RE, whereas C declined significantly.

    Individual athletes differed in their T response to each of the protocols, a difference that was masked when examining the pooled group data. When individual data were retrospectively tabulated according to the protocol in which each athlete showed the highest T response, a significant protocol-dependent T increase for all individuals was revealed.Therefore, RE induced significant individual, protocol-dependent hormonal changes lasting up to 30 minutes after exercise.

    These individual responses may have important ramifications for modulating adaptation to RE and could explain the variability often observed in studies of hormonal response to RE.

  • 6. Beaven, Christopher
    Significant strength gains observed in rugby players following specific RE protocols based on individual salivary testosterone responses.2008In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 419-425-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our previous work has demonstrated that professional athletes show protocol-dependent variability in salivary testosterone (T) responses to resistance exercise (RE). The current study examines the consistency and functional outcomes of prescribing a RE regimen based on T response. We hypothesized that prescribing an individual-specific RE protocol based on T response would enhance weight training gains.Sixteen amateur rugby players [(mean ± SD) age: 20 ± 2 years; height: 181.5 ± 8.2 cm; weight: 94.2 ± 11.1 kg] were characterized by their maximal (Tmax) and minimal (Tmin) T response to four RE protocols: four sets of 10 repetitions (reps) at 70% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) with 2 minutes' rest between sets (4 x 10-709/o); three sets of five reps at 85% 1 RM with 3 minutes' rest (3 x 5-85%); five sets of 15 reps at 55% of 1 RM with 1 minute's rest (5 x 15-559/o); and three sets of 5 reps at 40% 1 RM with 3 minutes' rest (3 X 5-40%).Eight athletes then performed a 3-week training block performing only their Tmax protocol. The remaining eight only performed Tmin. After 3 weeks, the athletes were retested on the RE protocols and then crossed over and performed the alternate 3-week training block.

    All 16 athletes showed significant increases in estimated bench and leg press 1 RM strength and bodyweight while performing Tmax. When Tmin was performed, 75% of athletes showed either no change or a significant decline in 1 RM performance.

    Consistent protocol-responses over the experimental period were seen for both the Tmax and Tmin protocols in 12 of 16 athletes. Thus, a relationship between an individual's biologically available T response to RE and enhanced functional gains is reported.

  • 7.
    Cook, Christian J.
    et al.
    United Kingdom Sports Council, London, United Kingdom.
    Beaven, C. Martyn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. United Kingdom Sports Council, London, United Kingdom.
    Kilduff, Liam P.
    Department of Sports Science, Health and Sport Portfolio, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    THREE WEEKS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING COMBINED WITH OVERSPEED EXERCISES ENHANCES POWER AND RUNNING SPEED PERFORMANCE GAINS IN TRAINED ATHLETES2013In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1280-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eccentric and overspeed training modalities are effective in improving components of muscular power. Eccentric training induces specific training adaptations relating to muscular force, whereas overspeed stimuli target the velocity component of power expression. We aimed to compare the effects of traditional or eccentric training with volume-matched training that incorporated overspeed exercises. Twenty team-sport athletes performed 4 counterbalanced 3-week training blocks consecutively as part of a preseason training period: (1) traditional resistance training; (2) eccentric-only resistance training; (3) traditional resistance training with overspeed exercises; and (4) eccentric resistance training with overspeed exercises. The overspeed exercises performed were assisted countermovement jumps and downhill running. Improvements in bench press (15.0 +/- 5.1 kg; effect size [ES]: 1.52), squat (19.5 +/- 9.1 kg; ES: 1.12), and peak power in the countermovement jump (447 +/- 248 W; ES: 0.94) were observed following the 12-week training period. Greater strength increases were observed as a result of the eccentric training modalities (ES: 0.72-1.09) with no effect of the overspeed stimuli on these measures (p > 0.05). Eccentric training with overspeed stimuli was more effective than traditional resistance training in increasing peak power in the countermovement jump (94 +/- 55 W; ES: 0.95). Eccentric training induced no beneficial training response in maximal running speed (p > 0.05); how-ever, the addition of overspeed exercises salvaged this relatively negative effect when compared with eccentric training alone (0.03 +/- 0.01 seconds; ES: 1.33). These training results achieved in 3-week training blocks suggest that it is important to target-specific aspects of both force and movement velocity to enhance functional measures of power expression.

