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  • 1.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Linnaeus University, Växjö.
    Investigating Causal Relations between the GDP Cycle and Unemployment: Data from Finland2014In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 118-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between two macroeconomic variables, the gross domestic product (GDP) cycle and unemployment, in Finland. This has been done using the vector autoregressive (VAR) model for the period Q1 1995 to Q2 2011. The goal of this study is to gather further evidence for the relationship between the GDP cycle and total, male and female unemployment individually, with special reference to Finland which is a member state of the EU, and has been part of European monetary union, since 1995. The relationship has been investigated using the Granger-causality test in accordance with Okun's (1962) formula. The empirical facts mostly indicate the existence of a uni-directional causal relationship from the GDP cycle to unemployment. This pattern is not found to be significant when using the model for unemployment in women however. The coefficients of unemployment, total, male and female, are abstracted from the Okun's coefficient and found to be around -4 per cent total, male and female unemployment individually, -5 per cent and -1 per cent respectively. These results also have important implications for determining macroeconomic and labor-market policy.

  • 2.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Zampatti, Davide
    University of Brescia- Italy.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Department of Economics , Finance, Statistics and Informatics- Jönköping University .
    Macroeconomic Determinants, Innovation and the Birth of New Firms: Negative Binomial Regression Approach: Negative Binomial Regression Approach2013In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Abstract

    This paper employs the random-effects negative binomial regression model (RENBM) to test the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the birth of new firms. The test is across countries and uses count data. We consider a sample of 135 panel-data observations, taken from 27 countries in the European Union (EU) during the period 2004 to 2008. We found that the birth of new firms is positively related to the growth of gross domestic product (GDP), inflation and openness, and is negatively related to unemployment. This result is in accordance with macroeconomic theory. The results also show that expenditure on research and development (R&D) has a significant positive effect on the number of new firms. This result further supports the hypothesis of new economic growth theory. Moreover, the empirical evidence shows a positive correlation between the number of new businesses and ethnic heterogeneity. 

  • 3.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level Swedish Micro Firm Data2012In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-9728, E-ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, no 12, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year 2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

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