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  • 1.
    Aglen, B.
    et al.
    Nord Trondelag Univ Coll, Fac Hlth Sci, N-7601 Levanger, Norway .
    Hedlund, M.
    Telemark Univ Coll, Porsgrunn, Norway .
    Landstad, B. J.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties in a Nordic context: A review2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, nr 8, s. 813-822Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this review is to provide systematic knowledge of research from Nordic countries about the meaning of self-help and self-help groups when these are used as a concept or method addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties. Methods: Included were studies conducted in the Nordic countries that were published between January 1999 and September 2009. These studies investigated self-help and self-help groups addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems. Results: A total of 83 publications met the inclusion criteria. Four major characteristics of self-help were found to be present in the publications: self-help as an intrapsychological process, self-help as an interpsychological or group process, self-help as a coping, individual learning or empowerment process, and self-help as an alternative or complement to medical treatment. Of the 83 studies, 72 publications used a professional treatment perspective for studying self-help and 11 publications used a perspective derived from alternative or complementary therapies. Conclusions: The review shows that most of the research on self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or disability is conducted with an interest to improve the professional healthcare system. That is, the health-promotion strategy is mainly considered in the framework of treatment or care settings. This means that self-help in this context does not challenge the dominant biomedical health model. © 2011 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  • 2.
    Araghi, Marzieh
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Stockholm Health Care District, Stockholm County Council.
    Lundberg, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Liu, Zhiwei
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Ye, Weimin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lager, Anton
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Stockholm Health Care District, Stockholm County Council.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Lund University.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Skåne University Hospital Malmö.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå University.
    Gylling, Björn
    Umeå University.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University.
    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Bellocco, Rino
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Lund University.
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Stockholm Health Care District, Stockholm County Council.
    Smokeless tobacco (snus) use and colorectal cancer incidence and survival: Results from nine pooled cohorts2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 741-748Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Although smoking is considered to be an established risk factor for colorectal cancer, the current evidence on the association between smokeless tobacco and colorectal cancer is scant and inconclusive. We used pooled individual data from the Swedish Collaboration on Health Effects of Snus Use to assess this association. Methods: A total of 417,872 male participants from nine cohort studies across Sweden were followed up for incidence of colorectal cancer and death. Outcomes were ascertained through linkage to health registers. We used shared frailty models with random effects at the study level to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 7,135,504 person-years of observation, 4170 men developed colorectal cancer. There was no clear association between snus use and colorectal cancer overall. Exclusive current snus users, however, had an increased risk of rectal cancer (HR 1.40: 95% CI 1.09, 1.79). There were no statistically significant associations between snus use and either all-cause or colorectal cancer-specific mortality after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Conclusions: Our findings, from a large sample, do not support any strong relationships between snus use and colorectal cancer risk and survival among men. However, the observed increased risk of rectal cancer is noteworthy, and in merit of further attention. 

  • 3.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Erling, Englund
    Research and Development Centre for the County Council of Västernorrland.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Risk behaviour, parental background, and wealth: a cluster analysis among Swedish boys and girls in the HBSC study2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 368-376Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To analyse how health risk behaviours (HRB) are clustered and associated with parental background and family wealth among Swedish boys and girls.

    Methods: Data were collected from Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC),a global cross-sectional survey for 1997/98, 2001/02, and 2005/06. A total of 11,972 boys and girls in grades 5, 7, and 9 participated in the study. The pupils were categorised in subgroups according to parental background: Swedish (80.0%), mixed (10.6%), and foreign (9.4%). Cluster analyses were used to identify HRB profiles. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between cluster allocation, parental background, and family affluence.

    Results: In total 11,232 pupils were identified and allocated to five cluster profiles, half of them in the cluster profile of low-risk behaviour. The most disadvantaged cluster was multiple HRB, which was characterised by high prevalence of smoking, drunkenness, low physical activity, and high soft-drink consumption. The cluster profile of multiple HRB was associated with both mixed background and foreign background in girls and with mixed background in boys.. The cluster profile of inadequate tooth brushing was associated with foreign background in both boys and girls. The cluster profiles of multiple HRB and inadequate tooth brushing were associated with low family affluence in girls.

