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  • 1.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, J.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Bianco, L.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Bradford, R.
    Adv Photon Source, Chicago, IL USA.
    Delfs, A.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Goettlicher, P.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Gronewald, M.
    Univ Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Henrich, B. H.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, H.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, S.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, R.
    Univ Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Krueger, H.
    Univ Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Perova, I.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, J.
    Univ Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, X.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Trunk, U.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, J.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    The adaptive gain integrating pixel detector2016Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikkel-id C02066Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive gain integrating pixel detector (AGIPD) is a development of a collaboration between Deustsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), the Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), the University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn. The detector is designed to cope with the demanding challenges of the European XFEL. Therefore it comes along with an adaptive gain stage allowing a high dynamic range, spanning from single photon sensitivity to 10(4) x 12.4 keV photons and 352 analogue memory cells per pixel. The aim of this report is to briefly explain the concepts of the AGIPD electronics and mechanics and then present recent experiments demonstrating the functionality of its key features.

  • 2.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, J.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Bianco, L.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, A.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Arino-Estrada, G.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Goettlicher, P.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, R.
    Univ Hamburg, Mittelweg 177, D-20148 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Krueger, H.
    Univ Bonn, D-53012 Bonn, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Poehlsen, J.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Rah, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, J.
    Univ Hamburg, Mittelweg 177, D-20148 Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, X.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, J.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Front end ASIC for AGIPD, a high dynamic range fast detector for the European XFEL2016Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id C01057Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is a hybrid pixel X-ray detector for the European-XFEL. One of the detector's important parts is the radiation tolerant front end ASIC fulfilling the European-XFEL requirements: high dynamic range-from sensitivity to single 12.5keV-photons up to 104 photons. It is implemented using the dynamic gain switching technique with three possible gains of the charge sensitive preamplifier. Each pixel can store up to 352 images in memory operated in random-access mode at >= 4.5MHz frame rate. An external vetoing may be applied to overwrite unwanted frames.

  • 3.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Becker, J.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Bianco, L.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Delfs, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Goettlicher, P.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Mid Sweden Univ, S-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Jack, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Klanner, R.
    Univ Hamburg, D-20148 Hamburg, Germany..
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Krueger, H.
    Univ Bonn, D-53012 Bonn, Germany..
    Lange, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Marras, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Mezza, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Rah, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Xia, Q.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, J.
    Univ Hamburg, D-20148 Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Shi, X.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Zhang, J.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    AGIPD, a high dynamic range fast detector for the European XFEL2015Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id C01023Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AGIPD-(Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector) is a hybrid pixel X-ray detector developed by a collaboration between Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn. The detector is designed to comply with the requirements of the European XFEL. The radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is designed with the following highlights: high dynamic range, spanning from single photon sensitivity up to 10(4) 12.5keV photons, achieved by the use of the dynamic gain switching technique using 3 possible gains of the charge sensitive preamplifier. In order to store the image data, the ASIC incorporates 352 analog memory cells per pixel, allowing also to store 3 voltage levels corresponding to the selected gain. It is operated in random-access mode at 4.5MHz frame rate. The data acquisition is done during the 99.4ms between the bunch trains. The AGIPD has a pixel area of 200 x 200 m m(2) and a 500 m m thick silicon sensor is used. The architecture principles were proven in different experiments and the ASIC characterization was done with a series of development prototypes. The mechanical concept was developed in the close contact with the XFEL beamline scientists and is now being manufactured. A first single module system was successfully tested at APS.

  • 4.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Bebb, R.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Berry, K.
    Instrument and Source Division, Spallation Neutron Source, United States.
    Birch, J.
    Linköping University.
    Bryś, T.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Buffet, J. -C
    Institute Laue Langevin, France.
    Clergeau, J. -F
    Institute Laue Langevin, France.
    Deen, P. P.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Ehlers, G.
    Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Spallation Neutron Source, United States.
    Van Esch, P.
    Institute Laue Langevin, France.
    Everett, S. M.
    Instrument and Source Division, Spallation Neutron Source, United States.
    Guerard, B.
    Institute Laue Langevin, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Herwig, K.
    Instrument and Source Division, Spallation Neutron Source, United States.
    Hultman, L.
    Linköping University.
    Höglund, C.
    Linköping University; European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Iruretagoiena, I.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Issa, F.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Jensen, J.
    Linköping University.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Kirstein, O.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Higuera, I. L.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Stefanescu, I.
    European Spallation Source, Lund.
    Multi-Grid detector for neutron spectroscopy: Results obtained on time-of-flight spectrometer CNCS2017Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, nr 4, artikkel-id P04030Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Grid detector technology has evolved from the proof-of-principle and characterisation stages. Here we report on the performance of the Multi-Grid detector, the MG.CNCS prototype, which has been installed and tested at the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer, CNCS at SNS. This has allowed a side-by-side comparison to the performance of 3He detectors on an operational instrument. The demonstrator has an active area of 0.2 m2. It is specifically tailored to the specifications of CNCS. The detector was installed in June 2016 and has operated since then, collecting neutron scattering data in parallel to the He-3 detectors of CNCS. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of this data, in particular on instrument energy resolution, rate capability, background and relative efficiency. Stability, gamma-ray and fast neutron sensitivity have also been investigated. The effect of scattering in the detector components has been measured and provides input to comparison for Monte Carlo simulations. All data is presented in comparison to that measured by the 3He detectors simultaneously, showing that all features recorded by one detector are also recorded by the other. The energy resolution matches closely. We find that the Multi-Grid is able to match the data collected by 3He, and see an indication of a considerable advantage in the count rate capability. Based on these results, we are confident that the Multi-Grid detector will be capable of producing high quality scientific data on chopper spectrometers utilising the unprecedented neutron flux of the ESS.

