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  • 1.
    Sjöström, Rita
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet; Östersund sjukhus.
    Söderström, Lars
    Östersunds sjukhus.
    Klockmo, Carolina
    Kommunförbundet Västernorrland.
    Patrician, Alexander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå Universitet.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hanstock, Helen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stenfors, Nikolai
    Umeå Universitet.
    Qualitative identification and characterisation of self-reported symptoms arising in humans during experimental exposure to cold air2019In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 1583528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to cold air is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. It is difficult to study the effects of whole-body exposure to cold air under controlled conditions in real life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to (1) explore and describe the experience of symptoms in humans during experimental and controlled exposures to cold air, by using controlled environmental chamber exposures and qualitative methodology, and to (2) categorise the symptoms. Method: The study used a randomised, double blind design, in which 34 subjects undertook rest and moderate-intensity exercise in an environmental chamber set to two or three different temperatures (0, −10, and −17°C) on separate occasions. During the chamber exposures, subjects were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was selected as the method of analysis. Findings: Subjects reported 50 distinct symptoms during the exposures. The symptoms were grouped into ten sub-categories and two major categories; airway versus whole-body symptoms. Conclusion: We have identified a broad range of symptoms in humans undertaking rest and moderate-intensity exercise at sub-zero temperatures. The symptoms and their categories may well be used to more extensively and quantitatively map cold-induced morbidity.

  • 2.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention?: Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden2015In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 74, p. 29805-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce.

    Objective. To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention.

    Design. Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15.

    Results. Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma.

    Conclusions. The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed.

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