    Conclusions: The cluster profiles of multiple HRB and inadequate tooth brushing were associated with parental foreign extraction in boys and girls and with low family affluence in girls. Prevention programmes based on identified clusters of HRB, including consideration of impact of socio-demographic indicators, are needed.

  • 4.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway .
    Hellzen, Ove
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Ekker, Knut
    Faculty of Agriculture and Information Technology, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway .
    Berg, Ann-Grethe
    Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Steinkjer, Norway .
    Health in older cat and dog owners: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT)-3 study.2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, nr 8, s. 718-724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The main objective was to compare older male and female cat, dog, and non-owners with regard to demographic and health-related characteristics. Method: Data in the present cross-sectional population study were drawn from HUNT-3 in Norway. A total of 12,297 persons (5631 men; 6666 women) between the ages of 65 and 101 years were included, of whom 2358 were pet owners. Results: The main finding was that owning a dog demonstrated several health-related characteristics to a higher positive degree than both non-pet and cat ownership among the participants. Cat owners showed higher body mass index values and higher systolic blood pressure, and reported worse general health status. They also exercised to a lower degree than the others. Conclusions: As the result implies that older cat owners are negatively outstanding in many aspects of health compared with the dog owners, in the future, more focus must be put on the worse health of those. Further, there were more married male than female cat and dog owners. This probably depends on traditional cultural thinking; the man is the owner of the pet even if the woman lives with and cares about it. It is important to point out that different groups in the population might select different pets. Consequently, the findings showing a correlation between pet ownership and health may be owing to unrelated confounding factors.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sellström, Eva
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    School demands and subjective health complaints among Swedish schoolchildren: A multilevel study2010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 344-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: As children spend a great deal of their time in school, the climate in the classroom can constitute a resource, but also a risk factor in the development of the pupils' health. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which demands in the classroom are associated with subjective health complaints in Swedish schoolchildren. Methods: Data from the 2001/2002 and 2005/2006 Swedish cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey were analysed using a multilevel logistic regression technique. Results: The study demonstrated a substantial variation between school classes in pupils' subjective health complaints. In school classes with high demands, the odds of having subjective health complaints was about 50% higher than in school classes with low demands. Further, the results indicated that these effects were mediated by sex so as to girls being more affected by high levels of demands in the school class. Conclusions: The findings are important since they point at the crucial role that teachers play in creating a favourable school climate. Therefore interventions aiming at supporting teachers to set realistic demands and expectations are one way to improve the school climate. Such interventions should also make clear the need to take into consideration the fact that the school class effect was mediated by sex, i.e. girls being more vulnerable to high level of school class demands.

  • 6.
    Fors, Stefan
    et al.
    Aging Res Ctr, Karolinska Inst, SE-11330 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Aging Res Ctr, Karolinska Inst, SE-11330 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lundberg, Olle
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Live long and prosper? Childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid-life: A cohort study2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 179-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of childhood living conditions, marital status, and social class in adulthood on the risk of mortality during mid-life. Two questions were addressed: Is there an effect of childhood living conditions on mortality risk during mid-life and if so, is the effect mediated or modified by social class and/or marital status in adulthood? Methods: A nationally representative, Swedish, level of living survey from 1968 was used as baseline. The study included those aged 25-69 at baseline (n = 4082). Social conditions in childhood and adulthood were assessed using self-reports. These individuals were then followed for 39 years using registry data on mortality. Results: The results showed associations between childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid life. Social class and familial conditions during childhood as well as marital status and social class in adulthood all contributed to the risk of mortality during mid-life. Individuals whose father's were manual workers, who grew up in broken homes, who were unmarried, and/or were manual workers in adulthood had an increased risk of mortality during mid life. The effects of childhood conditions were, in part, both mediated and modified by social class in adulthood. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that there are structural, social conditions experienced at different stages of the life course that affect the risk of mortality during mid-life.