  • 5.
    Ashraf, Shakeel
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Rödjegard, Henrik
    SenseAir AB, Delsbo, Sweden.
    Integration of an interferometric IR absorber into an epoxy membrane based CO2 detector2014Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. Art. no. C05035-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of carbon dioxide levels in the environment are commonly performedby using non-dispersive infrared technology (NDIR). Thermopile detectors are often used in NDIRsystems because of their non-cooling advantages. The infrared absorber has a major influence onthe detector responsivity. In this paper, the fabrication of a SU-8 epoxy membrane based Al/Bithermopile detector and the integration of an interferometric infrared absorber structure of wavelength around 4 µ m into the detector is reported. The membrane of thermopile detector has beenutilized as a dielectric medium in an interferometric absorption structure. By doing so, a reduction in both thermal conductance and capacitance is achieved. In the fabrication of the thermopile,metal evaporation and lift off process had been used for the deposition of serially interconnectedAl/Bi thermocouples. Serial resistance of fabricated thermopile was measured as 220 kΩ. Theresponse of fabricated thermopile detector was measured using a visible to infrared source of radiation flux 3.23 mW mm−2. The radiation incident on the detector was limited using a band passfilter of wavelength 4.26 µ m in front of the detector. A responsivity of 27.86 V mm2W−1at roomtemperature was achieved using this setup. The fabricated detector was compared to a referencedetector with a broad band absorber. From the comparison it was concluded that the integratedinterferometric absorber is functioning correctly.

  • 6. Ballabriga, R.
    et al.
    Blaj, G.
    Campbell, M.
    Fiederle, M.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Heijne, E. H. M.
    Llopart, X.
    Plackett, R.
    Procz, S.
    Tlustos, L.
    Turecek, D.
    Wong, Winnie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Characterization of the Medipix3 pixel readout chip2011Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Ballabriga, Rafael
    et al.
    Cern.
    Alozy, Jerome
    Cern.
    Campbell, Michael
    Cern.
    Fiederle, Michael
    FMF Frieburg.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Heijne, E H M
    Cern.
    Blaj, Gabriel
    Slac.
    Llopart, Xavier
    Cern.
    Pichotka, M
    Procz, Simon
    FMF Frieburg.
    Tlustos, Lukas
    Cern.
    Wong, Winnie
    Cern.
    The Medipix3RX: a high resolution, zero dead-time pixel detector readout chip allowing spectroscopic imaging2013Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. C02016-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Medipix3 chips have been designed to permit spectroscopic imaging in highly segmented hybrid pixel detectors. Spectral degradation due to charge sharing in the sensor has been addressed by means of an architecture in which adjacent pixels communicate in the analog and digital domains on an event-by-event basis to reconstruct the deposited charge in a neighbourhood prior to the assignation of the hit to a single pixel. The Medipix3RX chip architecture is presented. The first results for the characterization of the chip with 300 μm thick Si sensors are given. ~ 72e− r.m.s. noise and ~ 40e− r.m.s. of threshold dispersion after chip equalization have been measured in Single Pixel Mode of operation. The homogeneity of the image in Charge Summing mode is comparable to the Single Pixel Mode image. This demonstrates both modes are suitable for X-ray imaging applications.

  • 8.
    Becker, J.
    et al.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Bianco, L.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut(PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Göttlicher, P.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut(PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Gronewald, M.
    University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany .
    Henrich, B. H.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut(PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Hirsemann, H.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Jack, S.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Klanner, R.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany .
    Krüger, H.
    University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany .
    Klyuev, A.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Lange, S.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Marras, A.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut(PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut(PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Schwandt, J.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany .
    Sheviakov, I.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Shi, X.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut(PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Trunk, U.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Zimmer, M.
    DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Zhang, J.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany .
    High speed cameras for X-rays: AGIPD and others2013Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. Art. no. C01042-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments at high pulse rate Free Electron Laser (FEL) facilities require new cameras capable of acquiring 2D images at high rates, handling large signal dynamic ranges and resolving images from individual pulses. The Adaptive Gain Integrated Pixel Detector (AGIPD) will operated with pulse rates and separations of 27000/s and 220 ns, respectively at European XFEL. Si-sensors, ASICs, PCBs, and FPGA logic are developed for a 1 Mega-pixel camera with 200 μm square pixels with per-pulse occupancies 104. Data from 3520 images/s will be transferred with 80 Gbits/s to a DAQ-system. The electronics have been adapted for use in other synchrotron light source detectors. 

