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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden .
    The determinant of external financing at the start-up stage: Empirical evidences from Swedish data2014In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small firms in general have limited access to funding, which is a major problem for entrepreneurs. In particular, this problem is evident for women and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of the study is to examine empirically the impact of gender, ethnicity and other relevant variables on the access to external financing of new small firms. A sample of 2,764 female- And male-owned small businesses, based on a unique and large database gathered through interviews, was investigated employing binary logistic regression models. The results suggest that both gender and ethnicity are significant explanatory variables influencing the access to external capital at the start-up stage. Entrepreneurs' age, experience of starting businesses and education, as well as additional jobs beside their own business, are other variables that influence the way in which entrepreneurs finance their business. Moreover, firm characteristics in terms of personal start-up capital, firm size and legal form have an impact on financing behaviour at start-up. Since the knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of the variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start-up.

  • 2.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    GARCH model and predictive performance of volatility forecasting: Evidence from oil market2015In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 345-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the predictive performance of the GARCH (1, 1) model in forecasting the return volatility of the three major items on the oil market, WTI crude, Brent crude and heating oil, for horizons of one, five, twenty and thirty days ahead. The empirical results indicate that the predictive performance of the GARCH model is best for short horizons, from one day ahead for WTI, one to five days ahead for Brent and one to twenty days ahead for heating oil, at the 5% significant level. For horizons from twenty days ahead, no robust forecasting model can be observed for any of these items. Thus, although the results show that the GARCH (1, 1) model has high predictive performance in forecasting the volatility for the short-term horizons, it cannot produce reliable results when the forecast horizon increases. The findings also show how volatility clustering on returns emerges on the oil market, which creates periods of high volatility followed by small movements.

  • 3.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Debt financing among native- and immigrant-owned firms: empirical evidence from Swedish small business at start up stage2014In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 422-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides evidence on ethnic differences in bank debtfinancing among small Swedish firms at the start-up stage. The empiricalanalysis is carried out on a sample of small firms consisting of 2,814native- and immigrant-owned firms for year 2008. The method of binarylogistic regression analysis was mainly performed to analyse the data. Theempirical results suggest that immigrant-owned firms tend to use less bank debtthan their native counterparts. Moreover, the variables related to human capital,previous experience of starting a business, university education and anadditional job beside the business have a positive impact on the use of bankdebt. There is also a positive influence of personal start capital and the size offirm in terms of number of employees on access to debt capital. However, firmcharacteristics, legal form and industry affiliation affect the debt fundingnegatively, indicating that firms with less formalised legal status operating inless developed market segments and with less physical capital are less likely tohave access to debt capital.

  • 4.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Life Cycle of profitability among Swedish micro firms2013In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 340-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year (2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

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