  • 8.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway .
    Landstad, Bodil J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gundersen, Kjell T.
    Nord Trondelag Univ Coll, Fac Educ, Levanger, Norway .
    Torjesen, Peter A.
    Oslo Univ Hosp Aker, Hormone Lab, Oslo, Norway.
    Svebak, Sven
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway .
    INSULIN SENSITIVITY AFTER MAXIMAL AND ENDURANCE RESISTANCE TRAINING2012In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 327-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hansen, E, Landstad, BJ, Gundersen, KT, Torjesen, PA, and Svebak, S. Insulin sensitivity after maximal and endurance resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 26(2): 327-334, 2012-The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of maximal resistance training (MRT) vs. endurance resistance training (ERT) on improvements in insulin levels and glucose tolerance in overweight individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Eighteen participants with baseline values suggesting impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 engaged in supervised MRT (Bernstein inverted pyramid system: 5 x 3-4, 60-85% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), 3 d.wk(-1) over 4 months, whereas members of group 2 acted as controls. Later, group 2 engaged in supervised ERT (3 x 12-15, 45-65% 1RM), 3 d.wk(-1) over a 4 month period with the 2 prebaselines as controls. Both interventions consisted of 8 exercises that included the entire body. Glucose (fasting and 2-hour test), insulin and C-peptide measures were assessed from pre to post in both groups. The MRT led to reduced blood levels of 2-hour glucose (p = 0.044) and fasting C-peptide (p = 0.023) and decreased insulin resistance (p = 0.040). The ERT caused a significant reduction in the blood levels of insulin (p = 0.023) and concomitant positive effects on % insulin sensitivity (p=0.054) and beta-cell function (p=0.020). The findings indicate that both MRT and ERT lead to decreased insulin resistance in people with a risk of developing type 2 diabetes; MRT led to a greater increase in glucose uptake capacity (in muscles), whereas ERT led to greater insulin sensitivity, supporting the recommendation of both MRT and ERT as primary intervention approaches for individuals at a risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  • 9.
    Hoppe, Matthias W.
    et al.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Res Ctr Performance Diagnost & Training Advice, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany .
    Baumgart, Christian
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Res Ctr Performance Diagnost & Training Advice, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany .
    Sperlich, Billy
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Res Ctr Performance Diagnost & Training Advice, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany .
    Ibrahim, Hassan
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Res Ctr Performance Diagnost & Training Advice, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany .
    Jansen, Christian
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Res Ctr Performance Diagnost & Training Advice, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany .
    Willis, Sarah J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Freiwald, Juergen
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Res Ctr Performance Diagnost & Training Advice, D-42097 Wuppertal, Germany .
    COMPARISON BETWEEN THREE DIFFERENT ENDURANCE TESTS IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER PLAYERS2013In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hoppe, MW, Baumgart, C, Sperlich, B, Ibrahim, H, Jansen, C, Willis, SJ, and Freiwald, J. Comparison between three different endurance tests in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 31-37, 2013-The aims of this study were (a) to assess and correlate interval shuttle run test (ISRT) performance, maximum oxygen uptake ((V) over dotO(2)max), running economy (RE), running velocity at the first rise in blood lactate concentrations above baseline (vLT) and running velocity at 4 mmol.L-1 blood lactate concentration (v4) in professional soccer players and (b) to investigate whether a correlation exists between the respective results of time to exhaustion (T-lim) from continuous and intermittent endurance tests, respectively. Eleven male professional field soccer players (mean +/- SD: age 23.8 +/- 3.0 years, (V) over dotO(2)max 58.2 +/- 4.9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) completed a continuous Incremental Test with lactate measurements to determine vLT and v4, a continuous Ramp Test with gas exchange analysis to determine (V) over dotO(2)max and RE, and an intermittent ISRT to determine intermittent endurance capacity during the first week of preseason preparation. There were significant correlations between ISRT performance and (V) over dotO(2)max (r = 0.70, p < 0.05), and between T-lim in both continuous endurance tests (r = 0.89, p < 0.01). Between all other variables no significant correlations were found overall (best r = 0.60, p > 0.05). The assessment of all values of (V) over dotO(2)max, RE, vLT, and v4 should be included when investigating aerobic endurance performance among groups or over time in professional soccer players. Although (V) over dotO(2)max, RE, vLT, and v4 have been regarded as important factors of aerobic performance in endurance related sports, the present data revealed that (V) over dotO(2)max was the only factor, which correlated with intermittent endurance capacity in professional soccer players. Hence, (V) over dotO(2)max should be increased through soccer-specific training interventions including universal agility components. The T-lim in continuous and intermittent endurance tests differs and is therefore an independent endurance performance factor in professional soccer players.

