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  • 1.
    Hedlund, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Angular dependence of the polysilicon etch rate during dry etching in SF6 and Cl-21997In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 686-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The angular dependence of the etch rate in reactive ion etching (RIE) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) systems for polysilicon etching with SF6" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">SF6SF6 and Cl2" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">Cl2Cl2 is determined using a recently developed direct measurement method. The latter utilizes specially patterned silicon groove structures consisting of 7–10 μm wide planar surfaces which form various angles with respect to the wafer normal. The structures are produced by highly anisotropic wet chemical etchingof Si through a gratinglike mask pattern aligned along specific crystallographic orientations of the wafer which results in the development of planar surfaces of various orientations. These surfaces are then coated with the materials to be studied—polysilicon in this case. The deposited polysilicon is then etched under a variety of conditions in a RIE and an ICP reactor and the etch rates determined by interferometric measurements. Since only standard Si wafers are used and the size of the pattern is only a few μm the method is fully IC production compatible, which means that one can measure the angular dependence of the etch rate directly in production etching systems. The results for RIE of polysilicon with SF6" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">SF6SF6 show that the process becomes more isotropic with increasing pressure. The angular dependence of the RIE and ICP polysilicon etchrates in Cl2" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">Cl2Cl2 atmosphere were found to vary with the substrate bias. Specifically low substrate bias resulted in an under cosine distribution whereas bias higher than 240–250 V led to over cosine distributions.

  • 2. Schaepkens, M
    et al.
    Oehrlein, G S
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Selective SiO2-to-Si3N4 etching in inductively coupled fluorocarbon plasmas: Angular dependence of SiO2 and Si3N4 etching rates1998In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. A16, no 6, p. 3281-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Shamrai, K P
    et al.
    Virko, V F
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Pavlenko, V P
    Taranov, V B
    Jonsson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Discharge disruptions in a helicon plasma source1997In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 2864-2874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study experimentally and theoretically stable regimes and dischargedisruptions in a helicon plasma source. At fixed input power and gas pressure, stable operation of the source is possible below some critical value of magnetic field Bcr." role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">Bcr.Bcr. The plasma density increases with the magnetic field and reaches a maximum value nmax" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">nmaxnmax at Bcr;" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">Bcr;Bcr; after which the discharge disruption occurs. Both Bcr" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">BcrBcr and nmax" role="presentation" style="display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">nmaxnmax increase almost linearly with the input power and the rate of increase is increasing with the pressure. Matching of the plasma load to the rf power source improves when approaching the disruption point, and becomes perfect at the critical field. The theory of discharge disruptions assumes the power absorption in a helicon source to arise from the linear conversion of helicon waves into electrostatic waves at the plasma edge. The calculated dependence of the absorbed power on the plasma density turns out to be nonmonotonic with minima at antiresonances of the electrostatic waveexcitation. This explains qualitatively principal peculiarities of dischargedisruptions. The calculated plasma impedance is in agreement with experimental value within a factor of 2.

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