  • 7.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Do changes in the psychosocial school environment influence pupils' health development? Results from a three-year follow-up study2003Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 169-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study analysed the effects of psychosocial factors at school on pupils' health and self-worth from a longitudinal perspective. Methods: A three-year prospective study was started in 1994, including 533 pupils (261 girls, 272 boys) from 25 different classes in grades 3 and 6. With age-adjusted questionnaires the changes in self-perceived health were compared with changes in psychosocial school environmental factors. Results: The girls in the older cohort reported a negative health development with decreased self-worth and increased somatic and psychological symptoms. Significant gender differences in ill health, but not in self-worth, developed, especially in the older cohort. A multiple regression analysis showed that a negative development of psychosocial factors at school, measured as control, demand, and classmate problems, was associated with poorer health and self-worth among the pupils. A trichotomization of the psychosocial variables at school indicated a possible causal relationship between psychosocial factors and ill health and self-worth. Conclusions: The negative development in pupils' health and self-worth could partly be explained by the more unfavourable psychosocial environment that prevails at school at the senior level. The public health implications of our study can be summarized as the need for schools to improve pupils' social situation at school in relation to their work situation as well as to pay special attention to the school situation of girls at senior level.

  • 8.
    Grav, Siv
    et al.
    Trondelag Univ Coll, Dept Hlth Sci, N-7800 Namsos, Norway.
    Stordal, Eystein
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Med, Dept Neurosci, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Romild, Ulla
    Swedish Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap. Trondelag Univ Coll, Dept Hlth Sci, N-7800 Namsos, Norway.
    Association of personality, neighbourhood, and civic participation with the level of perceived social support: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey2013Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 579-586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    The aim of the current study was to examine the association of personality,

    neighbourhood, and civic participation on the level of perceived social support if needed.

    Methods:

    The sample consists of a total of 35,797 men (16,035) and women (19,762) drawn

    from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 (HUNT3), aged 20-89, with a fully completed short

    version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) including a complete response to

    questions regarding perceived social support. A multinomial logistic regression model was

    used to investigate the association between the three-category outcomes (high, medium, and

    low) of perceived social support.

    Results: The Chi-square test detected a significant (p <

    0.001) association between personality, sense of community, civic participation, self-rated

    health, living arrangement, age groups, gender, and perceived social support except between

    perceived social support and loss of social network in which no significance was found. The

    crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression models shows relation between medium

    and low scores on perceived social support, personality, and sources of social support.

    Interactions were observed between gender and self-rated health.

    Conclusions: There is an

    association between the level of perceived social support and personality, sense of

    community in the neighbourhood, and civic participation. Even if the interaction

    between men and self-reported health decreases the odds for low and medium social

    support, health professionals should be aware of men with poor health and their lack of

    social support.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson-Larsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Hammarstrom, A.
    Can women's network activities lead to improved health?2000Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 253-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to focus on women's networks in the Swedish county of Jamtland, and to analyse the relationship between network activities and the perceived health among the network participants, as well as participation in the community among its residents. Questionnaires were distributed to all 68 women's networks and 60 responded. The results show that the network activities correlate with an improved perception of health, as well as with increased participation in the community among the residents. The more support, influence, self-reliance and trust in the future experienced by the networks through their work, the better the health among the participants in the network. The greater the self-reliance, trust in the future, amount of network-related unpaid work and new jobs, the better the participation among the community residents. Despite its limitations, our study suggests that women's networks could have an important role in health promotion within the framework of the new public health. The network model, with its bottom-up strategy, could be useful in public health, provided that networking is not used to fill a gap when there are cuts in the public sector.

