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  • 1.
    Hatami, Nishtman
    et al.
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
    Lohmander, Peter
    Optimal Solutions in Cooperation with Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Moayeri, Mohammad Hadi
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    A basal area increment model for individual trees in mixed continuous cover forests in Iranian Caspian forests2018In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a new basal area growth model in mixed species continuous cover forests in northern Iran. We analyzed 421 core samples from 6 main species in the forest area to develop our growth model. In each plot, we measured variables such as total tree height (m), diameter at breast height (DBH) (cm) and basal area of larger trees as cumulative basal areas of trees (GCUM) of DBH > 5 cm. The empirical data were analyzed using regression analysis. There was a statistically significant nonlinear function between the annual basal area increment, as the dependent variable, and the basal area of the individual trees and competition as explanatory variables. Reference area from the largest trees, was circular plot with area of 0.1 ha. GCUM was estimated for trees of DBH > 5 cm. Furthermore, we investigated the dependencies of diameter growth of different species on stand density at different levels of competition, and diameter development of individual trees through time. The results indicate that competition caused by larger neighborhood trees has a negative effect on growth. In addition, the maximum diameter increment is affected by competition level. Therefore, the maximum diameter increment of species occurs when the trees are about 35–40 cm in dense-forest (40 to 0 m2 per ha) and when the trees are about 60 to 70 cm in very dense forest (60 to 0 m2 per ha) which is more likely to Caspian natural forests with high level density due to uneven-aged composition of stands.

  • 2.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Someh Sara, Iran.
    Efficiency of Iranian forest industry based on DEA models2013In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 759-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a mathematical technique to assess relative efficiencies of decision making units (DMUs). The efficiency of 14 Iranian forest companies and forest management units was investigated in 2010. Efficiency of the companies was estimated by using a traditional DEA model and a two-stage DEA model. Traditional DEA models consider all DMU activities as a black box and ignore the intermediate products, while two-stage models address intermediate processes. LINGO software was used for analysis. Overall production was divided into to processes for analyses by the two-stage model, timber harvest and marketing. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used to identify the differences of average efficiency in the harvesting and marketing sub-process. Weak performance in the harvesting sub-process was the cause of low efficiency in 2010. Companies such as Neka Chob and Kelardasht proved efficient at timber harvest, and Neka Chob forest company scored highest in overall efficiency. Finally, the reference units identified according to the results of two-stage DEA analysis.

  • 3.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    et al.
    Univ Guilan, Somehsara, Iran.
    Kouhi, Maryam Seddigh
    Univ Guilan, Somehsara, Iran.
    Sharaji, Teymour Rostami
    Univ Guilan, Somehsara, Iran.
    Goal programming approach for sustainable forest management: (case study in Iranian Caspian forests)2014In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 429-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used a goal programming technique to determine the optimal harvest volume for the Iranian Caspian forest. We collected data including volume, growth, wood price at forest roadside, and variable harvesting costs. The allometric method was used to quantify sequestrated carbon. Regression analysis was used to derive growth models. Expected mean price was estimated using wood price and variable harvesting costs. Questionnaire was used to determine the constraints and the equation coefficients of the goal programming model. The optimal volume was determined using the goal programming method according to multipurpose forest management. LINGO software was used for analysis. Results indicated that the optimum volumes of species were 250.25 m(3).ha(-1) for beech, 59 m(3).ha(-1) for hornbeam, 73 m(3).ha(-1) for oak, 41 m(3).ha(-1) for alder, and 32 m(3).ha(-1) for other species. The total optimum volume is 455.25 m(3).ha(-1).

  • 4.
    Mohammadi, Zohreh
    et al.
    University of Guilan, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Iran.
    Lohmander, Peter
    Optimal Solutions in Cooperation with Linnaeus University, UmeåSweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Estimation of a basal area growth model for individual trees in uneven-aged Caspian mixed species forests2018In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1205-1214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to estimate a basal area growth model for individual trees in uneven-aged Caspian forests. A survey was conducted in order to find a natural forest without any harvesting activities, a so called ‘untouched forest’ and an area was selected from the Iranian Caspian forest. Three sample plots in the same aspect and of the same forest type were selected. In each plot, total tree height, diameter at breast height, distance of neighbor trees and azimuth were measured. Thirty trees were selected and drilled with increment borer to determine the increment model. Regression analysis was used to estimate the growth model. Results show that, for individual trees, there is a significant nonlinear relationship between the annual basal area increment, as the dependent variable, and the basal area. The results also show that the basal area of competing trees has a positive influence on growth. That the increment is higher with more competing neighboring trees is possibly because plots with higher volume per hectare and more competition, most likely also have higher site index or better soil or better site productivity than the plot with lower volume per hectare.

