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  • 1.
    Aronsson, K. Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Limnological effects on a first order stream after Wood Ash Application to a boreal forest catchment in Bispgården, Sweden2008In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 255, no 1, p. 245-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, whole tree harvest is common practice, possibly leading to the depletion of mineral nutrients. Furthermore, the increased use of forestry residues for heat production has caused an increasingly growing amount of by-product consisting of wood ash. Therefore, the Swedish Forest Agency has recommended wood ash application (WAA) to replace the mineral nutrients removed by whole tree harvesting, as well as a means to mitigate the acidification of boreal forests and surface waters. In a multidisciplinary study during 2003-2006 in Bispgarden (Sweden), we have investigated the limnological effects on a first order stream after WAA (conducted in 2004; 3000 kg ha-1) to a 50-ha forested catchment. In general, no significant effects on an annual basis were found for acidification parameters, such as pH, alkalinity and toxic forms of aluminum (Al). There was, however, evidence of an increased pH during the spring flood, accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in the frequency of low pH-values (<5.6). Moreover, alkalinity increased in the years 2005 and 2006 compared to that of 2003, although the increase in 2006 was not statistically different from that in 2005 or 2003. High concentrations of Al repeatedly occurred in the stream, and the WAA did not affect the frequencies of high concentrations of toxic Al forms (>50 μg 1-1). The benthic diatom community did not change as a result of the wood ash treatment and the diatom-based index IPS (Indice de PulluoSensibilité) indicated no nutrient enrichment or organic pollution of the stream water. There were, however, indices of elevated concentrations of potassium (K) in the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica and in leaves from Alder (Alnus incana). We conclude that wood ash treatment of a forested catchment with the dose and form of ash applied in this study did not modify the freshwater ecosystem of a first order stream.

  • 2.
    Dahlström, Niklas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Long-term dynamics of large woody debris in a managed boreal forest stream.2005In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 210, no 1-3, p. 363-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how past forest management in Sweden influenced the quantity and quality of large woody debris (LWD) in streams. The present study provides information of the long-term dynamics of LWD in a reach of a boreal stream intersecting a managed forest. Dendrochronological methods were used to reconstruct mortality years of the pieces of LWD and the general history of fire and cuttings of the surrounding riparian forest. Today, spruce dominates among the living trees, whereas the LWD is dominated by birch in the forest and by pine in the stream. Fire frequency prior to active fire suppression was similar to values reported from boreal forests. Pine trees were more abundant in the riparian forest before selective logging operations and active fire suppression began in the 1800s. Many of the pieces of LWD found in the stream today died more than 200 years ago and derived from a cohort of pines that generated in the early 1600s. Pine LWD in stream channels is highly resistant to decomposition and can reside for more than 300 years. A substantial amount of the LWD found today in managed forest streams in boreal Sweden most likely derives from the time before extensive human influence and is likely to decrease further in the future. Management of riparian forests to ascertain future supply of long-lived LWD in streams should target to increase the proportion of pine trees.

  • 3.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anna-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Villard, Marc-André
    Université de Moncton, Canada.
    The importance of large-tree retention for the persistence of old-growth epiphytic bryophyte Neckera pennata in selection harvest systems2016In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 372, p. 143-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial harvesting methods are generally more similar to the natural dynamics of broad-leaved forests than clear cutting. However, their effects on biodiversity are still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of selection cutting on the occurrence of a large epiphytic bryophyte, Neckera pennata, in a northern hardwood forest of New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight forest stands were selected, repre- senting two contrasting forest management practices: 5–9 years old, first-entry selection cuts and untreated stands that had been subjected to low-intensity single-tree cutting at least 35 years earlier. Within each stand, we quantified the presence–absence of N. pennata on 36 trees and measured selected forest stand variables. Although N. pennata had persisted in post-harvest stands, its frequency of occur- rence on maple trees was only 7% there, compared to 39% in untreated stands. The density of large- diameter sugar maple trees and crown cover were the most important factors predicting the frequency of N. pennata at the stand level. Tree diameter was also a strong predictor of N. pennata’s presence at the tree level and the occupancy of large-diameter maples was almost twice as high in untreated stands as in selection cuts. However, the occupancy of large-diameter maples relative to smaller maple trees was much higher in selection cuts, possibly due to dispersal limitations resulting from reduced connectivity of large-diameter host trees. Taken together, our findings suggest that (1) large trees from older seral stages are a prerequisite for the long-term persistence of N. pennata in managed forests and that (2) they are therefore particularly important for managers to retain in selection cuts. Further, since our results indi- cate that reduced crown cover in selection cuts has a negative effect on N. pennata, the benefit of retaining large host trees would probably increase if buffered within retention patches of maturing trees. Finally, since host tree diameter clearly is a very important factor for the presence of N. pennata, any extension of the harvest rotation would be beneficial.

