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  • 1.
    Björkman Randström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svedlund, Marianne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Impact of environmental factors in home rehabilitation − a qualitative study from the perspective of older persons using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to describe facilitators and barriers2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 779-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore older people’s experience of environmental factors that impact on their activity and participation in home rehabilitation. Method: Older people aged between 68 and 93 years and receiving home rehabilitation were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed on the interview text using the predetermined structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental domain. The text was linked to the closest ICF category. Results: The results identified environmental facilitators and barriers that influenced activity and participation among older people receiving home rehabilitation. Approaches that provided a facilitative environment were access to assistive products and technologies, alterations to the physical environment, social support and relationships, and adjusted health and social care services. Conclusions: A qualitative study using ICF-listed environmental factors contributed a holistic view of facilitators and barriers in home rehabilitation for older people. Awareness of the importance of the impact of the social environment on activities and participation could improve home rehabilitation services for older people. The study represents an important step towards a holistic approach using the ICF, which aims to enable all health care professionals to describe, plan and evaluate rehabilitation services together with older people across the health and social care sectors.

  • 2.
    Bring, Annika
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Box 593/BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 75124, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health, Care and Social Wellfare, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wasteson, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Asenlof, Pernilla
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Box 593/BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 75124, Sweden.
    Daily stressors in patients with acute whiplash associated disorders2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 21, p. 1783-1789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Stressors in acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD), as reported on a daily basis, have hitherto been neglected in research. The primary aim of this study was to describe the most stressful daily situation or event reported by individuals with acute WAD within a month of a whiplash trauma. Another aim was to describe the meaning and significance of these daily stressors, i.e. primary appraisal. Method: A descriptive design with a content analysis approach was used. 260 WAD-daily coping assessments (WAD-DCA) generated during 1 week by 51 participants with acute WAD were included in the study. Stressors were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The reported stressors generated 13 categories covering a wide range of stressful situations in daily life related to (i) work, (ii) physical symptoms, (iii) feelings and cognitions, (iv) family and home responsibilities and (v) recreation. The majority of the stressors were appraised as "expected" as well as "disabling". Most threatening stressors were related to work, driving and feelings/cognitions. Conclusions: The wide variety of stressors indicates that it is not only pain itself that influences daily life in acute WAD. Early identification of individual and situation-specific stressors gives new data regarding what bothers individuals suffering from WAD after a collision and may be helpful in understanding the coping process in relation to specific stressors and stressor appraisals.

  • 3.
    Buys, Nicholas J.
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    John, Selander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Jing
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Employee experience of workplace supervisor contact and support during long-term sickness absence2017In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Workplace support is an important factor in promoting successful return to work. The purpose of this article is to examine relationships between supervisor contact, perceived workplace support and demographic variables among employees on long-term sickness absence.

    Materials and method: Data were collected from 204 public employees at a municipality in Sweden who had been on long term sickness absence (60 days or more) using a 23 question survey instrument that collected information on demographic variables, supervisor contact and perceived workplace support.

    Results: Most injured employees (97%) reported having contact with their supervisors during their sickness absence, with a majority (56%) reporting high levels of support, including early (58.6%) and multiple (70.7%) contacts. Most were pleased with amount of contact (68.9%) and the majority had discussed workplace accommodations (68.1%). Employees who self-initiated contact, felt the amount of contact was appropriate, had a personal meeting with their supervisors and discussed workplace adjustments reported experiencing higher levels of support from supervisors.

    Conclusions: Employees on long-term sickness absence appreciate contact from their supervisors and this is associated with perceived workplace support. However, the amount and employee experience of this contact is important. It needs to be perceived by employees as supportive, which includes a focus on strategies (e.g., work adjustment) to facilitate a return to work. Supervisor training is required in this area to support the return to work process.

    • Implications for Rehabilitation
    • Contact and support from workplace supervisors is important to workers on long-term sickness absence.

    • Employees appreciate frequent contact from supervisors during long-terms sickness absence.

