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  • 1.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; Capio Artro Clinic, S:t Görans Hospital, Stockholm.
    Self-reported health, physical activity and prevalence of complaints in elite cross-country skiers and matched controls2005In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 547-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare physical health, physical activity and location for possible symptoms in high school students with cross-country skiers of the same age from ski high schools. Another aim was to study back pain with regards to influence on skiing.Methods. The subjects studied were: 92% (n=120) of all Swedish cross-country skiers at ski high schools and 68% (n=993) of regular high school students from the North part of Sweden answered a reliable questionnaire (r=1) with regards to health, physical activity and location of possible symptoms/injuries during the last 3 months. Furthermore, the skiers answered questions on possible ski related back pain.Results. All skiers were active also in other sports compared with 26% of the controls and at considerably higher levels of physical effort than the controls; 92% of the skiers and 76% of the controls described themselves as healthy, meaning "very good" or "good" (P=0.0001); 55% of the skiers and 64% of the controls reported recent symptoms (P=0.06); 47% of the skiers reported previous or present complaints of back pain, mainly low back pain, which could be relieved by changing body position from a flexed to a more extended one while skiing, and 77% reported their back pain to disappear during rest.Conclusion. These results show the need for encouraging regular high school students to participate in sport. It also shows the importance of introducing preventative strategies regarding back pain to long-distance cross-country skiers, who are exposed to a prolonged flexed position of their back.

  • 2.
    Laurent, C M
    et al.
    St Ambrose Univ, Dept Kinesiol, Davenport, IA 52803 USA.
    Green, J M
    Univ N Alabama, Dept Hlth Phys Educ & Recreat, Florence, AL USA.
    Bishop, P A
    Univ Alabama, Dept Kinesiol, Tuscaloosa, AL USA.
    Sjökvist, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Schuacker, R E
    Univ Alabama, Dept Educ Res, Tuscaloosa, AL USA.
    Richardson, M T
    Univ Alabama, Dept Kinesiol, Tuscaloosa, AL USA.
    Curtner-Smith, M
    Univ Alabama, Dept Kinesiol, Tuscaloosa, AL USA.
    Effect of gender on fatigue and recovery following maximal intensity repeated sprint performance2010In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 243-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This study investigated the effects of gender on repeated, maximal-intensity intermittent sprint exercise following variable day-to-day recovery periods.Methods. Sixteen volunteers (8 men, 8 women) performed four trials of high-intensity intermittent sprint exercise consisting of three bouts of eight 30 m sprints (total of 24 sprints). Following completion of the baseline trial, in repeated-measures design, participants were assigned, in counter-balanced order, variable recovery periods of 24, 48, and 72 h whereupon they repeated an identical exercise trial.Results. Results from a series of 4 (trial) x 3 (bout) repeated measures ANOVAs revealed men produced significantly (P < 0.01) faster times throughout all bouts and trials of repeated sprint exercise. Additionally, women exhibited significantly lower (P < 0.05) blood lactate concentration and significantly lower (P < 0.05) decrement in performance, indicating increased resistance to fatigue during repeated exercise sessions. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between genders for heart rate or rating of perceived exertion during or following trials. There were no significant differences for overall sprint performance within either gender among trials.Conclusions. These results indicate men, while able to produce higher absolute power outputs (i.e., lower sprint time), demonstrate higher decrement scores within a trial compared to women, thus suggesting women may recover faster and fatigue less. Also, gender differences affecting recovery within in a trial were observed to be diminished between trials (i.e., day-today recovery) of maximal intermittent sprint work evidenced by the observed stability of performance between trials following various recovery durations.