  • 4.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fällström, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    An introduced tree species alters the assemblage structure and functional composition of wood-decaying fungi in microcosms2013In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 306, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is widely recognized that introduced plant species produce organic matter of different quality surprisingly little is known about how this influence the community structure of decomposers. Here, we investigated the effects of a commercial non-native tree species, lodgepole pine, on the community structure of wood-decaying basidiomycetes and the decomposition of deadwood in northern Sweden. We allowed an assemblage of wood-decaying fungi that occur naturally on pine to interact on fresh wooddiscs of lodgepole pine and Scots pine, using microcosms. At the end of the experiment we measured the wood mass loss and calculated the area of the different species' domains as indicated by interaction zone lines between competing species. Fungal assemblage structure developed in a markedly different way on lodgepole pine compared to Scots pine. In addition to there being fewer species in the final fungal assemblage on lodgepole pine, fungal functional composition was different. White-rot fungi were more competitive and dominated on lodgepole pine, while brown-rot fungi dominated on Scots pine. We also found that the decay rate of lodgepole pine wood was slightly lower, although the underlying reason remains unclear. However, there was a significant positive relationship between the abundance of white-rot fungi and the wood mass loss of lodgepole pine, while no relationship was found between fungal functional group and the decay rate of Scots pine. We also found no relationship between species richness and wood decay rates. Our study reveals that a non-native tree species used in commercial forestry can alter the structure and functional composition of a saprotrophic wood-decaying fungal assemblage. Future studies are required to clarify the mechanisms behind the observed patterns and whether they apply to natural systems.

  • 5.
    Edman, Mattias
    et al.
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Möller, Rebecca
    Ericson, Lars
    Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Effects of enhanced tree growth rate on the decay capacities of three saprotrophic wood-fungi2006In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 232, no 1-3, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of Scandinavian boreal forests has changed in many ways as a result of modern intensive forestry. One of the most fundamental changes is the loss of coarse woody debris (CWD), which has adversely affected many wood-inhabiting species. The consequences of reductions in CWD and its variability have received much attention in the literature recently. However, a neglected substratum change with possible profound ecological implications is enhanced tree growth rate due to forestry practices such as thinning and fertilization. In the study presented here we investigated how tree growth rate influenced the decay capacity of two threatened species, Phlebia centrifuga and Fomitopsis rosea, and a common species, F. pinicola, of saprotrophic wood-decay fungi. Their decay capacity was measured as the weight loss they caused in Picea abies wood-discs categorised as fast-, moderately-, and slow-grown.

    The results show that the rates of decay caused by all three species were highest in fast-grown wood cut in thinnings, and lowest in slow-grown wood cut in extensively managed stands. None of the stands had been fertilised. Interestingly, rate of decay caused by the common generalist fungus F. pinicola was 50% higher in fast-grown wood than in slow-grown wood, suggesting that the turnover of dead wood is much higher in intensively managed forests. Thus, the time window for wood-living species to colonize CWD, which is a transient habitat even in old-growth forests, is even shorter in intensively managed forests. This may adversely affect species with poor dispersal ability. Moreover, F. rosea decayed the slow-grown wood significantly more rapidly than the other species. This suggests that it may be adapted to such substrates, and that F. rosea may be favoured in old-growth forests where trees generally have slower growth rates than in managed forest. For P. centrifuga, there was a large variation in its decay capacity among genets, indicating a need for further studies on the genetics of threatened wood-fungi, given the species’ fragmented distribution.

