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  • 1. Kim, Y B
    et al.
    Olin, Håkan
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Park, S Y
    Choi, J W
    Komitov, L
    Matuszczyk, M
    Lagerwall, S T
    Rubbed polyimide films studied by scanning force microscopy1995In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 66, p. 2218-2219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surfaces of rubbed polyimide films for aligning liquid crystal have been studied by atomic force microscopy. The unrubbed films consisted of randomly distributed polyimide clusters of different sizes. On the rubbed surface, however, the clusters are aligned in long chains along the rubbing direction. The cluster chains were separated by about 100 nm for small rubbing strength. For higher strength the cluster chains coalesced into wider ones.

  • 2. Kukushkin, I V
    et al.
    Mikhailov, Sergey A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Smet, J H
    Miniature quantum-well microwave spectrometer operating at liquid-nitrogen temperatures2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 044101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that a two-dimensional electron system fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well in the presence of a magnetic field B possesses the ability to detect electromagnetic radiation in a broad frequency range. Irradiation of the sample with microwaves produces a dc-photovoltage which oscillates as a function of B. The amplitude and the period of the oscillations are proportional to the radiation power and the wavelength, respectively. Successful operation of such a detector/spectrometer is reported for microwave frequencies up to similar to150 GHz and temperatures up to similar to80 K. We do not anticipate any principal difficulties in extending the operation frequency further into the terahertz region.

  • 3.
    Lixing, Zhou
    et al.
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Xiaolei, Wang
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Kai, Han
    Dept. of Phys. & Electron. Sci., Weifang Univ., Weifang, China.
    Xueli, Ma
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Yanrong, Wang
    Microelectron. Dept., North China Univ. of Technol., Beijing, China.
    Jinjuan, Xiang
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Hong, Yang
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Jing, Zhang
    Microelectron. Dept., North China Univ. of Technol., Beijing, China.
    Chao, Zhao
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Tianchun, Ye
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Wenwu, Wang
    Key Lab. of Microelectron. Devices & Integrated Technol., Inst. of Microelectron., Beijing, China.
    Understanding dipole formation at dielectric/dielectric hetero-interface2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 113, no 18, article id 0003-6951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Band alignment and dipole formation at the hetero-interface still remain fascinating and, hence, are being intensively investigated. In this study, we experimentally investigate the dipole formation by employing a dielectric/dielectric (Al2O3/GeO2) interface. We investigate the dipole dependence on various post-deposition annealing (PDA) ambiences from the viewpoints of electrical extraction and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The core level shift at the Al2O3/GeO2 interface is consistent with the dipole changes in various PDA ambiences. We discover that the dipole formation can be well explained by the interface gap state and charge neutrality level theory. These results further confirm the feasibility of gap state theory in explaining the band alignment at hetero-junctions. This study can be a booster to enhance the comprehension of dipole origin at hetero-junction interfaces.

  • 4.
    Mikhailov, Sergey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Propagation of edge magnetoplasmons in semiconductor quantum-well structures2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, no 4, article id 042109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wavelength and the propagation length of the edge magnetoplasmons, running along the edge of a two-dimensional electron layer in a semiconductor quantum-well structure, are theoretically studied as a function of frequency, magnetic field, electron density, mobility, and geometry of the structure. The results are intended to be used for analysis and optimization of operation of recently invented quantum-well microwave spectrometers operating at liquid-nitrogen temperatures [I. V. Kukushkin , Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 044101 (2005)].

  • 5. Neuber, G.
    et al.
    Rauer, R.
    Kunze, J.
    Korn, T.
    Pels, C.
    Meier, G.
    Merkt, U.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Rubhausen, M.
    Temperature-dependent spectral generalized magneto-optical ellipsometry2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, p. 4509-4511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a setup for temperature-dependent spectral generalized magneto-optical ellipsometry (SGME). This technique gives access to the electronic as well as the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials within one single magneto-optical measurement. It also allows the determination of the orientation of the magnetization. We show spectra of the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index N as well as the magneto-optical coupling parameter Q of permalloy and iron films for in-plane magnetization. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of SGME for the understanding of the interplay between electronic and magnetic properties of ferromagnetics. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics.

