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  • 1. Henriksson, Marielle
    et al.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    Isaksson, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lindström, Tom
    Nishino, Takashi
    Cellulose nanopaper structures of high toughness2008In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1579-1585Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    Lundström, Lisa
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Adsorption Behavior and Adhesive Properties of Biopolyelectrolyte Multilayers Formed from Cationic and Anionic Starch.2009In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 1768-1776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic starch (D.S. 0.065) and anionic starch (D.S. 0.037) were used to form biopolyelectrolyte multilayers. The influence of the solution concentration of NaCl on the adsorption of starch onto silicon oxide substrates and on the formation of multilayers was investigated using stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The wet adhesive properties of the starch multilayers were examined by measuring pull-off forces with the AFM colloidal probe technique. It was shown that polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) can be successfully constructed from cationic starch and anionic starch at electrolyte concentrations of 1 mM NaCl and 10 mM NaCl. The water content of the PEMs was approximately 80% at both electrolyte concentrations. However, the thickness of the PEMs formed at 10 mM NaCl was approximately twice the thickness formed at I mM NaCl. The viscoelastic properties of the starch PEMs, modeled as Voigt elements, were dependent on the polyelectrolyte that was adsorbed in the outermost layer. The PEMs appeared to be more rigid when capped by anionic starch than when capped by cationic starch. The wet adhesive pull-off forces increased with layer number and were also dependent oil the polyelectrolyte adsorbed in the outermost layer. Thus, starch PEM treatment has a large potential for increasing the adhesive interaction between solid substrates to levels higher than can be reached by a single layer of cationic starch.

  • 3. Notley, SM
    et al.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Adsorption of a strong polyelectrolyte to model lignin surfaces2008In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 2081-2086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of a strong, highly charged cationic polyelectrolyte to a kraft lignin thin film was investigated as a function of the adsorbing solution conditions using the quartz crystal microbalance. The polyelectrolyte, PDADMAC, with a molecular weight of 100 kDa and one cationic charge group per monomer, was adsorbed to the anionically charged lignin film in the pH range 3.5-9.5 in electrolyte solution of 0.1 to 100 mM NaCl. At low pH, the adsorbed amount of PDADMAC was minimal, however, this increased as a function of increasing pH. Indeed, the surface excess increased significantly at about pH 8.5, where ionization of the phenolic groups on the lignin macromolecule may be expected. Furthermore, at this elevated pH, the adsorbed amount of PDADMAC decreased as the ionic strength of the solution increased above I mM. This is due to the competitive adsorption of counterions to the lignin surface and indicates that the adsorption of PDADMAC to lignin is of a pure electrosorption nature.

  • 4.
    Wahlberg [Schröder], Jessica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Persson, P. V.
    Olsson, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Iversen, T
    Structural Characterization of a Lipase-Catalyzed Copolymerization of epsilon-Caprolactone and D,L-Lactide2003In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 1068-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The copolymerization of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) and D,L-lactide catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B was studied. Copolymerizations with different epsilon-CL-to-lactide ratios were carried out, and the product was monitored and characterized by MALDI-TOF MS, GPC, and H-1 NMR. The polymerization of epsilon-CL, which is normally promoted by C. antarctica lipase B, is initially slowed by the presence of lactide. During this stage, lactide is consumed more rapidly than epsilon-CL, and the incorporation occurs dimer-wise with regard to the lactic acid (LA) units. As the reaction proceeds, the relative amount of CL units in the copolymer increases. The nonrandom copolymer structure disappears with time, probably due to a lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction. In the copolymerizations with a low content of lactide, macrocycles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and copolymers having up to two LA units in the ring were detected.

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