  • 10.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Deliberate self-harm and associated factors in 17-year-old Swedish students2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 17-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) in young people is an important public health issue. To prevent DSH, more knowledge is needed about its prevalence and associated contextual factors in community samples of adolescents. Aims: To determine the prevalence of deliberate self-harm in 17-year-old Swedish students and to explore the association of demographic variables, psychological distress, experiences of violence, and school-related factors with DSH. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional study in which 17-year-old students completed questionnaires during school hours (n=1,663; 78.3%). The variables used in this analysis are as follows: deliberate self-harm, demographic variables, psychological distress, experiences of violence, and school-related factors. Data were analysed using chi-squared statistics and logistic regression. Results: The lifetime prevalence of DSH was 17%, and it was more common among girls (23.3%) than boys (10.5%). There were considerable socioeconomic differences in reports of DSH. Psychological distress was strongly associated with DSH in both boys and girls, as were experiences of bullying, sexual harassment, physical violence and sexual assault. Social support, safety and academic factors in school were related to reports of DSH in both girls and boys. There were some gender differences with respect to which factors were associated with DSH. Conclusions: Deliberate self-harm is common and more frequently reported by girls than boys. Psychological distress, experiences of different types of violence, and school-related factors (academic, social and safety-related), should be considered risk factors for DSH in young people. Findings can be applied to health-promotion policy and interventions in various contexts, for example schools.

  • 11.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Persson, Susanne
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health in young people2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 393-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the factors associated with exposure to in-real-life (IRL) bullying, cyberbullying, and both IRL and cyberbullying and to explore the relationship between these types of bullying and mental health among 13-16-year-old Swedish boys and girls. Methods: Data was derived from a cross-sectional web-based study of 13-16-year-old students in northern Sweden (n=1214, response rate 81.9%). Results: The combination of IRL- and cyberbullying was the most common type of bullying. A non-supportive school environment and poor body image were related to exposure to bullying for both genders but the relationship was more distinct in girls. All types of bullying were associated with depressive symptoms in both boys and girls and all forms of bullying increased the likelihood of psychosomatic problems in girls. Conclusions: Cyberbullying can be seen as an extension of IRL bullying. A combination of IRL- and cyberbullying seems to be particularly negative for mental health. Interventions should focus on improved school environment and body image as well as anti-violence programmes. Gender aspects of bullying need to be acknowledged.

  • 12.
    Leander, Karen
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institutet, deceased.
    Berlin, Marie
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.
    Eriksson, Annika
    National Council for Crime Prevention.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Gothenburgh University.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Gothenburgh University.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University.
    Danielsson, Katja
    Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.
    Violence Health in Sweden: The National Public Health Report 20122012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, nr Supplement 9, s. 229-254Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    De Leon, A P
    Karolinska Institutet .
    Burström, B
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The impact of water supply and sanitation on area differentials in the decline of diarrhoea disease mortality among infants in Stockholm 1878-19252006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, nr 34, s. 526-553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the impact of improved water supply and sanitation on the level and rate of decline of child diarrhoeamortality in Stockholm 1878–1925. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate an effect of improved water supply on therisk of diarrhoea mortality at the individual level. Using data on access to water and sanitation from a household survey in1895 and mortality rates and sociodemographic information from individual data 1878–1925 to analyse area differentials indiarrhoea mortality, it was found that the proportion having their own latrine in the household was associated with lowermortality risk in 1895–1900, while the proportion having water in the household was associated with lower diarrhoeamortality risk during the mortality decline until 1925. Population effects of improved water and sanitation on diarrhoeamortality may be better measured at area level than at individual level.

  • 14.
    Palm, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Danielsson, Ingela
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynaecol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Sweden..
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm Univ, Ctr Social Res Alcohol & Drugs SoRAD, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hogberg, Ulf
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Sweden..
    Motivational interviewing does not affect risk drinking among young women: A randomised, controlled intervention study in Swedish youth health centres2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 611-618Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse risk and binge drinking at 12-month follow-up in young women with risk drinking who received motivational interviewing compared with controls. Methods: Young women attending Swedish youth health centres were randomised into intervention or control groups. The intervention group members were asked about their alcohol consumption by a midwife/social worker using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption. A score of 5 was used as the cut-off value for risk drinking. Participants with risk drinking in the intervention group received motivational interviewing within the same visit. Participants in the control group had a regular visit with a midwife/social worker and answered the same questions about alcohol consumption in a questionnaire after their visit. A questionnaire with the same questions was administered to participants 12 months after baseline. Results: Of 1445 eligible young women, 1051 (73%) consented to randomisation and were enrolled in the study. The follow-up rate was 54%. There was a significant decrease in risk- and binge drinking, from baseline to follow-up, in both the intervention and the control groups. Generalised estimating equation analyses demonstrated no significant effect between groups. Of participants who did not have risk drinking at baseline, about 20% in both groups had developed high-risk drinking by the 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: No significant differences in risk drinking between young women who received motivational interviewing and controls were found. There was a large intra-individual mobility in young women's risk drinking behaviour. This highlights the importance of finding reliable screening tools that can capture the mobility in drinking behaviour in youth. More research is needed before recommendations can be made.