  • 6. Johansson, Therese
    et al.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ericson, Lars
    Beetle attraction to sporocarps and mycelia of wood-decaying fungi in old-growth spruce forests of northern Sweden2006In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 237, p. 335-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many saproxylic beetles do not feed on wood directly but on fungi colonizing the wood. The volume of decaying wood has decreased drastically in Scandinavian managed forest landscapes in recent years, so improved knowledge on the interactions between beetles and wood-decaying fungi is important for the long-term persistence of these trophic partners. Sporocarps of polypores are known to emit volatiles attracting both fungivorous and predatory beetles, but it is unknown whether some beetles are also attracted to odours from the mycelia. The aim of this experiment was to test the attraction of beetles to volatiles from the sporocarps and mycelia of wood-decaying fungi. In a randomized block design, six substrate types: Fomitopsis pinicola sporocarp, F. pinicola mycelium-infected wood, Fomitopsis rosea sporocarp, F. rosea mycelium-infected wood, Phellinus chrysoloma sporocarp and Phlebia centrifuga mycelium-infected wood were attached separately to specially designed window traps in four old-growth spruce forests in northern Sweden. Empty traps and traps with sterilised wood were used as controls. We found no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of saproxylic beetles between the control and sterilised wood and the fungal substrates. However, two abundant species showed significant preferences for one substrate type. The bark beetle Dryocoetes autographus preferred F. rosea mycelium-infected wood and the rove beetle Lordithon lunulatus preferred fruiting bodies of F. pinicola. The results indicate that some species do discriminate between volatiles emitted by different polypore species and also between volatiles emitted by the sporocarps and mycelia from the same species. Our data indicate a hitherto unknown interdependence between D. autographus and F. rosea. We conclude that present knowledge on interactions between beetles and wood-decaying fungi is limited and further studies are needed to enhance our ability to design appropriate conservation strategies in the forest landscape.

  • 7.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Dept. of Statistics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Grafström, Anton
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Göran
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Bertil
    Dept. of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dead wood availability in managed Swedish forests - Policy outcomes and implications for biodiversity2016In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 376, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dead wood is a critical resource for forest biodiversity and widely used as an indicator for sustainable forest management. Based on data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory we provide baseline information and analyze trends in volume and distribution of dead wood in Swedish managed forests during 15 years. The data are based on ≈30,000 sample plots inventoried during three periods (1994-1998; 2003-2007 and 2008-2012). The forest policy has since 1994 emphasized the need to increase the amount of dead wood in Swedish forests. The average volume of dead wood in Sweden has increased by 25% (from 6.1 to 7.6 m3 ha-1) since the mid-1990s, but patterns differed among regions and tree species. The volume of conifer dead wood (mainly from Picea abies) has increased in the southern part of the country, but remained stable or decreased in the northern part. Heterogeneity of dead wood types was low in terms of species, diameter and decay classes, potentially negatively impacting on biodiversity. Overall, we found only minor effects of the current forest policy since most of the increase can be attributed to storm events creating a pulse of hard dead wood. Therefore, the implementation of established policy instruments (e.g. legislation and voluntary certification schemes) need to be revisited. In addition to the retention of dead trees during forestry operations, policy makers should consider calling for more large-scale targeted creation of dead trees and management methods with longer rotation cycles. © 2016 The Authors.

  • 8.
    Jönsson, Mari
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fraver, Shawn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dynesius, M.
    Umeå University.
    Rydgård, M.
    The County Administration of Västra Götaland.
    Esseen, P.-A.
    Umeå University.
    Eighteen years of tree mortality and structural change in an experimentally fragmented Norway spruce forest2007In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 242, no 2-3, p. 306-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term experimental forest fragmentation studies remain uncommon, despite their critical role in the advancement of ecological theory and conservation planning. In 1986 five circular forest fragments (1/16-1 ha) were exposed through clearcutting within an old-growth Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest in northern Sweden. Initial responses to fragmentation (1986-1991) showed very high tree mortality and structural degradation of the fragments. In the present study we re-inventoried these fragments to evaluate tree mortality patterns and structural changes occurring over a longer time period (1991-2004). The fragments can readily be viewed as harvest retention patches or 'woodland key habitats' (i.e., set-aside patches of high conservation value), allowing us to make inferences about the effectiveness of these novel conservation tools. Tree mortality rates dropped markedly (to 1.2-3.9%/year) compared to the initial responses, yet remained elevated over those of control plots in the nearby unfragmented forest (0.7%). Mortality increased with tree diameter, resulting in smaller-diameter, more homogenous stands. Mortality also generally increased with decreasing fragment size and was dependent of tree location within fragments. Standing death (45% of dead trees, 1991-2004) replaced uprootings (71%, 1986-1991) as the dominant mode of mortality. Numbers of dying and standing dead trees increased during the second sampling period, further adding to structural change and reduced stand density. Elevated tree mortality resulted in uncharacteristically high volumes of coarse woody debris. Results clearly show that adverse edge-related changes to forest structure and function persist up to two decades after fragmentation. Fragments of this size largely fail as remnants intended to maintain forest interior conditions and late-successional forest structure. However, when embedded within a harvested landscape, they: (1) provide abundant coarse woody debris and snags for deadwood-dependent species that risk extirpation in the surrounding matrix and (2) retain important structures for the developing stands.