  • 3.
    Sjökvist, Jesper
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandbakk, O.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, Ctr Elite Sports Res, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Willis, Sara J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effect of incline on sprint and bounding performance in cross-country skiers2015In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 405-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. Aim of the present study was to investigate performance and kinematics of cross-country skiers during sprint running and bounding on different inclines, in relationship to maximal strength, power and skiing performance. Methods. On day one, the maximal strength of 14 elite skiers was tested using a mid-thigh isometric pull and maximal relative leg power determined using squat and countermovement jumps. Day two involved 15-m maximal sprints and 5-step bounding at 0 degrees, 7.5 degrees and 15 degrees inclines. From video recordings sprint, step, contact and flight times; step length and frequency; total number of sprint steps and average bounding velocity were determined. Skiing performance was assessed using International Ski Federation (FIS) points from the preceding season and compared to strength, power, bounding and sprint performance, and kinematics. Results. On steeper inclines sprint time was higher and bounding distance shorter (both P<0.001), and step frequency during sprinting and bounding, reduced and increased respectively (P<0.001). Isometric maximal strength correlated strongly with bounding distance on the two steeper inclines (r=0.76 and 0.83). Squat and countermovement jump heights correlated moderately with sprint performance at both 7 degrees and 15 degrees, and bounding performance on all three inclines (r=0.55-0.65). The distance bounded uphill correlated moderately with FIS points (r=-0.55 and -0.67). Conclusion. Incline influenced sprinting and bounding performance and kinematics. Maximal leg power is important for both sprinting and bounding uphill, while maximal strength is important for the latter. The skiers with better FIS rankings bounded farther on steeper inclines, suggesting that this capacity is beneficial for cross-country skiing performance.

  • 4.
    Sperlich, Billy
    et al.
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Physiological effects of a new racing suit for elite cross country skiers2011In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 555-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of the new cross country racing suit, designed for the Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver 2010, on cardio-respiratory, thermoregulatory and perceptual responses.METHODS: Six elite cross country skiers (29±6 years, peak oxygen uptake 73.2±6.9 mL·min-1·kg-1) performed two exercise bouts wearing either the 2009 or the 2010 racing suit. Bouts consisted of incremental testing on roller skis (12 km·h-1 at 5° inclination; 11 km·h-1 at 6° inclination and 12 km·h-1at 8° inclination for six minutes).RESULTS: During increasing intensities, significantly lower values were found for oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, RER and heart rate when wearing the new suit compared to the old one (P<0.05; effect sizes: 0.21-4.00). Core temperature was lower with the new suit during steps 2 and 3 (P<0.05, effect size: 1.22-1.27). Also, mean skin temperature was lower during the last increment (P<0.05, effect size: 0.87).CONCLUSION:The new 2010 racing suit, developed specifically for the Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver 2010, demonstrated lower values for oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, heart rate, skin and core temperature, ratings of thermal and sweat sensation when compared to the 2009 racing suit.

  • 5.
    Sperlich, Billy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Osman-Reinkens, S
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Zinner, Christoph
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Krueger, M
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cardiorespiratory, metabolic and hormonal responses during open-wheel indoor kart racing2014In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 475-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study aimed to quantify the cardiorespiratory, metabolic and hormonal responses of elite open-wheel indoor kart racers.METHODS: Ten male racers (age: 21±3 yrs; height: 1.92±0.06 m, body mass: 76.0±5.9 kg) participated in a racing tournament. Their peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by a ramp test (100 W, increase 30 W·min-1) in the laboratory. During the racing itself, the cardio-respiratory and accelerometer values were recorded and pre- and post-race levels of blood lactate and salivary cortisol were determined.RESULTS: The average peak values for all of the drivers with respect to oxygen uptake and heart rate were 4.5±0.8 L·min-1 (56.7±7.9 mL·min-1·kg-1) and 193±5 beats·min-1, respectively. Overall, 28.3±3.3 laps were completed during 30-min of racing. Acceleration forces for the entire test averaged 1.20±0.51 G (maximum: 3.30 G), declining from the first 10 min until the end of racing (P<0.03). The oxygen uptake (~20 mL·min-1·kg-1), heart rate (~133 beats·min-1), respiratory exchange ratio (~0.96) and ventilation (~70 L·min-1) observed indicated moderate cardio-respiratory responses. Blood lactate concentration was significantly higher after the race than before but remained at <2 mmol·L-1 (P<0.01; effect size: 1.62).CONCLUSION: There were no differences between salivary cortisol levels before and after the race (P<0.06; effect size: 0.49). Directly after the race, the drivers rated their perceived exertion on Borg’s scale as 11.1±1.3. The present data revealed that the psycho-physical exertion associated with a 30-min open-wheel indoor kart race is moderate.

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