    • Employees appreciate a personal meeting with supervisors and the opportunity to discuss issues related to return to work such as work adjustment.

    • Employers should provide training to supervisors on how to communicate and assist employees on long-term sickness absence.

  • 4.
    Engan, Harald K
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. LHL Klinikkene Roros, Overhagaen 15, N-7374 Roros, Norway.
    Hilmarsen, Christina
    LHL Klinikkene Roros, Overhagaen 15, N-7374 Roros, Norway.
    Sittlinger, Sverre
    LHL Klinikkene Roros, Overhagaen 15, N-7374 Roros, Norway.
    Sandmael, Jon Arne
    LHL Klinikkene Roros, Overhagaen 15, N-7374 Roros, Norway.
    Skanke, Frode
    LHL Klinikkene Roros, Overhagaen 15, N-7374 Roros, Norway.
    Oldervoll, Line M.
    LHL Klinikkene Roros, Overhagaen 15, N-7374 Roros, Norway; Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Res Ctr Hlth Promot & Resources, Dept Social Work & Hlth Sci, Trondheim, Norway.
    Are web-based questionnaires accepted in patients attending rehabilitation?2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 38, no 24-26, p. 2406-2412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the present paper was to study preferences for web based self-administered questionnaires (web SAQs) vs. paper-based self-administered questionnaires (paper SAQs) and to evaluate the feasibility of using web SAQs in patients referred to cardiac, lung, occupational and cancer rehabilitation programs. Methods: The patients were approached by mail and given the choice to answer the compulsory SAQs either on paper or on a web-based platform. Results: Hundred and twenty seven out of 183 eligible patients (69.3%) were willing to participate and 126 completed the study. Web SAQs were preferred by 77.7%, and these patients were significantly younger, more often cohabiting and tended to have higher level of education than paper SAQ users. Mean number of data missing per patient was less among the web SAQ users than the paper SAQ users (0.55 vs. 2.15, p <0.001). Costs related to human resources were estimated to be 60% lower with web SAQs compared to paper SAQs. Conclusions: Web SAQs were well accepted among the patients scheduled for rehabilitation, led to less missing data and considerable cost savings related to human resources. Patients referred to rehabilitation should be offered the choice to complete self-administered questionnaires on internet platforms when internet access is common and available.

  • 5. Gard, G.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Siv
    How can a work rehabilitation process be improved? - A qualitative study from the prespective of social insurance officers2004In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 299-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe social insurance officers' experiences of a work rehabilitation process at a rehabilitation centre in the northern parts of Sweden. In Sweden the social insurance company has a key role to coordinate all efforts concerning work rehabilitation planning between all rehabilitation actors. Method: Ten social insurance officers at the social insurance company in a city in northern Sweden were interviewed using a narrative approach about their experiences of work rehabilitation processes in general. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis with a focus on their experiences of goals, content and results of a work rehabilitation process. Results: The social insurance officers' experiences of how a work rehabilitation process could be improved were described in six categories; (1) Early identification of problems, needs and interventions (2) clear goal formulations, (3) a focus on psychosocial factors (4) a greater variety of possible interventions, (5) activating employers to a higher extent in work rehabilitation and (6) a closer cooperation and information exchange with other rehabilitation actors. Conclusions: It is possible to improve a work rehabilitation process by focusing on early identification of problems, needs and interventions, with a variety of interventions to choose between and with clear goal formulations and recognizing psychosocial factors in the process. To activate employers to a higher extent in work rehabilitation and to make the information exchange between rehabilitation actors more frequent may also improve work rehabilitation processes. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.