  • 15.
    Rojas, Y
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Stickley, A
    Södertörns högskola.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Too poor to binge? An examination of economic hardship and its relation to alcohol consumption patterns in Taganrog, Russia2008Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 330-333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Rooth, Hetty
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Piuva, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Trusted and doubted: Discourses of parenting training in two Swedish official inquiries, 1947 and 20082018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, nr 20_suppl, s. 59-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse discourses of parenting training in official inquires in Sweden that explicitly deal with the bringing up of children and parental education and how the representations of the problems and their solutions affect parental subject positions in the early welfare state and at the onset of the 21st century. Method: We carried out a discourse analysis of two public inquiries of 1947 and 2008, drawing on theories about governmentality and power regimes. Tools from political discourse analysis were used to investigate the objectives of political discourse practices. Results: Both inquiries referred to a context of change and new life demands as a problem. Concerning suggestions for solutions, there were discrepancies in parents’ estimated need of expert knowledge and in descriptions of parental capacity. In a discourse of trust and doubt, the parents in 1947 were positioned as trusted welfare partners and secure raisers of future generations, and in 2008, as doubted adults, feared to be faltering in their child-rearing tasks. Conclusions: The analysis revealed how governmental problem descriptions, reasoning about causes and suggestions of solutions influenced parents’ subject positions in a discourse of trust and doubt, and made way for governmental interventions with universal parenting training in the 21st century. 

  • 17.
    Sellström, Eva
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Karolinska Institute; National Public Health Institute, Stockholm.
    The significance of community context to child and adolescent health and well-being: A systematic review of multilevel studies2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 544-554Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing up in a poor neighbourhood has negative effects on children and adolescents. In the literature it has been concluded that the risk of low birth weight, childhood injury and abuse, and teenage pregnancy or criminality double in poor areas. However, the validity of such studies has been questioned, as they have been associated with ecological or individualistic fallacies. Studies using multilevel technique might thus contribute important knowledge in this field. The present review clarifies the importance of neighbourhood contextual factors in child and adolescent health outcomes, through considering only studies using multilevel technique. Keyword searching of the Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Citation Index databases was performed. Original studies using multilevel technique to examine the effect of neighbourhood characteristics on child and adolescent health outcomes, and focusing on populations in high‐income countries were included. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and social climate were shown to have small to moderate effects on child health outcomes, i.e. birth weight, injuries, behavioural problems, and child maltreatment. On average, 10% of variation in health outcomes was explained by neighbourhood determinants, after controlling for important individual and family variables. This review demonstrates that interventions in underprivileged neighbourhoods can reduce health risks to children, especially in families that lack resources. An analysis of methodological fallacies indicates that observed effects and effect sizes can be underestimated, and that interventions may well have greater impact than this review was able to establish.

  • 18.
    Sellström, Eva
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Gärling, Anita
    Hörnquist, Jan Olof
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Risk of childhood injury: Predictors of mothers' perceptions2000Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 188-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Safety education often targets parental risk perception. Predictors of risk perception, however, are not well known, thus limiting the feasibility of effective safety education. Accordingly, in this study, a range of predictors of maternal risk perception were examined. METHODS: A random sample of 870 mothers in northern Sweden was included in the study. Three different questionnaires, with scenarios of a burn injury, a bicycle injury in the home environment, and a bicycle injury in traffic, were completed by the subjects. Multiple linear regression models tested the possible influence of causal attributions, normative beliefs, and sociodemographic and behaviour-related variables on mothers' risk perception. RESULTS: Only 14-23% of the variance in mothers' risk perception could be explained by the multivariate models. Causal attribution to the child was found to be the most important predictor of maternal risk perception. CONCLUSION: Present theoretical models give few clues about how to design educational models that might influence risk perception. To make safety education more effective, other modifiable factors that influence parental safety behaviour, such as subjective norms and self-efficacy, might be better targets.

