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  • 1.
    Elmer, Steven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Construction of an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometerfor research and training2013In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 490-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eccentric cycling serves a useful exercise modality in clinical, research, and sport training settings. However, several constraints can make it difficult to use commercially available eccentric cycle ergometers. In this technical note, we describe the process by which we built an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer using exercise equipment modified with commonly available industrial parts. Specifically, we started with a used recumbent cycle ergometer and removed all the original parts leaving only the frame and seat. A 2.2 kW electric motor was attached to a transmission system that was then joined with the ergometer. The motor was controlled using a variable frequency drive, which allowed for control of a wide range of pedaling rates. The ergometer was also equipped with a power measurement device that quantified work, power, and pedaling rate and provided feedback to the individual performing the exercise. With these parts along with some custom fabrication, we were able to construct an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer suitable for research and training. This paper offers a guide for those individuals who plan to use eccentric cycle ergometry as an exercise modality and wish to construct their own ergometer.

  • 2.
    Elmer, Steven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Joint-Specific Power-Pedaling Rate Relationships During Maximal Cycling2014In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 423-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous authors have reported power-pedaling rate relationships for maximal cycling. However, the joint-specific power-pedaling rate relationships that contribute to pedal power have not been reported. We determined absolute and relative contributions of joint-specific powers to pedal power across a range of pedaling rates during maximal cycling. Ten cyclists performed maximal 3s cycling trials at 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 rpm. Joint-specific powers were averaged over complete pedal cycles, and extension and flexion actions. Effects of pedaling rate on relative joint-specific power, velocity and excursion were assessed with regression analyses and repeated measures ANOVA. Relative ankle plantar flexion power (25 to 8%; p=0.01; R2=0.90) decreased with increasing pedaling rate whereas relative hip extension power (41 to 59%; p<0.01; R2=0.92) and knee flexion power (34 to 49%; p < 0.01; R2=0.94) increased with increasing pedaling rate. Knee extension powers did not differ across pedaling rates. Ankle joint angular excursion decreased with increasing pedaling rate (48 to 20º) whereas hip joint excursion increased (42 to 48º). These results demonstrate that the often reported quadratic power-pedaling rate relationship arise from combined effects of dissimilar joint-specific power-pedaling rate relationships. These dissimilar relationships are likely influenced by musculoskeletal constraints (i.e., muscle architecture, morphology) and/or motor control strategies.

  • 3.
    Lund Ohlsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Danvind, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Holmberg, L. Joakim
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Shoulder and Lower Back Joint Reaction Forces in Seated Double Poling2018In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 369-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overuse injuries in the shoulders and lower back are hypothesized to be common in cross-country sit-skiing. Athletes with reduced trunk muscle control mainly sit with the knees higher than the hips (KH). To reduce spinal flexion, a position with the knees below the hips (KL) was enabled for these athletes using a frontal trunk support. The aim of the study was to compare the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) and L4-L5 joint reactions of the KL and KH sitting positions. Five able-bodied female athletes performed submaximal and maximal exercise tests in the sitting positions KL and KH on a ski ergometer. Measured pole forces and 3-dimensional kinematics served as input for inverse-dynamics simulations to compute the muscle forces and joint reactions in the shoulder and L4-L5 joint. This was the first musculoskeletal simulation study of seated double poling. The results showed that the KH position was favorable for higher performance and decreased values of the shoulder joint reactions for female able-bodied athletes with full trunk control. The KL position was favorable for lower L4-L5 joint reactions and might therefore reduce the risk of lower back injuries. These results indicate that it is hard to optimize both performance and safety in the same sit-ski.

  • 4.
    Lussiana, Thibault
    et al.
    Univ Franche Comte, Culture Sport Hlth Soc & Exercise Performance Hlt, Res Unit EA4660, F-25030 Besancon, France..
    Hebert-Losier, Kim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Natl Sports Inst Malaysia, Natl Sports Complex, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.;Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hl Natl Sports Inst Malaysia, Natl Sports Complex, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Millet, Gregoire P.
    Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Dept Physiol, ISSUL Inst Sport Sci, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Mourot, Laurent
    Univ Franche Comte, Culture Sport Hlth Soc & Exercise Performance Hlt, Res Unit EA4660, F-25030 Besancon, France.;CHRU Besancon, INSERM CIT 808, Clin Invest Ctr, Besancon, France..
    Biomechanical Changes During a 50-minute Run in Different Footwear and on Various Slopes2016In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of footwear and inclination on running biomechanics over short intervals are well documented. Although recognized that exercise duration can impact running biomechanics, it remains unclear how biomechanics change over time when running in minimalist shoes and on slopes. Our aims were to describe these biomechanical changes during a 50-minute run and compare them to those observed in standard shoes. Thirteen trained recreational male runners ran 50 minutes at 65% of their maximal aerobic velocity on a treadmill, once in minimalist shoes and once in standard shoes, 1 week apart in a random order. The 50-minute trial was divided into 5-minute segments of running at 0%, + 5%, and -5% of treadmill incline sequentially. Data were collected using photocells, high-speed video cameras, and plantar-pressure insoles. At 0% incline, runners exhibited reduced leg stiffness and plantar flexion angles at foot strike and lower plantar pressure at the forefoot and toes in minimalist shoes from minute 34 of the protocol onward. However, only reduced plantar pressure at the toes was observed in standard shoes. Overall, similar biomechanical changes with increased exercise time were observed on the uphill and downhill inclines. The results might be due to the unfamiliarity of subjects to running in minimalist shoes.

  • 5.
    Supej, Matej
    et al.
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom ski racing2010In: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 454-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite carving skis being introduced into alpine ski racing years ago, and the general opinion that they make smoother turns, no studies have yet investigated this topic. The aims were to investigate whether gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation. 3D kinematical measurements were performed for WC slalom ski racing over two runs on the same slope with two different gate setups: 1) open gates (OG) and 2) open gate setup with a delayed gate (DG). The results show differences between the different gate setups regarding: 1) the absolute centre of gravity’s (CG) velocity, 2) absolute acceleration, 3) CG and arithmetic mean of the skis’ turn radii, 4) ground reaction forces and 5) energy dissipation during skiing (all p<.05). The latter was also correlated to the turn radii on both courses (OG: r=.364 and DG: r=.214, both p<.001). In summary, compared to plain open gates an additional delayed gate prolonged the turn radii; the turn radii are related to energy dissipation in slalom skiing.

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