  • 10.
    Hébert-Losier, Kim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dynamometric indicators of fatigue from repeated maximal concentric isokinetic plantar-flexion contractions are independent of knee flexion angles and age, but differ for males and females.2014In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 843-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex and age are reported to influence the maximal dynamometric performance of major muscle groups, inclusive of ankle plantar-flexors. Knee flexion (KF) also impacts plantar-flexion function from where stems utilization of 0[degrees] and 45[degrees] of KF for clinical assessment of gastrocnemius and soleus, respectively. The influence of KF, sex and age on dynamometric indicators of plantar-flexion fatigue was examined in 28 males and 28 females recruited in two different age groups (above and below 40 years). Each subject performed 50 maximal concentric isokinetic plantar-flexions at 60 deg[middle dot]s-1 with 0[degrees] and 45[degrees] of KF. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions were determined before and after isokinetic trials; and maximal, minimal and normalized linear slopes of peak power during testing. Main effects of and two-way interactions between KF, sex, age and order of testing were explored using mixed-effect models and stepwise regressions. At 0[degrees] and 45[degrees], the fatigue indicators in younger and older individuals were similar and not influenced by testing order. However, peak isokinetic power and isometric torque declined to greater extents in males than females and, moreover, KF exerted greater impacts on the absolute plantar-flexion performance and maximal-to-minimal reduction in isokinetic power in males. Because KF wielded no pronounced effect on fatigue indicators, this test may perhaps be used over time with no major concern regarding the exact knee angle. Our findings indicate that sex, rather than age, should be considered when interpreting dynamometric indicators of fatigue from repeated maximal concentric isokinetic plantar-flexions, e.g., when establishing normative values or comparing outcomes.

  • 11.
    Hébert-Losier, Kim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Schneiders, Anthony G.
    Univeristy of Otago.
    García, José A.
    University of Otago.
    Sullivan, S. John
    Univeristy of Otago.
    Simoneau, Guy G.
    Marquette University.
    Influence of knee flexion angle and age group on triceps surae muscle fatigue during heel-raises.2012In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 3134-3147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triceps surae muscle-tendon unit is one of the most commonly injured in elite and recreational athletes, with high prevalence in middle-age adults. Performing maximal numbers of unilateral heel-raises is used to assess, train, and rehabilitate triceps surae endurance; and conventionally prescribed in 0° knee flexion for gastrocnemius and 45° for soleus. However, the extent of muscle-selectivity conferred through change in knee angle is lacking for heel-raises performed to volitional fatigue. This study investigated the influence of knee angle on triceps surae muscle fatigue during heel-raises and determined whether fatigue differed between middle-age and younger-age adults. Forty-eight healthy individuals of 18-25 and 35-45 years performed maximal numbers of unilateral heel-raises in 0° and 45° knee flexion. Median frequencies and linear regression slopes were calculated from soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and gastrocnemius lateralis surface electromyographic signals. Stepwise mixed-effect regressions were used for analysis. Subjects completed an average of 45 and 48 heel-raises in 0° and 45° knee flexion; respectively. Results indicated that the three muscles fatigued during testing as all median frequencies decreased and regression slopes were negative. Consistent with muscle physiology and fiber typing, fatigue was greater in gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis than soleus (p<.001). However, knee angle did not influence triceps surae muscle fatigue parameters (p=.814), with similar soleus and gastrocnemius fatigue in 0° and 45° knee flexion. These findings contrast with the traditionally described clinical use of heel-raises in select knee angles for gastrocnemius and/or soleus. Furthermore, no difference in triceps surae fatigue between the two age groups was able to be determined, despite the reported higher prevalence of injury in middle-age individuals.