  • 6.
    Jumisko, E.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lexell, J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Lund University Hospital.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The experiences of treatment from other people as narrated by people with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury and their close relatives2007In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 29, no 19, p. 1535-1543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to describe the treatment from other people as experienced by people with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their close relatives. Method. Twelve people with moderate or severe TBI and eight of their close relatives were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results. The results were described by the means of two themes: being excluded and missing confirmation. People with TBI and their close relatives had experiences of being avoided, being ruled by the authorities, being met with distrustfulness and being misjudged. They also searched for answers and longed for the right kind of help. People who listened to them, believed them and tried to understand and help them were appreciated. Conclusions. This study showed a lack of treatment which promotes well-being of the people with TBI and their close relatives. They experienced bad treatment also from authorities. Therefore, we emphasize that authorities should continuously reflect on how to make their practice a place which promotes dignity. Treatment of people with TBI and close relatives may be improved by increased knowledge about TBI, living with it and being a close relative to a person with TBI. This is a challenge to health care and rehabilitation professionals.

  • 7. Juuso, P.
    et al.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Olsson, M.
    Skär, L.
    The significance of FM associations for women with FM2014In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 36, no 21, p. 1755-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Living with fibromyalgia (FM) means living with a long-term pain syndrome that is invisible to others. Support and understanding from others seem to be important to managing the affected daily life. The aim of this study was to describe the significance of FM associations for women with FM. Methods: Data collection was carried out through focus group discussions with seventeen women with FM. Data were analyzed through thematic content analysis. Results: The findings show that women experienced associations for people with FM as important as they gave access to contacts with others with similar experiences. Their need of togetherness was fulfilled at the association and they described being strengthened by the support received. Because of the lack of information and knowledge about FM, the association was described as an important venue for getting and mediating information about the illness. Conclusions: At the association the women seem to be empowered, which increases their ability to manage their daily lives despite the limitations imposed by FM. Healthcare personnel could not satisfy the women's needs and to manage to support women with FM. There is a need for communication based on a shared understanding between the women and healthcare personnel.Implications for RehabilitationThis study highlighted the need for communication based on a shared understanding between people with chronic illness and healthcare personnel to support and strengthen women with FM in their daily lives.The FM associations meet the needs for togetherness, confirmation, and information that the women with FM in this study described and healthcare personnel could not satisfy.Healthcare personnel can learn from FM associations how to empower women with FM in their everyday lives. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

  • 8.
    Kärrholm, Jenny
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Section for Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Ekholm, Karolina
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm.
    Jakobsson, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Section for Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Section for Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Section for Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Schüldt Ekholm, Kristina
    Section for Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Effects on work resumption of a co-operation project in vocational rehabilitation: Systematic, multi-professional, client-centred and solution-oriented co-operation2006In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 457-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The present aim was to evaluate the effect of systematic multi-professional co-ordinated rehabilitation (the Stockholm Co-operation Project) on the number of days' sick leave during the first and second half-years after the rehabilitation co-ordination period, compared to the year before. Another aim was to evaluate the economic effects at national level. METHOD: A matched-pairs design was used. The study group was based on 64 rehabilitees employed by a public employer in Stockholm, who took part in a systematic multi-professional co-operation project. To obtain pairs, the 64 individuals were individually matched with 64 people who received conventionally organised rehabilitation. Thus, there were 128 subjects altogether. RESULTS: The study group had substantially less sick leave days per month than the comparison group during the second half-year after the rehabilitation co-ordination period. The effect was even greater in a subgroup with more previous sick leave. During the first half-year after the intervention the comparison group had relatively more sick leave. No effect was found for a subgroup with less previous sick leave. The economic benefit of the intervention was estimated to 1,278 euros per month and person based on the whole group, and to 2,405 euros per month and person based on those with more sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: People who undergo co-ordinated rehabilitation have more working days after the intervention period than those with conventional rehabilitation. This way for rehabilitation actors to co-operate gives better outcomes for rehabilitation cases with long previous sick leave, but not for cases with less previous sick leave. It also generates economic gains at several levels.

