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  • 1.
    Falasca, Kajsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Framing the Financial Crisis: An unexpected interaction between the government and the press2014In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the dynamic interaction between government and news media in the frame-building process, the process of shaping journalistic news frames, during the financial crisis that erupted in September 2008. The unexpected as well as event-driven character of the financial crisis is expected to create dynamics that challenge journalists' dependence on powerful political actors as the national government by opening up the news gate wider to various voices and perspectives. However, the findings of this study indicate unexpected results as the government dominates the frame-building process. In order to empirically explore the frame-building process, this paper employs framing theory to analyse political actors' messages and news media coverage. The study employs two sets of data, the first a content analysis of news coverage and the second a content analysis of political messages, during a three month period in Sweden following the eruption of the financial crisis. Overall, the results of this study indicate that powerful political actors' ability to influence frame-building follows the predictable pattern of indexing also during an unexpected event thus limiting press independence.

  • 2.
    Falasca, Kajsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Not minimal but more difficult to measure: A panel study of media effects2018In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 48-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional media effect theories as agenda-setting theory have recently been questioned due to the development of the media environment with media fragmentation and individualized media consumption. Other scholars disagree and suggest that a distinction has to be made between actual media effects and the ease with which they can be measured. Given this scholarly discussion the purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the agenda-setting effects of different media consumption measures on individual issue salience. The study is based on a panel survey that includes different measures of consumption: (1) general news media attention, (2) exposure to different media types such as traditional news media, online news media, and political social media. Overall, the findings suggest that general news media attention might be a more significant measure for consumption in a high-choice media environment. In essence, this study suggests that agenda-setting effects are not becoming non-significant but rather difficult to measure.

  • 3.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Krogh, Torbjörn von
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The citizen as media critic in periods of media change2010In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 287-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media criticism often evolve – and grow in strength – during times of media change with new forms of journalism, new media formats, new media markets, new ways of addressing media markets and new media technologies. Different stakeholders may pursue their interests by formulating a media critique that protect their positions and promotes status quo. It is not difficult to find critics who in the name of the citizens formulate criticism against journalism and the media. It is more difficult to find and study representative examples of criticism expressed by the citizens themselves. The technological development on the Internet has paved the way for a number of new communicative tools that enable users to interact with each other and publish content in a way that changes the conditions for citizens to act as media critics radically. This is an aspect of the Internet’s democratic and participatory potential – and a key point in the rhetoric surrounding the concept “web 2.0”. In this paper we analyse and compare media critical debates during two periods of media change in Sweden: A) the debate caused by the launch of the tabloid Expressen in the 1950’s, and B) the critique against the new, commercially driven participatory news- and debate forum called Newsmill, launched in 2008. These historical and contemporary cases are used to enlighten a theoretical discussion about participatory online media’s potential for improving the conditions for citizens to act as media critics in a fruitful way. Both Expressen and Newsmill represent examples of journalistic innovations that affect surrounding media considerably. The result of the comparison point to a new dilemma related to the role of citizens as media critics in the digital age. The fact that the citizens themselves are now increasingly involved in the production of content, also puts them in a new role as defenders of the site that publish their content, against critics from traditional mass media.

  • 4.
    Jangdal, Lottie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Cepaite Nilsson, Asta
    Lunds universitet.
    Stúr, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Hyperlocal Journalism and PR: Diversity in Roles and Interactions2019In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 13, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperlocal media has repeatedly been framed as a potential saviour of local journalism, but the democratic and civic role that often is ascribed to hyperlocals is not obvious or uncomplicated. The hyperlocals’ vulnerable economic situation makes them dependent on free content, for example material produced by local councils or organizations. This paper investigates the role of hyperlocal media entrepreneurs and their interaction with local councils and other stakeholders. We examine how the hyperlocal media entrepreneurs supply their communities with news in places of a media void, and how they perceive their role in their communities. Findings from this qualitative study show that the media entrepreneurs view their news production as an important part of the local community. They provide a forum for debate and information for citizens, local governments and organizations. Their service also includes a channel for local events relevant for the community. The interactions with the local governments vary, as well as the hyperlocal entrepreneurs’ evaluation of how the information provided by the councils can or should be handled. The relation between hyperlocal media entrepreneurs and local governments is a complex process, including both interrelated and contradictory goals.

  • 5.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    What is Public Service on the Internet?: Digital Challenges for Media Policy in Europe2009In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 24-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all public broadcasters in Europe nowadays face serious challenges in order to remain as central media actors in dramatically changing media environments. Concepts that have recently come into the audiovisual scenario, such as digitalization, deregulation and convergence of the European media markets help to explain why many public service broadcasting companies have to fight for their survival. The main reasons are the more competitive media environment and the subtle, blurred lines among public and private broadcasting and other media platforms. The core challenge facing public service broadcasting today is the transition to public service media.

    Different media policy options are discussed in this paper. Firstly, an expansive strategy may be implemented, aimed at allowing public service to use public funds and license fees for Internet operations and also by accepting additional revenues such as sponsoring or advertising to secure online activities. Secondly, a preserving strategy is possible where public service may use its existing revenues freely on different media, but without receiving any extra money for Internet operations. Thirdly, policy makers may adopt a restricting strategy, accepting public service presence on the Net, but only with special kinds of content. Fourthly, it is possible to imagine a free-market strategy where public service on the Net is allowed as long as all its operations are financed by commercial revenues from the Internet activities.

  • 6.
    Nord, Lars W.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    The freedom of the press or the fear factor?: Analysing political decisions and non-decisions in British media policy 1990-20122015In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 001-016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The four British Prime Ministers giving testimony to the Leveson Inquiry choose not to confront the media on issues of large-scale media abuse. "A missed opportunity", John Major said. "I think you certainly do fear the power being directed at you", Tony Blair declared. "We had no mandate", Gordon Brown asserted. The relationship between the media and politicians "has become too close", David Cameron stated. How did this closeness come about? This article discusses the political actors' decisions and non-decisions with regard to possible media policy strategies in Britain during four different Prime Ministers in the period between 1990 and 2012. The four cases examine media policy goals, values, contexts and alternatives offered for every Prime Minister. Their testimonies to the Leveson Inquiry are used for a comparison of media policy decision strategies during the examined period. Copyright © 2015 (Lars W Nord and Torbjörn Von Krogh).

  • 7.
    Wadbring, Ingela
    et al.
    Nordicom University of Gothenburg.
    Ödmark, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Going Viral: News Sharing and Shared News in Social Media2016In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 132-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the advent of social media, news achieves a life of its own online. The media organisations partly lose control over the diffusion process, and simultaneously individuals gain power over the process, and become opinion leaders for others. This study focuses on news sharers and news shared (or rather, interacted), and has three RQ:s: 1) What characterizes the people who share news in social media, 2) Have the characteristics of interacted news changed over time? and 3) Are there differences between news content interacted by ordinary people and news highlighted by media organisations? Two different studies have been conducted: A representative survey and a quantitative content analysis.The main results are that the opinion leaders differ from the majority by being younger, with a greater political interest, single and more digital in their general lifestyle, both concerning news consumption and other aspects. The content analysis shows that the most interacted news on social media follow the traditional news values rather well, with a few exceptions. Most apparent is that interacted news is more positive over time and compared to print front-page news. Accidents and crime dominate print front-pages, while politics is more prominent in interacted news.

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