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  • 1.
    Carlson, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Commentary: Russia's mortality crisis, alcohol and social transformation2009In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 156-157Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Chen, Qi
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sjölander, Arvid
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Långström, Niklas
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Serlachius, Eva
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    D'Onofrio, Brian M.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States .
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study using a sibling-comparison design2014In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study via linkage of Swedish national and regional registers to investigate maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (underweight: BMI < 18.5; overweight: 25 BMI < 30; obesity: BMI epsilon 30) in relation to offspring ADHD. We followed 673 632 individuals born in Sweden between 1992 and 2000, with prospectively collected information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, until they received an ADHD diagnosis or ADHD medication, death, emigration or 31 December 2009. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Stratified Cox proportional hazards models were applied to data on full siblings to control for unmeasured familial confounding. Results At the population level, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity was associated with increased risk of offspring ADHD (HRoverweight = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.18-1.27, P = 0.01; HRobesity = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.57-1.73, P = 0.01), after adjustment for measured covariates. In full sibling comparisons, however, previously observed associations no longer remained (HRoverweight = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.83-1.16, P = 0.82; HRobesity = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.85-1.56, P = 0.38). Conclusions The results suggested that the association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring ADHD could be ascribed to unmeasured familial confounding.

  • 3.
    Costa, D.
    et al.
    Univ Porto, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Hatzidimitriadou, E.
    Univ Kingston, London, England.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E.
    Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Athens, Greece..
    Lindert, J.
    Univ Emden, Emden, Germany.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden Univ, Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. Mid Sweden Univ, Ostersund, Sweden..
    Toth, O.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary..
    Barros, H.
    Univ Porto, Inst Publ Hlth, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Physical Intimate Partner Violence in Europe: Results from a Population-Based Multi-Center Study in Six Countries.2015In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 44, no S1, p. 264-264, article id 3583Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Cutts, F
    et al.
    Dos Santos, C
    Novoa, A
    David, P
    Macassa, Gloria
    Soares, AC
    Child and Maternal Mortality during a Period of Conflict in Beira City, Mozambique1996In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, no 25, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    du Prel, J. B.
    et al.
    Univ Ulm, Inst Hist Philosophy & Eth Med, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Runeson-Broberg, R.
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Westerholm, P.
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Nordin, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fahlen, G.
    Natl Agcy Special Needs Educ & Sch, Harnosand, Sweden..
    Alfredsson, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden Univ, Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Peter, R.
    Univ Ulm, Inst Hist Philosophy & Eth Med, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Work-Related Overcommitment: Is it a State or a Trait? - Results from the Swedish WOLF-Study.2015In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 44, no S1, p. 263-263, article id 3649Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Obel, C.
    et al.
    Olsen, J.
    Henriksen, T.B.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Järvelin, M.E.
    Moilannen, I.
    Linnet, K.M.
    Taanila, A.
    Ebeling, H.
    Heiervang, E.
    Gissler, M.
    Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for Hyperkinetic disorder?: Findings from a sibling design2011In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 338-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Studies have consistently shown that pregnancy smoking is associated with twice the risk of hyperactivity/inattention problems in the offspring. An association of this magnitude may indicate behavioural difficulties as one of the most important health effects related to smoking during pregnancy. However, social and genetic confounders may fully or partially account for these findings.

    Methods A cohort including all singletons born in Finland from 1 January 1987 through 31 December 2001 was followed until 1 January 2006 based on linkage of national registers. Data were available for 97% (N = 868 449) of the population. We followed singleton children of smoking and non-smoking mothers until they had an International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) or to the end of the observation period. We used sibling-matched Cox regression analyses to control for social and genetic confounding.

    Results We found a much smaller association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of HKD in children using the sibling-matched analysis [hazards ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.49] than was observed in the entire cohort (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.90-2.12).

    Conclusions Our findings suggest that the strong association found in previous studies may be due to time-stable familial factors, such as environmental and genetic factors. If smoking is a causal factor, the effect is small and less important than what the previous studies indicate.

  • 7. Obel, Carsten
    et al.
    Linnet, Karen Markussen
    Henriksen, Tine Brink
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Järvelin, Marjo Riita
    Kotimaa, Arto
    Moilanen, Irma
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Bilenberg, Niels
    Taanila, Anja
    Ye, Gan
    Olsen, Jørn
    Smoking during pregnancy and hyperactivity-inattention in the offspring—comparing results from three Nordic cohorts2009In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 698-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Prenatal exposure to smoking has been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a number of epidemiological studies. However, mothers with the ADHD phenotype may ‘treat’ their problem by smoking and therefore be more likely to smoke even in a society where smoking is not acceptable. This will cause genetic confounding if ADHD has a heritable component, especially in populations with low prevalence rates of smoking since this reason for smoking is expected to be proportionally more frequent in a population with few ‘normal’ smokers. We compared the association in cohorts with different smoking frequencies.