  • 9.
    Landstad, Bodil J.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway.
    Åhrberg, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Conceptualizing the driving forces for successful rehabilitation back to work2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 40, no 15, p. 1781-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An earlier study states that the terms of desire, longing, and vanity carry with them ideas, emotions, and values that influence how individuals perceive themselves and their rehabilitation process. Our aim was (1) to use concept analysis to explore the meaning of the terms desire, longing, and vanity and (2) to investigate the potential role of these concepts in successful rehabilitation back to work. Methods: To achieve these two objectives, we used a model of concept analysis. The final step in the model is to define empirical references, for example, articles within the scientific literature, to determine the existence of a concept in a given situation. Results: The concept analysis resulted in 15 new searchable terms. All of these were accepted in the thesaurus system for the databases we used. We identified 59 scientific articles that were deemed relevant to the purposes of the study. Of these, only 20 was about emotions as driving forces in a rehabilitation process back to work. Conclusion: The conclusion of the study is that the concepts of desire, longing, and vanity encompassed ideas, emotions, and values that influence how individuals perceived themselves and their situations. How individuals talk about and understand rehabilitation will undoubtedly play a role in how they respond to interventions, and thus, the success of the rehabilitation process back to work.Implications for rehabilitationEmotional energy often drives behavior and can provide significant motivation that potentially can mobilize vocational rehabilitation.The concepts of desire, longing and vanity encompass ideas, emotions, and values that influence individuals’ self-perception and their view of their situation. To engage people in discussions on what they long for and desire could be a new way to connect with a person in a rehabilitation situation.It can be less provoking to talk about what a person desires or longs for than to ask them what they want or are motivated for.Feelings of meaningfulness are a basic driving force and a contributing factor in how health is experienced. By affirming the desire to do activities that are liked, this in turn generates motivation to be engaged in other activities. Individual confidence is generated through the experience of mastering a skill and this in turn can underpin a desire to return to work after long-term sick leave. Earlier experience of success can be an inspiration and create expectations for a forthcoming working-role.Emotions relating to work such as pride can generate motivation in a rehabilitation process. Vanity and the possibility of being “ashamed” in a certain situation can be an emotional driving force to re-establish one’s self.

  • 10.
    Landstad, Bodil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wendelborg, C
    Department of Social Work and Health Science, Norwegian University of Technology and Science, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hedlund, M
    Faculty of Health Science, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Levanger, Norway.
    Factors explaining return to work for long-term sick workers in Norway2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, no 15, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. This study investigates factors that will affect the chances of long-term sick workers returning to work.

    Method. The study is based on a representative sample of persons with mental illnesses and musculoskeletal disorders who received a rehabilitation allowance in Norway in 2002. Their occupational status in 2005 and experiences from the rehabilitation process were charted through their responses to a questionnaire in combination with national register data. Our analytical framework is based on three domains: the medical domain, the domain of authoritative bodies and the production domain (working life), as described by Lindqvist (Att satta granser: organisationer och reformer i arbetsrehabiliteringen. Umea: Borea; 2000).

    Results. Our main findings are that earlier work experience, age and other members in household, in addition, to influence over one's own rehabilitation process explains whether workers on long-term sick leave return to work. Furthermore, individual factors such as gender and diagnosis (i.e. musculoskeletal disorder and mental illness) do not explain the probability to return to work. Experience and contact with representatives of the medical, the authoritative bodies and the production domain only explain to a small extent the probability to return to work. It is even interesting to note that regular contact with the social insurance office (SIO) has a negative effect on the probability to return to work. This may indicate that contact with the SIO subjects sick workers to a risk of developing a 'social insurance career' to secure their income.

    Conclusions. The findings show that the medical, the authoritative bodies and the production domain might represent different logics that can pull a sick worker in different directions during the rehabilitation process. However, these different logics do not fully explain, which outcome a rehabilitation process takes. It is important to extend the analysis to include how the individuals respond to these logics during the rehabilitation process.

  • 11.
    Marnetoft, Sven Uno
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Selander, John
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Long-term effects of early versus delayed vocational rehabilitation - a four-year follow-up2002In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 24, no 14, p. 741-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate whether early vocational rehabilitation is more effective than rehabilitation initiated at a later stage. Method : The study was based on a sample of 612 individuals on long-term sick leave (90 days or more) who had received vocational rehabilitation. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether time before start of rehabilitation was associated with the outcome. Results : The study supports the hypothesis that early interventions are more effective than late, but only for women, and more so for the younger woman than for the older.