  • 19. Stenlund, Therese
    et al.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Burell, Gunilla
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Stegmayr, Birgitta
    Slunga Birgander, Lisbeth
    Patients with burnout in relation to gender and a general population2007Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 516-523Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to describe gender differences in patients with burnout and compare these patients with a general population with respect to physical, psychosocial and work variables. Methods: Data were collected from a total of 136 patients (96 women and 40 men, 41,6 ± 7,4 years), diagnosed with stress-related disease and burnout at the Stress Clinic, University Hospital of Umeå. Data on burnout, physical, psychosocial and work characteristics were compared with similar data from a geographical and age-matched population based survey, the 2004 Northern Sweden MONICA study. The survey sample included a total of 573 participants (283 women and 290 men, 40,7 ± 8,5 years). Results: Women with burnout reported a higher rate of impaired awakening, lower job control, greater proportion of unpaid work and worked to a greater extent ``with people'' compared to men. Men with burnout had a more restricted social network and reported working more overtime than women. Patients with burnout reported a higher rate of unemployment, a more restricted social network and higher work demands compared to a general population. Women with burnout reported less emotional support, a more sedentary work situation, high job strain and worked to a greater extent ``with people'' than women from the general population. Conclusions: There are some differences in working conditions and social network between women and men with burnout. Patients with burnout differ from a general population regarding individual and social factors as well as work-related factors

  • 20. Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Factors Associated with Non-Lethal Violent Victimization in Sweden in 2004-20072010Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 404-410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine which factors were associated with non-lethal violent victimization in Sweden in the period 2004 to 2007. Methods: Data come from the Swedish National Public Health Surveys, undertaken annually between 2004 and 2007. A total of 29,923 randomly selected respondents aged 16 to 84 from across Sweden responded to a mailed questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine which independent variables were associated with having experienced violence in the previous 12 months. Results: Male and female respondents who were younger, single, lacking in social capital and who engaged in harmful alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to have been subject to violence. Furthermore, men who were in the lower income groups or who were Nordic, and women who were of a non-European origin, were also significantly more likely to have been victimized. Conclusions: The risk of non-lethal violent victimization is not spread equally throughout Swedish society. Specifically, those who are socially and/or economically disadvantaged are much more likely to experience violence. This highlights the importance of working to reverse the growing inequality that has occurred in Sweden in recent years that continues to be linked to the risk of being a victim of non-lethal violence.

  • 21.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Carlson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The Social and Economic Determinants of Smoking in Moscow, Russia2009Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 632-639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of smoking for decades, recent research has documented an increase in the rates of both male and female smoking in post-Soviet Russia. As yet, however, little research has taken place on smoking at the subnational level. The current study addresses this deficit by examining smoking in Moscow — the city that has been at the forefront of the entry into the Russian market of transnational tobacco corporations (TTCs) in the transition period. Methods: Data were obtained from the Moscow Health Survey 2004 — a stratified random sample of 1190 people representative of Moscow’s larger population. Information was obtained about subjects’ smoking habits and age of smoking initiation. Results: The prevalence of smoking was high among both men (55.5%) and women (26.9%), with significantly higher rates in the younger age groups. There was also a high prevalence of smoking initiation before age 15 years, especially in the youngest women (18—30 years). Logistic regression analysis showed that respondents’ age, binge drinking, locus of control and economic situation were important determinants of smoking. Conclusions: Although lifestyle factors seem to underpin the generally high levels of smoking, other things, such as its high prevalence in the younger generations and the factors associated with smoking (locus of control), nevertheless suggest that the TTCs may have played an important role in the spread of smoking in transitional Russia’s changing social environment.