  • 6. Rauer, R.
    et al.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Budelmann, D.
    Kurfiss, M.
    Schilling, M.
    Rubhausen, M.
    Walter, T.
    Dorr, K.
    Cooper, S. L.
    Thickness dependent phase separation in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 films2002In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 81, p. 3777-3779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex dielectric function of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 films with various thicknesses and on different substrates was determined by the analysis of measured ellipsometric parameters. The temperature-dependent redistribution of low-energy spectral weight shows that the metallicity is developed gradually below an onset temperature that is found to depend strongly on global and local strain properties, not on film thickness alone. Importantly, the 2 nm film shows no metallic conduction but an optical charge-carrier response below 240 K. This suggests that ultrathin films are characterized by phase separation and a percolation-type transition. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 7.
    Wang, Weichao
    et al.
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Zhang, Jiawei
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Zhang, Yaju
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Chen, Fangqi
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Wang, Heyi
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Wu, Mengjun
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Li, Hui
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Zhu, Quanyong
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Zheng, Haiwu
    Henan University, Kaifeng, China.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Remarkably enhanced hybrid piezo/triboelectric nanogenerator via rational modulation of piezoelectric and dielectric properties for self-powered electronics2020In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 116, no 2, article id 023901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hybridization of different materials for energy scavenging techniques based on piezoelectric and triboelectric effects has been studied widely for various applications of nanogenerators. However, there are few reports utilizing the same oxide matrix materials with appropriate doping to simultaneously enhance the piezoelectric and triboelectric outputs. Herein, a hybrid nanogenerator (HG) consisting of a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) was constructed using (Ba0.838Ca0.162)(Ti0.9072Zr0.092)O3 (BCZTO)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a piezoelectric layer and Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3 (BZTO)/PDMS as a triboelectric layer. For the PENG, how the electrical output was related to the BCZTO ratio in the BCZTO/PDMS composite films was systematically investigated. For the TENG, remarkably enhanced output performance is attributed to the ferroelectric polarization and large permittivity of the BZTO/PDMS. The Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show that the poled BZTO/PDMS composite film with a 20 wt. % mass ratio of BZTO has the highest surface charge potential, in line with the macroscopic electrical outputs of the TENG. Interestingly, the output performance of the PENG in the HG is significantly enhanced compared to the PENG acting alone, which is also verified by COMSOL simulation. After rectification, the HG can produce a maximum output voltage of 390 V and a current density of 47 mA/m2. This work not only provides a feasible solution to enhance the output performance of the HG but also offers an effective approach to develop a small, portable power source with promising application in self-powered electronics. 

  • 8. Yi, H R
    et al.
    Ivanov, Z G
    Winkler, D
    Zhang, Y M
    Olin, Håkan
    Larsson, P
    Claeson, T
    Improved step edges on LaAlO3 substrates by using amorphous carbon etch masks1994In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 65, p. 1177-1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a technique for the fabrication of sharp and straight step edges on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates by ion milling. An electron beam lithography defined amorphous carbon film was used as an etch mask. It had very low ion milling rate and was easily prepared and removed. Atomic force microscopy was used to determine the step profile. YBa2Cu3O7 step edge junctions fabricated at the LAO steps show promising results. An IcRn product of 1 mV was obtained at 30 K. A Fraunhofer-like magnetic field dependence of Ic was obtained up to ±2 0. One weak link or possibly identical weak links in series for these step edge junctions were observed from the current-voltage (I-V) curves as well as from the magnetic field dependence of the I-V curves. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.

     

  • 9. Ziegler, K.J.
    et al.
    Lyons, D.M.
    Holmes, J.D.
    Erts, D.
    Polyakov, B.
    Olin, Håkan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, K.
    Olsson, E.
    Bistable nanoelectromechanical devices2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, no 20, p. 4074-4076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combined transmission electron microscopy-scanning tunneling microscopy (TEM-STM) technique has been used to investigate the force interactions of silicon and germanium nanowires with gold electrodes. The I(V) data obtained typically show linear behavior between the gold electrode and silicon nanowires at all contact points, whereas the linearity of I(V) curves obtained for germanium nanowires were dependent on the point of contact. Bistable silicon and germanium nanowire-based nanoelectromechanical programmable read-only memory (NEMPROM) devices were demonstrated by TEM-STM. These nonvolatile NEMPROM devices have switching potentials as low as 1 V and are highly stable making them ideal candidates for low-leakage electronic devices.

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