  • 9.
    Jönsson, Mari T
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Assessing coarse woody debris in Swedish woodland key habitats: Implications for conservation and management2007In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 242, no 2-3, p. 363-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mainland Nordic countries and the Baltic States, the delineation and set-aside of woodland key habitats (WKHs) has been one important approach to conserving biodiversity outside traditional protected areas. Though the specifics of the key habitat concept differ from country to country, the intent is to set aside forest areas that (1) exhibit a low degree of exploitation, (2) host or potentially host red-listed species, and/or (3) contain old-growth characteristics (e.g. dead wood, large old trees) or other qualities considered valuable for maintaining biodiversity. However, it is still uncertain to what extent WKHs actually retain quantities and qualities of coarse woody debris (CWD) that are characteristic of old-growth forests. The Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (BMP) recently conducted a detailed inventory of 491 WKHs across Sweden, providing a large dataset with which to evaluate the effectiveness of the WKH program with respect to CWD. In the present study we analyze the BMP data and compare CWD volume and composition between WKHs, mature managed (stand age 81-120 years), overmature managed (age 121-140 years), and published findings from old-growth forests. The national average volume of CWD (standing and downed combined, m3/ha) was higher in WKHs (19.5) than the mature managed (9.3) and the overmature managed forest (12.2), yet was markedly lower than that reported from old-growth forests. CWD volumes in spruce-dominated WKHs had been reduced by 50-63% in the southern and middle boreal regions to 43-64% in the northern boreal region when compared to old-growth forests. In general, CWD amount, variability and quality were greater within WKHs in the boreal regions as opposed to the nemoral and boreonemoral regions in the south of Sweden. The majority of the WKHs (64%) contained key elements (very large and/or decayed dead wood known to be crucial habitat for many threatened wood-dependent species). Considering that these structures are largely absent from managed forests, WKHs have better retained some of the important features of old-growth forests when compared to the surrounding managed forest. WKHs are therefore valuable habitats for dead wood dependent species and representative focal areas for continued and future forest restoration and landscape planning. Our results confirm that large sun-exposed and burned dead wood are underrepresented CWD components within WKHs and emphasize the need to broaden the WKH definition to include locations containing these structures.

  • 10.
    Kuuluvainen, Timo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norway.
    Aakala, Tuomas
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    North Fennoscandian mountain forests: History, composition, disturbance dynamics and the unpredictable future2017In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 385, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    North Fennoscandian mountain forests are distributed along the Scandes Mountains between Sweden and Norway, and the low-mountain regions of northern Norway, Sweden and Finland, and the adjacent northwestern Russia. Regionally, these forests are differentiated into spruce, pine or birch dominance due to climatic differences. Variation in tree species dominance within these regions is generally caused by a combination of historical and prevailing disturbance regimes, including both chronic and episodic disturbances, their magnitude and frequency, as well as differences in edaphic conditions and topography. Because of their remoteness, slow growth and restrictions of use, these mountain forests are generally less affected by human utilization than more productive and easily utilizable forests at lower elevations and/or latitudes. As a consequence, these northern forests of Europe are often referred to as “Europe's last wilderness”, even if human influence of varying intensity has been ubiquitous through historical time. Because of their naturalness, the North Fennoscandian mountain forests are of paramount importance for biodiversity conservation, monitoring of ecosystem change and for their sociocultural values. As such, they also provide unique reference areas for basic and applied research, and for developing methods of forest conservation, restoration and ecosystem-based management for the entire Fennoscandia. However, the current rapid change in climate is predicted to profoundly affect the ecology and dynamics of these forests in the future.