  • 22.
    Sturesson, Marine
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, Div Occupat Therapy, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Bylund, Sonya Hornqvist
    Cty Council Vasterbotten, Umea, Sweden..
    Edlund, Curt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Falkdal, Annie Hansen
    Umea Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, Div Occupat Therapy, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Bernspang, Birgita
    Umea Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, Div Occupat Therapy, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Quality in sickness certificates in a Swedish social security system perspective2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, nr 8, s. 841-847Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In Sweden, the information in the sickness certificate is crucially important for the sick-listed person as well as for the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and the sick-listed person's employer. The certificate is used as the basis for deciding whether a person is entitled to sickness benefits. Further, it communicates information significant for the return-to-work process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of sickness certificates issued in primary health care and examine if the patients' or physicians' gender influences the information in the sickness certificate. Methods: An insurance specialist at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency assessed the quality of the stated information in a sample of 323 certificates issued by 146 different general practitioners at 29 different primary health care centres in northern Sweden. Results: Thirty-four percent of the certificates did not contain sufficient information requested. The areas of the certificates in need of supplementary information were mainly the descriptions of impairment of body function and activity limitation. More certificates issued for women than certificates issued for men lacked the required information. Full-time sick leave was more often prescribed for male patients than for female. Significant differences between certificates issued for women and certificates issued for men appeared in the group of musculoskeletal diseases. No differences in quality aspects connected to physicians' gender were found. Conclusion: Our study indicates a need for increased knowledge about the descriptions of functioning for sick-listed persons; more cooperation between health professionals in primary health care and a better gender awareness in health care encounters.

  • 23.
    Vadla, Drazenka
    et al.
    Inst Publ Hlth Koprivnica Krizevci Cty, Koprivnica 48000, Croatia.
    Bozikov, Jadranka
    Univ Zagreb, Andrija Stampar Sch Publ Hlth, Sch Med, Zagreb 41000, Croatia.
    Åkerstrom, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Cheung, Wai-Yee
    Swansea Univ, Sch Med, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    Kovacic, Luka
    Univ Zagreb, Andrija Stampar Sch Publ Hlth, Sch Med, Zagreb 41000, Croatia .
    Masanovic, Maria
    Inst Publ Hlth Dubrovnik Neretva Cty, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
    Merilainen, Satu
    Elderly Care Serv, Social & Hlth Serv, Espoo, Finland.
    Mihel, Sandra
    Croatian Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Nummelin-Niemi, Hanna
    Elderly Care Serv, City Porvoo, Porvoo, Finland.
    Stefanaki, Ioanna
    Hlth Ctr Viannos, Iraklion, Greece.
    Stencrantz, Bo
    Department of Public Health, County Council of Varmland and Jamtland, Sweden.
    Differences in healthcare service utilisation in elderly, registered in eight districts of five European countries2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 272-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the study was to compare and analyse the differences in self-reported frequencies of visits paid to physicians and hospitalisation rates, as well as their association with socio-demographic factors and health status self-rated by elderly. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in eight districts of five European countries (Finland, Sweden, Ireland, Croatia, and Greece). A total of 3540 persons aged 70 or more were interviewed by trained interviewers. Healthcare service utilisation and its association with demographic characteristics and self-rated health were analysed using descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Results: Almost 90% of elderly visited a physician in the past year; 50% visited a specialist, while 24% were hospitalised. A visit to a specialist was paid by 70% of the Greek, 50% to 60% of the Croatian, and around 40% of the Irish, the Finnish, and the Swedish elderly. The highest proportion of hospitalisations (32%) was encountered in Greece and the lowest one (20%) in Sweden. Self-rated poor health appears to be the only common denominator associated with increased healthcare utilisation. Younger age stood out as a statistically significant predictor of the likelihood of specialist consults, while older age, male gender, and the synergy of male gender and current single life were disclosed as the predictors of hospitalisation frequency. Conclusions: Healthcare service utilisation exercised by the elderly across European districts was found to be highly variable and showed a clear distinction between north-western and south-eastern Europe; this is in line with differences in self-rated health.

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