  • 12.
    Millet, Patrick
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vaittinen, Pauli
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Job functions of Swedish public and private sector vocational rehabilitation workers2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, no 19, p. 1614-1624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. This study has had two main aims, the first to investigate and gather knowledge of the major job functions of Swedish rehabilitation workers, the second to study the frequency of use of these functions in the VR process.

    Method. Structured questionnaires were sent to Swedish rehabilitation workers from public and private sectors. To identify the major dimensions of Swedish rehabilitation workers' job in the vocational rehabilitation (VR) process, a principal component factor analysis was performed.

    Results. Results revealed that there are four main factors (dimensions) that comprised the VR process in Sweden. The four factors (dimensions) are job development and career counselling; assessment and counselling interventions; workplace adjustment and employer consultation and client support, personnel development and public relations.

    Conclusions. The VR process in Sweden is limited in both its scope and depth. This when one compares with the results of studies carried out in the USA, who found seven and six dimensions, respectively. It is argued that it cannot be excluded that the negative trend of extensive sick leave and early pensions are attributable to the limitations in the VR process that have been found. Suggested is the urgent need to put resources in place that would support the further advancement of the knowledge and competencies of the VR services in Sweden.

  • 13. Mosallanezhad, Zahra
    et al.
    Salavati, Mahyar
    Hellström, Karin
    Sotoudeh, Gholam Reza
    Nilsson Wikmar, Lena
    Kerstin, Frändin
    Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale.2011In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 33, no 25-26, p. 2446-2453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To translate the Swedish version of the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES), the FES(S), into Persian, and to determine reliability and validity of the scale to be used for Persian speaking elderly people. Method. The 'forward-backward' procedure was applied to translate the FES(S) into Persian. A methodological study was then carried out to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the scale. Eighty-one community-dwelling elderly persons (≥65 years) were included.Results. Both reliability and validity of the Persian FES(S) were found to be acceptable (Cronbach's α  ==  0.75, interclass correlation coefficients  ==  0.99, p  <  0.001 and standard errors of measurements  ==  1.82). Low to moderate negative correlations of the total score of the scale with the age of the participants and number of falls in the past year were shown. There were also low to moderate correlations between the Persian FES(S) score and the Mini-Mental State Examination score, duration of walks and physical fitness. The participants who took a daily walk, felt healthy, reported no general tiredness and who had had no fall during the past year rated their self-efficacy higher than did their peers.Conclusions. The present study verified that the Persian FES(S) is a culturally relevant, valid and reliable tool for measuring self-perceived confidence in Iranian older adults.

  • 14.
    Selander, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A farewell to welfare ?: [editorial]2002In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, Vol. 24, no 14, p. 703.-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Selander, John
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Marnetoft, Sven-Uno
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Åkerström, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Locus of control and regional differences in sickness absence in Sweden.2005In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 27, no 16, p. 925-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate if there are differences in locus of control (LOC), at a societal level, between two residential areas in Sweden with substantial differences in sickness absence. METHOD: A postal questionnaire was sent to 1500 randomly selected men and women aged 20 - 64 years. Five hundred questionnaires were sent to people living in Stromsund (a sparsely populated municipality in northern Sweden with high rates of sickness absence) and 1000 questionnaires to people in the Swedish capital of Stockholm, which has a low rate of sickness absence. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A comparison of LOC in the two study areas supported our hypothesis to a certain extent, external locus being more prominent in Stromsund. When physical and mental health and income were considered, however, the differences disappeared. Consequently, this study did not support the opinion that differences in sickness absence can be explained by LOC at a societal level

  • 16.
    Selander, John
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Marnetoft, Sven-Uno
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Åsell, Malin
    Umeå University.
    Predictors for successful vocational rehabilitation for clients with back pain problems2007In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 215-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify predicting factors for successful vocational rehabilitation for people with back pain problems. METHOD: The study was based on data from 347 long-term sick-listed clients collected at the onset of vocational rehabilitation. The outcome was measured 6 months after the conclusion of rehabilitation. RESULTS: In a first bi-variate analysis, a considerable number of variables were associated with the rehabilitation outcome. In a second multivariate analysis, only four associations remained. These were age, general health, vitality and internal locus of control. Young vital clients in good general health, with a high internal locus of control were more likely than others to return to work. CONCLUSION: The findings regarding age, general health and vitality are well in line with previous studies. The findings regarding internal locus of control are more unique.