  • 12.
    Laurent, C Matthew
    et al.
    St Ambrose Univ, Dept Kinesiol, Davenport, IA 52803, USA .
    Green, J Matt
    Univ N Alabama, Dept Hlth Phys Educ & Recreat, Florence, AL, USA .
    Bishop, Phillip A
    Univ Alabama, Dept Kinesiol, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA .
    Sjökvist, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Schumacker, Randall E
    Univ Alabama, Dept Educ Res, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA.
    Richardson, Mark T
    Univ Alabama, Dept Kinesiol, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA .
    Curtner-Smith, Matt
    Univ Alabama, Dept Kinesiol, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA .
    A Practical Approach to Monitoring Recovery: Development of a Perceived Recovery Status Scale2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 620-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A practical approach to monitoring recovery: development of a perceived recovery status scale. J Strength Cond Res 24(x): 000-000, 2010-The aim of this study was to develop and test the practical utility of a perceived recovery status (PRS) scale. Sixteen volunteers (8 men, 8 women) performed 4 bouts of high-intensity intermittent sprint exercise. After completion of the baseline trial, in a repeated-measures design, subjects were given variable counterbalanced recovery periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours whereupon they repeated an identical intermittent exercise protocol. After a warm-up period, but before beginning each subsequent bout of intermittent sprinting, each individual provided their perceived level of recovery with a newly developed PRS scale. Similar to perceived exertion during exercise, PRS was based on subjective feelings. The utility of the PRS scale was assessed by measuring the level of agreement of an individual's perceived recovery relative to their performance during the exercise bout. Perceived recovery status and change (both positive and negative) in sprint performance during multiple bouts of repeated sprint exercise were moderately negative correlated (r = -0.63). Additionally, subjects were able to accurately assess level of recovery using the PRS scale indicated by correspondence with negative and positive changes in total sprint time relative to their previous session. The ability to detect changes in performance using a noninvasive psychobiological tool to identify differences in performance was independent of other psychological and physiological markers measured during testing, because there were no differences (p > 0.05) among ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate, blood lactate concentration, or session RPE values among any of the performance trials. Although further study is needed, current results indicate a subjective approach may be an effective means for assessing recovery from day to day, at least under similar conditions.

  • 13.
    Mikkola, Jussi
    et al.
    KIHU, Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland .
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vesterinen, Ville
    KIHU – Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland .
    Nummela, Ari
    KIHU – Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland .
    Determinants of a simulated cross-country skiing sprint competition using V2 skating technique on roller skis2010In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 920-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the performance-predicting factors of a simulated cross-country (XC) skiing sprint competition on roller skis, on a slow surface. Sixteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated sprint competition (4x850m heat/20 min recovery) using V2 skating technique on an indoor tartan track. Heat velocities, oxygen consumption and peak lactate were measured during or after the heats. Maximal skiing velocity was measured by performing a 30-m speed test. Explosive and maximal force production in the upper body was determined by bench press. Subjects also performed maximal anaerobic skiing test (MAST) and 2x2 km double poling (DP) test. The maximal velocity of MAST (VMAST) and velocities at 3 (V3), 5 (V5), 7 (V7) mmol∙l-1 lactate levels in MAST were determined. In the 2x2 km test DP economy (VO2SUBDP) and maximal 2 km DP velocity (VDP2KM) were determined. The best single performance predicting factors for the sprint performance were VDP2KM (r = 0.73, p<0.01), V7 (r = 0.70, p<0.01) and VO2SUBDP (r = -0.70, p<0.01). Faster skiers in sprint simulation had a higher absolute VO2 (l·min-1) (p<0.05–0.01) during sprint heats, as well as higher anaerobic skiing power (VMAST, p<0.05) and better anaerobic skiing economy (V3, V5, V7, p<0.05 – 0.001) than slower skiers. Faster skiers were also stronger in bench press, with regard to both absolute (p<0.01) and relative (p<0.05) values. In addition, anaerobic characteristics seem to be of importance at the beginning of the XC skiing sprint competition whereas the aerobic characteristics become more important as the XC skiing sprint competition progressed. This study indicates that sprint skiers should emphasize sport-specific upper body training, as well as training skiing economy at high speeds.

