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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    CeRiSM, Research Center for Sport, Mountain and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Sandbakk, Öyvind
    Centre for Elite Sports Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway .
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing2014In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 267-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5 degrees) on snow at moderate (3.5 +/- 0.3m/s), high (4.5 +/- 0.4m/s), and maximal (5.6 +/- 0.6m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100Hz), pole force (1,500Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  • 2.
    Göpfert, Caroline
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Müller, Erich
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Lindinger, Stefan Josef
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers2013In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 154-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p < 0.05) and were maintained for hip/knee flexion and extension. Cycle length increase was correlated to increases in average poling force (r = 0.71) and arm swing time (r = 0.88; both p < 0.05). The main speed adaptation was achieved by changes in double poling technique; however, leg push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training.

  • 3.
    Lindinger, Stefan J
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg.
    Göpfert, Caroline
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg.
    Stoeggl, Thomas
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg.
    Mueller, Erich
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal rollerskiing2009In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 318-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (98; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r ¼ 0.77; P , 0.05), relative leg swing (r ¼ 0.71), and gliding time (r ¼ 0.74), hip flexion range of motion (ROM) during swing (r ¼ 0.73) and knee extension ROM during gliding (r ¼ 0.71). Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r ¼ 0.84), relative duration (r ¼ 20.76) and knee flexion (r ¼ 0.73) and extension ROM (r ¼ 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r ¼ 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  • 4.
    Mikkola, Jussi
    et al.
    Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nummela, Ari
    Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Linnamo, Vesa
    Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Changes in performance and poling kinetics during cross-country sprint skiing competition using the double-poling technique2013In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, changes in skiing performance and poling kinetics during a simulated cross-country sprint skiing competition were investigated. Twelve elite male cross-country skiers performed simulated sprint competition (4 × 1,150 m heat with 20 min recovery between the heats) using the double-poling technique. Vertical and horizontal pole forces and cycle characteristics were measured using a force plate system (20-m long) during the starting spurt, racing speed, and finishing spurt of each heat. Moreover, heat and 20-m phase velocities were determined. Vertical and horizontal pole impulses as well as mean cycle length were calculated. The velocities of heats decreased by 2.7 ± 1.7% (p = 0.003) over the simulated competition. The 20-m spurting velocity decreased by 16 ± 5% (p < 0.002) and poling time increased by 18 ± 9% (p < 0.003) in spurt phases within heats. Vertical and horizontal poling impulses did not change significantly during the simulation; however, the mean forces decreased (p < 0.039) (vertical by 24 ± 11% and horizontal by 20 ± 10%) within heats but not between the heats. Decreased heat velocities over the simulated sprint and spurting velocities within heats indicated fatigue among the skiers. Fatigue was also manifested by decreased pole force production and increased poling time.

  • 5.
    Nedergaard, Niels Jensby
    et al.
    Aalborg Univ, Ctr Sensory Motor Interact, Dept Hlth Sci & Technol, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Heinen, Frederik
    Aalborg Univ, Ctr Sensory Motor Interact, Dept Hlth Sci & Technol, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Sloth, Simon
    Aalborg Univ, Ctr Sensory Motor Interact, Dept Hlth Sci & Technol, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kersting, Uwe Gustav
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Biomechanics of the ski cross start indoors on a customised training ramp and outdoors on snow2015In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 273-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An effective start enhances an athlete's chances of success in ski cross competitions. Accordingly, this study was designed to investigate the biomechanics of start techniques used by elite athletes and assess the influence of different start environments. Seven elite ski cross athletes performed starts indoors on a custom-built ramp; six of these also performed starts on an outdoor slope. Horizontal and vertical forces were measured by force transducers located in the handles of the start gate and a 12-camera motion capture system allowed monitoring of the sagittal knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow kinematics. The starting movement involved Pre, Pull, and Push phases. Significant differences between body sides were observed for peak vertical and resultant forces, resultant impulse, and peak angular velocity of the shoulder joint. Significantly lower peak vertical forces (44N), higher resultant impulse (0.114Ns/kg), and knee joint range of motion (12 degrees) were observed indoors. Although movement in the ski cross start is generally symmetrical, asymmetric patterns of force were observed among the athletes. Two different movement strategies, i.e. pronounced hip extension or more accentuated elbow flexion, were utilised in the Pull phase. The patterns of force and movement during the indoor and outdoor starts were similar.

  • 6.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Karlöf, Lars
    Research and Development, Swix Sport AS, Lillehammer, Norway .
    Mechanical behaviour of cross-country ski racing poles during double poling2013In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 365-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of cross-country ski poles during double poling on a treadmill using three-dimensional kinematics. The results were compared with standard laboratory tests of the pole manufacturers. A total of 18 skiers were analysed at two speeds (85% and 95% of the maximal speed) at grades of 1.5% and 7%. Variables describing cycle characteristics, bending stiffness, bending behaviour, and trajectories of the pole markers were analysed. Triangular-shaped poles demonstrated the greatest stiffness and lowest variability in maximal bending. Softer poles demonstrated greater variability in bending behaviour and lost ground contact at high skiing speeds, which for some skiers resulted in failure to complete high-speed tests. Considerable variations in pole behaviour for similar poles between skiers were observed, which might be attributed to differences in technique, indicating that mechanical properties of the poles did not exclusively determine pole behaviour in the dynamic situation. The greatest magnitude of pole bending was in the middle part of the pole, which differed from the standard static pole analysis of the manufacturer. Increases in grade demonstrated the greatest effect on pole bending. Distinct differences from the pole manufacturers' laboratory measures were apparent, suggesting that basic pole testing might be adapted.

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