  • 17. Sjöström, Rita
    et al.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Back to work- evaluation of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme with emphasis on musculoskeletal disorders.: A two-year follow-up.2008In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 649-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 2-year outcome of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for working-age people, regarding sick leave and mental health. Method. The test persons consisted of 40 women and 20 men (mean age 46.8 +/- SD 7.9) with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly neck and back pain. The rehabilitation programme was individually adapted and consisted of physical activity in several forms, relaxation, theoretical and practical education and individual guidance. Before, during and after the programme all participants were evaluated with the Global Self-Efficacy Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and stress test. Results. At the 2-year follow-up full-time sick leave had decreased by 37% (p < 0.0001) in the women, and by 25% (p < 0.05) in the men. Both women and men showed an increased quality of life (QoL) and decreased anxiety, depression and self-experienced stress at the 2-year follow-up compared with the start of the rehabilitation programme. Conclusions. The most important conclusion was that the effects of the rehabilitation programme persisted for up to 2 years. At 2 years the majority of the participants were still physically active, their QoL was increased, and most participants had returned to work.

  • 18.
    Sjöström, Rita
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Back to work - A two year outcome of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme focused on physical function and pain2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 237-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To analyze why some responded positively to rehabilitation and why some did not. Method. Sixty participants with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly neck and back pain participated in a 7-week rehabilitation programme which was based on a combination of theoretical and practical education and physical activities. Before and after the programme and 6, 12 and 24 months after completion of the programme all participants were evaluated with the Disability Rating Index (DRI) and Pain Intensity Rating on a Visual analogue scale (VAS). Results. In the participants who had full-time sick leave from the start of the programme to the 2-year follow-up (Group I) self-experienced physical disability and pain ratings were high and showed no decrease and were maintained up until the 2-year follow-up. For the participants who had part-time sick leave or no sick leave (Group II) physical disability and pain ratings were initially lower than in Group I and decreased gradually, (p < 0.01) and (p < 0.05), respectively throughout the 2-year follow-up period. Conclusion. Participants in Group I did not benefit from the rehabilitation programme and did not show improvement in their physical disability and pain rating. Group II showed decreased physical disability and pain rating. The decrease was gradual and was maintained up until the 2-year follow-up period. These results may indicate that persons with musculoskeletal pain with severe disability and pain require other rehabilitation programmes than those with moderate symptoms. This research has highlighted the need for development of such programmes.

  • 19. Söderberg, Siv
    et al.
    Jumisko, E.
    Gard, G.
    Clients' experiences of a work rehabilitation process2004In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 419-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe clients' experiences of a work rehabilitation process. Method: Ten clients who had participated in work-related rehabilitation at a rehabilitation centre in the northern parts of Sweden were interviewed using a narrative approach. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis focusing on clients' descriptions of the goals, contents and results of the work rehabilitation process. Results: At the beginning of the rehabilitation the goal was often to confirm a diagnosis, to become healthy and able to return to work. It was hard to be forced to change the goals. When fortunate the rehabilitation provided more profound guidance and function assessment. It resulted in changes varying from practical alterations to important insights into life. It was important to get support and understanding. When the rehabilitation was not adjusted to clients' needs, feelings of disappointment emerged and life became a struggle with various authorities in order to gain understanding and other forms of rehabilitation. Conclusions: This study shows the need to develop truly client-centred practice. Therefore, we emphasized, based on this study, the importance of professionals involved in rehabilitation working on different levels and in various settings having regular discussions about what the term client-centred practice means to them. Integrating individual perceptions is essential to advancing a multidimensional approach in return-to-work research. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.