  • 11.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden .
    Johansson, Therese
    SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden .
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    SLU, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, SE-90183 Umea, Sweden .
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Ericson, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden .
    Landscape and substrate properties affect species richness and community composition of saproxylic beetles2012In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 286, p. 108-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive forest management has dramatically reduced the area of old-growth forest in Fennoscandia. We examined if the proportion of old forest in a landscape affects species composition, richness and abundance of saproxylic beetles. We used tube-shaped window traps in five pairs of sites, selected so that the sites within each pair differed with respect to the proportion of old forest (>125 years) in the surrounding landscape. A landscape level inventory of the wood fungi Fomitopsis rosea, as a proxy for forest with high conservation values, was used to complement the data on old forests. In addition, to testing whether mycelia-colonised wood may attract saproxylic beetles, the tube-shaped window traps were baited with wood colonised by Fomitopsis pinicola or F. rosea. Old-forest-rich landscapes supported significantly more species and a higher abundance of saproxylic beetles than old-forest-poor landscapes. The analysis revealed a clear connection between the community composition of saproxylic beetles and the proportion of old forest and number of F. rosea fruiting bodies in the surrounding landscape (radius 3 km). The local landscape species pool thus appears to be important for the beetle species that are trapped since the composition of saproxylic beetles differed between the two landscape types. The effects of the different baits were less pronounced than the effect of landscape type, although species-specific responses to the two mycelia baits were observed. This indicates that volatiles from mycelia of wood-decaying fungi and the mycelial community may affect colonisation patterns of saproxylic beetles. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation and habitat loss have resulted in depauperate beetle faunas in old-forest-poor landscapes. Our results highlight the need to invoke a landscape scale approach for preserving biodiversity, in this case the need to maintain a sufficient proportion of forest with old growth characteristics in the managed landscape. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Restoration fire and wood-inhabiting fungi in a Swedish Pinus sylvestris forest2010In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 259, no 10, p. 1971-1980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing awareness of the negative consequences of efficient fire prevention in boreal Fennoscandia has resulted in an increasing use of fire as a restoration method. The primary purpose of restoration fire is to recreate features of natural forests that have been lost during long periods of fire suppression. We used the occurrence of fruiting bodies from wood-inhabiting fungi to assess the conservation value of and gain ecological information about restoration fire in a Pinus sylvestris dominated forest. The general pattern for the majority of the species was a drastic decline the first two years after the restoration fire. However, our results clearly demonstrate that most of the species that declined the first years after the fire rebounded after four years and were frequently found on charred wood. Species that increased after the fire and often occurred on charred logs were: Antrodia sinuosa, Botryobasidium obtusisporum, Galzinia incrustans, Phlebia subserialis and Tomentella spp. In addition, three threatened, red-listed and fire-favored species were also found on heavily charred logs: Antrodia primaeva, Dichomitus squalens and Gloeophyllum carbonarium. Our results indicate that fire disturbance creates a unique type of dead wood important for fungal species richness. The results also support the use of restoration fires in maintaining forest biodiversity.

  • 13.
    Venugopal, Parvathy
    et al.
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Junninen, Kajsa
    Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Linnakoski, Riikka
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Edman, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kouki, Jari
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Climate and wood quality have decayer-specific effects on fungal wood decomposition2016In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 360, p. 341-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any process that affects wood decomposition and decomposers in boreal forests may also affect the role that dead wood has on global carbon storages. We investigated under controlled laboratory conditions the impact of three major variables – temperature, humidity and wood quality – on Scots pine wood decomposition by four different fungal species. To reveal these effects, we conducted a nine-month factorial experiment. Wood quality was found to have a much more pronounced effect on fungal wood decay than climate variables. Furthermore, the fast-grown pine wood from managed forests decayed much faster than centuries old ‘kelo’ pine trees from natural forests as well as the slow-grown wood from managed forests. We found an overall increase in decomposition with temperature and humidity in Gloeophyllum protractum, except that the decay rate of the fast-grown wood declined with increasing temperature at higher humidity levels. The overall decomposition rates varied greatly with decayer species and wood type, and several interactions between temperature, humidity and wood quality effects were documented. In particular, we found that the fast decayers, Dichomitus squalens and Fomitopsis pinicola did not show any response to climate variables, but responded to wood quality only. The slow decayers Antrodia xantha and G. protractum responded to wood quality and interaction effects of climate and wood quality. Our results demonstrated species-specific effects of climate and wood quality when tested simultaneously, and show that it is critical to understand the different and complex mechanisms that affect wood decomposition and, consequently, carbon storages in forests, in order to increase the reliability of the climate-carbon prediction models.

  • 14. Villard, Marc-André
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tolerance of focal species to forest management intensity as a guide in the development of conservation targets2009In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 258, no Suppl, p. S142-S145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although forest managers are trained to optimize timber production, they should be encouraged to integrate biodiversity conservation as an element of sustainable forest management. To do so, coarse-filter approaches should be complemented with an assessment of the response of carefully selected focal species to forest management intensity. Once conservation objectives have been defined, researchers should determine the shape of focal species’ responses to descriptors of management intensity. Sharp transitions (thresholds) in species responses can yield insight for the development of quantitative conservation targets, with the understanding that critical resources (e.g., specific stand structures; amount of habitat in the landscape) should be maintained well above the threshold values observed. Conservation targets should be determined by land managers and policy-makers on the basis of objective, empirical evidence obtained by researchers to ensure that scientific investigation is conducted in the absence of external pressure.

     

     

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