    Methods A total of 20 936 women with singleton pregnancies were identified within three population-based pregnancy cohorts in Northern Finland (1985–1986) and in Denmark (1984–1987 and 1989–1991). We collected self-reported data on their pre-pregnancy and pregnancy smoking habits and followed the children to school age where teachers and parents rated hyperactivity and inattention symptoms.

    Results Children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, had an increased prevalence of a high hyperactivity-inattention score compared with children of nonsmokers in each of the cohorts after adjustment for confounders but we found no statistical significant difference between the associations across the cohorts.

    Conclusion The estimated association was not strongest in the population with the fewest smokers which does not support the hypothesis that the association is entirely due to genetic confounding.

  • 8.
    van Raalte, Alyson
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Life Course Dynamics and Demographic Change research group, Konrad-Zuse Straße 1, 18057 Rostock, Germany.
    Kunst, Anton
    Department of Public Health, Academic MC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Deboosere, Patrick
    Department of Social Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Department of Sociology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Strand, Björn Heine
    Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway.
    Artnik, Barbara
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Department of Monitoring and Analyses of Population Health, National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, Johan
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    More variation in lifespan in lower educated groups: evidence from 10 European countries2011In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 40, p. 1703-1714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Whereas it is well established that people with a lower socio-economic position have a shorter average lifespan, it is less clear what the variability surrounding these averages is. We set out to examine whether lower educated groups face greater variation in lifespans in addition to having a shorter life expectancy, in order to identify entry points for policies to reduce the impact of socio-economic position on mortality.

    Methods We used harmonized, census-based mortality data from 10 European countries to construct life tables by sex and educational level (low, medium, high). Variation in lifespan was measured by the standard deviation conditional upon survival to age 35 years. We also decomposed differences between educational groups in lifespan variation by age and cause of death.

    Results Lifespan variation was higher among the lower educated in every country, but more so among men and in Eastern Europe. Although there was an inverse relationship between average life expectancy and its standard deviation, the first did not completely predict the latter. Greater lifespan variation in lower educated groups was largely driven by conditions causing death at younger ages, such as injuries and neoplasms.

    Conclusions Lower educated individuals not only have shorter life expectancies, but also face greater uncertainty about the age at which they will die. More priority should be given to efforts to reduce the risk of an early death among the lower educated, e.g. by strengthening protective policies within and outside the health-care system.

  • 9.
    Yang, Fei
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm; Univ Southern Calif, Dept Psychol, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Ye, Weimin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Liu, Zhiwei
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umeå.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Clin Neurosci, Umeå.
    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Metab & Diabet, Stockholm.
    Bellocco, Rino
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm; Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Stat & Quantitat Methods, Milan, Italy.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Skellefteå Res Unit, Umeå.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå Univ, Family Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umeå.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm.
    Lager, Anton C. J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm.
    Araghi, Marzieh
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm.
    Lundberg, Michael
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm.
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm.
    Wirdefeldt, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm; Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm.
    Moist smokeless tobacco (Snus) use and risk of Parkinson's disease2017In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 872-880, article id dyw294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. It is unclear what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. Use of Swedish moist smokeless tobacco (snus) can serve as a model to disentangle what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether snus use was associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Methods: Individual participant data were collected from seven prospective cohort studies, including 348 601 men. We used survival analysis with multivariable Cox regression to estimate study-specific relative risk of Parkinson's disease due to snus use, and random-effects models to pool estimates in a meta-analysis. The primary analyses were restricted to never-smokers to eliminate the potential confounding effect of tobacco smoking. Results: During a mean follow-up time of 16.1 years, 1199 incident Parkinson's disease cases were identified. Among men who never smoked, ever-snus users had about 60% lower Parkinson's disease risk compared with never-snus users [pooled hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.61]. The inverse association between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk was more pronounced in current (pooled HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.63), moderate-heavy amount (pooled HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.90) and long-term snus users (pooled HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.83). Conclusions: Non-smoking men who used snus had a substantially lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Results also indicated an inverse dose-response relationship between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk. Our findings suggest that nicotine or other components of tobacco leaves may influence the development of Parkinson's disease.

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