  • 20.
    Tjulin, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    MacEachen, Ellen
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Edvardsson Stiwne, Elinor
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet.
    The social interaction of return-to-work explored from co-workers experinces2011In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 33, no 21-22, p. 1979-1989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose.The objective was to explore the role and contribution of co-workers in the return-to-work process. The social interaction of co-workers in the return-to-work process are analysed within the framework of the Swedish national and local employer organisational return-to-work policies. Methods. An exploratory qualitative method was used, consisting of open-ended interviews with 33 workplace actors across seven work units. Organisational return-to-work policies were collected from the three public sector employers. Results.The key findings that emerged during analysis showed that some co-workers have a more work-task oriented approach towards the return-to-work process, whilst others had a more social relational approach. In both situations, the social relations worked hand in hand with job tasks (how task were allocated, and how returning workers were supported by others) and could make or break the return-to-work process. Conclusion.A suggestion for improvement of return-to-work models and policies is the need to take into account the social relations amongst workplace actors, especially involving co-workers when planning for return-to-work interventions. Otherwise the proper attention to work arrangements, social communication and the role of co-workers in the return-to-work process might not be seen.

  • 21.
    Tjulin, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    MacEachen, Ellen
    The Institute for Work and Health, Toronto, Canada.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Exploring the meaning of early contact in return-to-work from workplace actors’ perspective2011In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 137-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The objective of this article was to explore the meaning of early contact in return-to-work, and how social relational actions and conditions can facilitate or impede early contact among actors in the workplace. Method. An exploratory qualitative method was used, consisting of individual open-ended interviews with 33 workplace actors at seven worksites across three public employers in Sweden. The workplace actors represented in these interviews included re-entering workers, supervisors, co-workers and human resources managers. Organisational policies on return-to-work were collected from the three employers. Results. The analysis indicated that early contact is a complex return-to-work measure with shifting incentives among workplace actors for making contact. For instance, the findings indicated obligation and responsibilities as incentives, incentives through social relations, and the need to acknowledge and balance the individual needs in relation to early contact. Conclusion. The findings strengthen the importance of early contact as a concept with a social relational context that comprises more than just an activity carried out (or not) by the employer, and suggest that early contact with a sick-listed worker is not always the best approach for a return-to-work situation. This study provides a starting point for a more articulated conceptualisation of early contact.

  • 22.
    Warner, Grace
    et al.
    Dalhousie Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy, POB 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
    Packer, Tanya
    Dalhousie Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy, POB 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
    Villeneuve, Michelle
    Univ Sydney, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Audulv, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Dalhousie Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy, POB 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
    Versnel, Joan
    Dalhousie Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy, POB 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
    A systematic review of the effectiveness of stroke self-management programs for improving function and participation outcomes: self-management programs for stroke survivors2015In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 37, no 23, p. 2141-2163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A systematic review of stroke self-management programs was conducted to: (i) identify how many and what self-management support strategies were included in stroke selfmanagement interventions and (ii) describe whether self-management programs effectively improved outcomes, focusing specifically on function and participation outcomes. Methods: Twelve databases were searched for the years 1986–2012 to identify self-management programs for stroke survivors. Pre-post, quasi-experimental and randomized controlled trial study designs were included. Descriptive information about the intervention was scrutinized to identify what self-management support strategies were present in the intervention and comparisons were made between programs using a group versus a one-to-one format. All outcomes were included and categorized. Results: The most prominent strategies identified in our review were goal setting and follow-up, and an individualized approach using structured information and professional support. There are indications that self-management programs can significantly increase participation and functional ability. However, the high level of clinical heterogeneity in program delivery, outcomes and level of stroke severity made it impossible to conduct a meta-analysis. Further examination of individual self-management support strategies, such as linking rehabilitation goal setting to post-acute self-management programs, the inclusion of family members and the contribution of peer-support is warranted.

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