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  • 1.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    CO2 Mitigation: On Methods and Parameters for Comparison of Fossil-Fuel and Biofuel Systems2006In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 5/6, p. 935-959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The replacement of fossil fuels by biofuels could be an important means of reducing net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. An estimation of the CO2 mitigation efficiency of biofuel systems depends on the method and assumptions used. Here, different parameters and methods are discussed for comparing fossil-fuel- and biofuel-based systems. Three parameters are suggested: the monetary cost, the primary energy cost and the biofuel cost of CO2 mitigation. They are defined as the difference in monetary expenditure, primary energy use and biofuel use between the compared systems, divided by the difference in net CO2 emission between the systems. Cogeneration and separate production of electricity and heat is then compared using these parameters and the methods of multi-functional products or subtraction. In both methods, either electricity or heat is regarded as the main product and the other is regarded as a by-product. The multi-functional method is preferable due to its transparency as both the main product and the by-product are part of the functional unit. Using heat as the main product illustrates the typical situation that the heat demand limits the use of cogeneration. When comparing systems the output from them should not differ. If the by-product is not fully, cogenerated part of the by-product has to be produced separately. A logical choice for producing this part of the by-product is to use a similar fuel and technology as used for cogeneration.

  • 2.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Madlener, R.
    Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Switzerland.
    Hoen, H.F.
    Agricultural University Norway.
    Jungmeier, G.
    Institute of Energy Research, Austria.
    Karjalainen, T.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, Finland.
    Klöhn, S.
    University of Technology Dresden, Germany.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Pohjola, J.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Solberg, B.
    Agricultural University Norway.
    Spelter, H.
    Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, United States.
    The role of wood material for greenhouse gas mitigation2006In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 5-6, p. 1097-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an interdisciplinary perspective the role of wood as a carbon sink, as a multipurpose material, and as a renewable energy source for the net reduction of greenhouse gases is discussed. We synthesize aspects from engineering, natural and social sciences to better understand the role of wood substitution in CO2 mitigation.We also formulate some recommendations on filling knowledge gaps that could be useful for policy making regarding how wood substitution could be further expanded. There are sufficient wood resources to substantially increase the use of wood for material and energy purposes. However, a number of factors hinder a wider use of wood for energy and material purposes. Furthermore, an analysis of wood substitution is a very complex issue, since the substitution influencing factors are to be found along the entire wood supply chain and involve several industries, socio-economic and cultural aspects, traditions, price dynamics, and structural and technical change. To improve the knowledge about wood as a substitute for other resources and the implications, it would be helpful to better integrate research from different disciplines on the subject and to cover different scales from a project to an economy-wide level.

  • 3.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Pingoud, Kim
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carbon dioxide balance of wood substitution: comparing concrete- and wood-framed buildings2006In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 667-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a method is suggested to compare the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from the construction of concrete- and wood-framed buildings. The method is then applied to two buildings in Sweden and Finland constructed with wood frames, compared with functionally equivalent buildings constructed with concrete frames. Carbon accounting includes: emissions due to fossil fuel use in the production of building materials; the replacement of fossil fuels by biomass residues from logging, wood processing, construction and demolition; carbon stock changes in forests and buildings; and cement process reactions. The results show that wood-framed construction requires less energy, and emits less CO2 to the atmosphere, than concrete-framed construction. The lifecycle emission difference between the wood- and concrete-framed buildings ranges from 30 to 130 kg C per m2 of floor area. Hence, a net reduction of CO2 emission can be obtained by increasing the proportion of wood-based building materials, relative to concrete materials. The benefits would be greatest if the biomass residues resulting from the production of the wood building materials were fully used in energy supply systems. The carbon mitigation efficiency, expressed in terms of biomass used per unit of reduced carbon emission, is considerably better if the wood is used to replace concrete building material than if the wood is used directly as biofuel.

  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Sathre, Roger
    Schlamadinger, Bernhard
    Joanneum Research, Graz, Austria.
    Robertson, Kimberly
    Force Consulting Ltd, Rotorua, New Zealand.
    Preface - Special issue: Efficient USE of biomass for mitigating climate change2006In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 5-6, p. 933-934Article in journal (Refereed)
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