  • 14.
    Pojskic, Haris
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. The Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre.
    Sisic, Nedim
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split.
    Separovic, Vlatko
    School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Tuzla.
    Sekulic, Damir
    Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split.
    Association between conditioning capacities and shooting performance in professional basketball players; an analysis of stationary and dynamic shooting skills: Predictors of shooting performance in basketball2018In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 1981-1992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the influence of conditioning capacities on shooting performance in basketball. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between different conditioning capacities and shooting performance in professional basketball players. In this investigation, we examined 38 males (all perimeter players; height: 185.5+/-6.73 cm; mass: 78.66+/-10.35 kg). Conditioning capacities were evaluated by tests of muscular-strength, aerobic-endurance, jumping- and throwing-capacities, sprinting-speed, pre-planned-agility, anaerobic-endurance and fatigue-resistance. Shooting performance was evaluated using game statistics, as well as six tests of shooting-performance performed in controlled settings: (i) three tests of static (i.e., non-fatigued) shooting-performance (standardized execution of one- (S1), two- (S2) and three-point shots (S3) in stationary conditions), and (ii) three tests of dynamic (i.e., fatigued) shooting-performance (standardized execution of one- (D1), two- (D2), and three-point shots (D3) in dynamic conditions). All three dynamic shooting tests and the S1 test were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with corresponding game statistics. Multiple regression indicated that conditioning capacities were significantly related to D1 (R2=0.36; p=0.03), D2 (R2=0.44; p=0.03), S3 (R2=0.41; p=0.02) and D3 (R2=0.39; p=0.03) tests. Players with a higher fatigue-resistance achieved better results on D1 test ([beta]=-0.37, p=0.03). Pre-planned-agility ([beta]=-0.33, p=0.04), countermovement jump ([beta]=0.42, p=0.03) and fatigue-resistance ([beta]=-0.37, p=0.02) were significant predictors of D2 performance. The countermovement jump ([beta]=0.39, p=0.04), medicine ball toss ([beta]=0.34, p=0.04) and anaerobic-endurance ([beta]=0.46, p=0.04) predicted the results of D3 performance. Jumping, throwing and anaerobic endurance capacities were good determinants of the skill of dynamic shooting over a long distance. These findings emphasize the importance of explosive power and anaerobic-capacity as determinants of shooting-performance in high-level basketball players.

  • 15.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    et al.
    Nord Trondelag Univ Coll, Dept Sport & Phys Educ, Levanger, Norway .
    Welde, Boye
    Nord Trondelag Univ Coll, Dept Sport & Phys Educ, Levanger, Norway .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Endurance Training and Sprint Performance in Elite Junior Cross-Country Skiers2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1299-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aerobic characteristics and sprint performance, and the effects of high-intensity endurance training in cross-country skiing. Ten male and five female elite junior cross-country skiers performed an 8-week intervention training period. The intervention group (IG, n = 7) increased the volume of high-intensity endurance training performed in level terrain, whereas the control group (CG, n = 8) continued their baseline training. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for 1.5 km time-trial performance on roller skis outdoors in the skating technique. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) were measured during treadmill running. VO2max and VO2VT were closely related to sprint performance (r = ~0.75, both p < 0.008). The IG improved sprint performance, VO2max and VO2VT from pre to post-testing, and improved sprint performance and VO2VT when compared to the CG (all p < 0.01). This study shows a close relationship between aerobic power and sprint performance in cross-country skiing, and highlights the positive effects of high-intensity endurance training in level terrain.