  • 5.
    Mohammadi, Zohreh
    et al.
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Shahraji, Taymour Rostami
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Linear programming approach for optimal forest plantation2017In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 299-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to identify species suitable for plantation. We first identified species for potentially suitable for plantation based on ecological capabilities regarding soil properties. We determined the area of plantation for different species based on ecological capabilities. Then, we collected relevant data such as growth patterns of different species, labor requirements for plantation and plantation cost. A linear programming model and two integer linear programming models were used for optimization. The appropriate species based on ecological capabilities were ash, elm, maple, oak and bald cypress. A linear programming model was used based on ecological capabilities classification to determine the land area of different species for plantation. Then, two integer linear programming models were employed to select the species for plantation. We set ecological properties unequal for all of the species in the first run of the integer programming model. Two groups were classified: group one included maple and ash; group two included bald cypress, oak and elm. The second integer programming model assumed equal ecological properties for all the species. Results of linear programming showed that maple and bald cypress were appropriate for plantation at the site and their plantation areas should be 151.3 and 355.3 ha, respectively. Results of the first integer linear programming model showed that maple and bald cypress would be economically profitable for plantation. The results of the second integer linear programming model showed that only bald cypress would be appropriate for plantation.

  • 6.
    Moradi, Sohrab
    et al.
    Payame Noor Univ, Tehran, Iran; Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Lohmander, Peter
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Umeå.
    Khanmohammadi, Mehrdad
    Univ Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Quantitative and financial evaluation of non-timber forest products: (case study: Zemkan basin forests, West of Iran)2017In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 371-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Zagros forests in western Iran lack industrial timber value due to the severe climate and socioeconomics problems, non-timber products are of great value and importance due to their high economic potential and also their potential to improve the welfare of forest-dwelling and forest-fringe villagers. This study was done in the forests of the Zemkan basin, an important part of central Zagros forests, Iran, to recognize the non-timber forest products (NTFPS), investigate their potential economic value and role in people's livelihood. Data, collected using forest cruising, participatory observations, interviews with indigenous and local persons and experts, identified wild pistachio resin, wild pistachio fruit, oak fruit and oak syrup (Shokeh manna) among the non-timber products in this basin with total potential harvestable NTFPs of 77.16, 771.602, 13248.68, and 1324.868 tons per year, respectively. The economic rent from NTFPs is 33 US$/ha/year and its total expected values with consideration of real interest rate when the exploiter invests the capital in the bank (6.4 %) and when money is borrowed from the bank to execute the incorporated projects (8.4 %) are $516/ha and $393/ha, respectively. Furthermore, families' economic share from potential profit of NTFPs is annually $601 per household. In addition wild pistachio resin has the highest share of the total potential profit of NTFPs and its equal to 51 % of the total of potential profit of NTFPs. Therefore, it is suggested that decisions be made to increase the infrastructure and strengthen the local selling market to enhance the cash income from NTFPs. Forest participatory management practices are suggested to organize and improve traditional use of the forests.

  • 7.
    Namdari, Samaneh
    et al.
    Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran.
    Adeli, Kamran
    Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Bahramabadi, Zahra
    University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Iran.
    Risk assessment in poplar plantations: a case study from northern Iran2019In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear risk programming was used to determine the optimum cultivation pattern to increase incomes of poplar farmers. Seven clones of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. were examined in Guilan province, northern Iran. Growth and price data were taken from previous research at the Safrabaste Poplar Research Station and in interviews with farmers. The Lingo software was used to analyze the data in different forms of E. The results show that when risk was considered, the optimal solution included the clones Pd63/51-x1, -Pd72/51-x3, Pd73/51-x4 and Pd79/51-x6. There was a high growth fluctuations of the clones Pd69/55-x2, Pd77. 51-x5, and Pd caroliniensis-x7 and were not included in cultivation plans. Furthermore, the existing farm plans executed by local farmers, is neither profit-oriented nor efficient in terms of income risk management according to risk efficient frontier. These results could help farmers with different levels of risk-aversion to select proper planting plans.

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