  • 16.
    Sjökvist, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Laurent, Matthew C
    St. Ambrose University, Department of Kinesiology, Davenport, IA 52803, U.S.A. .
    Richardson, Mark
    University of Alabama, Department of Kinesiology, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, U.S.A..
    Curtner-Smith, Matt
    University of Alabama, Department of Kinesiology, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, U.S.A..
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bishop, Philip
    University of Alabama, Department of Kinesiology, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, U.S.A..
    Recovery from high-intensity training sessions in female soccer players2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1726-1735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantified the performance recovery time requirements after training sessions using high-intensity soccer drills with and without the ball in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female soccer players. Recovery time periods (24, 48, 72 hours of rest) from high-intensity soccer training sessions using drills with and without the ball were evaluated. Markers of recovery were each individual's performance relative to baseline performance in countermovement jump (CMJ) height, 5 bound jumps for distance (5BT), 20-m sprint (20SP), session rating of perceived effort (S-RPE), and heart rate (HR). Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in CMJ performance (p < 0.04) and S-RPE (p < 0.02) after 24 hours of rest but not at 48 or 72 hours compared to baseline. There were no significant differences in 20SP, 5BT, or HR after 24, 48, or 72-hour recovery (p > 0.05). Therefore, high-intensity training drills produced a sufficient conditioning stimulus with little chance of underrecovery for the performance measures we tested. Countermovement jump and S-RPE may be more sensitive performance recovery indicators.

  • 17.
    Soehnlein, Quirin
    et al.
    Department of Sport Sciences and Kinesiology, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Mueller, Erich
    Department of Sport Sciences and Kinesiology, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Stöggl, Thomas L.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Sciences and Kinesiology, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    THE EFFECT OF 16-WEEK PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON EXPLOSIVE ACTIONS IN EARLY TO MID-PUBERTY ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS2014In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 2105-2114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plyometric training (PT) programs are widely used to improve explosive actions in soccer players of various ages, although there is debate about optimal training duration and time course of improvement. Twenty-two early to mid-puberty elite soccer players were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 10, regular soccer training) or a plyometric training group (PTG, n = 12, regular soccer training substituted with 2 PT sessions each week). Both groups trained for 16 weeks during the in-season period. Control group performed only tests at baseline and after intervention, whereas PTG performed additional tests after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During each test, subjects' performances in speed (10 and 30 m; 5 and 20 m), agility, shuttle run, multiple 5 bounds (MB5), and standing long jump (LJ) were recorded. The PTG showed improved performance in 20-m sprint time (-3.2%), agility time (-6.1%), MB5 distance (+11.8%), and LJ distance (+7.3%) (all, p <= 0.05) after 16 weeks. All these improvements were higher compared with CG (all, p <= 0.05). The time course of improvement in the PT group showed that 20-m sprint time improved after 16 weeks (p = 0.012); agility after 4 (p = 0.047) and 8 weeks (p = 0.004) but stopped after 12 weeks (p = 0.007); MB5 after 8 (p = 0.039), 12 (p = 0.028), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001); and LJ improved after 4 (p = 0.045), 12 (p = 0.008), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001). Plyometric training seems to be an appropriate training tool to enhance some but not all explosive actions. The results indicate that the duration of a PT program is highly dependent on what type of explosive actions should be improved, or whether several explosive actions should be improved at the same time.

  • 18.
    Sperlich, Billy
    et al.
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Köln, Germany.
    de Marées, Markus
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Köln, Germany.
    Koehler, Karsten
    Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Linville, John
    University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mester, Joachim
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Köln, Germany.
    Effects of 5 Weeks High Intensity Interval Training vs. Volume Training in 14-Year Old Soccer Players2011In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1271-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) in junior and adult soccer has been shown to improve oxygen uptake (VO2) and enhance soccer performance. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the short term effects of a 5-week HIIT vs. high volume training (HVT) program in 14-year-old soccer players regarding the effects on VO2max and 1000m time (T1000) as well as on sprinting and jumping performance. In a 5-week period, 19 male soccer players with a mean (SD) age of 13.5±0.4 years performed HIIT at close to ~90% of maximal heart rate. HVT intensity was set at 60-75% of maximal heart rate. VO2max increased significantly (7.0%) from pre to post in HIIT but not after HVT. T1000 decreased significantly following HIIT (~-10s vs. ~-5s in HVT). Sprint performance increased significantly in both groups from pre to post testing without any changes in jumping performance.

  • 19. Tesch, P.A
    et al.
    Ploutz-Snyder, L.L
    Yström, L
    Castro, M.J
    Dudley, G.A
    Skeletal muscle glycogen loss evoked by resistance exercise1998In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
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