  • 9.
    Becker, J.
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Marras, A.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Westermeier, F.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Performance tests of an AGIPD 0.4 assembly at the beamline P10 of PETRA III2013Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. Art. no. P06007-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is a novel detector system, currently under development by a collaboration of DESY, the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, the University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn, and is primarily designed for use at the European XFEL. To verify key features of this detector, an AGIPD 0.4 test chip assembly was tested at the P10 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron at DESY. The test chip successfully imaged both the direct synchrotron beam and single 7.05 keV photons at the same time, demonstrating the large dynamic range required for XFEL experiments. X-ray scattering measurements from a test sample agree with standard measurements and show the chip's capability of observing dynamics at the microsecond time scale.

  • 10.
    Becker, J.
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Pennicard, D.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    The detector simulation toolkit HORUS2012Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. Art. no. C10009-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, X-ray detectors used and developed at synchrotron sources and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have become increasing powerful and versatile. However, as the capabilities of modern X-ray cameras grew so did their complexity and therefore their response functions are far from trivial. Since understanding the detecting system and its behavior is vital for any physical experiment, the need for dedicated powerful simulation tools arose. The HPAD Output Response fUnction Simulator (HORUS) was originally developed to analyze the performance implications of certain design choices for the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) and over the years grew to a more universal detector simulation toolkit covering the relevant physics in the energy range from below 1 keV to a few hundred keV. HORUS has already been used to study possible improvements of the AGIPD for X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) at the European XFEL and its performance at low beam energies. It is currently being used to study the optimum detector layout for Coherent Diffration Imaging (CDI) at the European XFEL. Simulations of the charge summing mode of the Medipix3 chip have been essential for the improvements of the charge summing mode in the Medipix3 RX chip. HORUS is universal enough to support arbitrary hybrid pixel detector systems (within limitations). To date, the following detector systems are predefined within HORUS: The AGIPD, the Large Pixel Detector (LPD), the Cornell-Stanford Pixel Array Detector (CSPAD), the Mixed-Mode (MMPAD) and KEKPAD, and the Medipix2, Medipix3 and Medipix3 RX chips. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

  • 11.
    Birch, J
    et al.
    Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Buffet, J-C
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Clergeau, J F
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Van Esch, P
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Ferraton, M
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Guerard, B
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Hall-Wilton, R
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallation Source, P.O Box 176, Lund, Sweden.
    Hultman, L
    Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Höglund, C
    Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jensen, J
    Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Khaplanov, A
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Piscitelli, F
    Institute Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, France.
    Investigation of background in large-area neutron detectors due to alpha emission from impurities in aluminium2015Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, nr 10, artikkel-id P10019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal neutron detector based on films of 10B4C have been developed as an alternative to 3He detectors. In particular, The Multi-Grid detector concept is considered for future large area detectors for ESS and ILL instruments. An excellent signal-to-background ratio is essential to attain expected scientific results. Aluminium is the most natural material for the mechanical structure of of the Multi-Grid detector and other similar concepts due to its mechanical and neutronic properties. Due to natural concentration of α emitters, however, the background from α particles misidentified as neutrons can be unacceptably high. We present our experience operating a detector prototype affected by this issue. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to confirm the background as α particles. The issues have been addressed in the more recent implementations of the Multi-Grid detector by the use of purified aluminium as well as Ni-plating of standard aluminium. The result is the reduction in background by two orders of magnitude. A new large-area prototype has been built incorporating these modifications.

  • 12.
    Campbell, M.
    et al.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Alozy, J.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Ballabriga, R.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Heijne, E.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Llopart, X.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Poikela, T.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Tlustos, L.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Valerio, P.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Wong, W.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips2016Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id C01007Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile-ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  • 13.
    Christensen, M. J.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Shelly, M.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nilsson, J.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mukai, A.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Al Jebali, R.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Glasgow Univ, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Lupberger, M.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Messi, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Lund Univ, Lund.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Blum, T.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sogaard, C.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skelboe, S.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Richter, T.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Software-based data acquisition and processing for neutron detectors at European Spallation Source-early experience from four detector designs2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, nr 11, artikkel-id T11002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    European Spallation Source (ESS) will deliver neutrons at high flux for use in diverse neutron scattering techniques. The neutron source facility and the scientific instruments will be located in Lund, and the Data Management and Software Centre (DMSC), in Copenhagen. A number of detector prototypes are being developed at ESS together with its European in-kind partners, for example: SoNDe, Multi-Grid, Multi-Blade and Gd-GEM. These are all position sensitive detectors but use different techniques for the detection of neutrons. Except for digitization of electronics readout, all neutron data is anticipated to be processed in software. This provides maximum flexibility and adaptability and allows deep inspection of the raw data for commissioning which will reduce the risk of starting up new detector technologies. But it also requires development of high performance software processing pipelines and optimized and scalable processing algorithms. This report provides a description of the ESS system architecture for the neutron data path. Special focus is on the interface between the detectors and DMSC which is based on UDP over Ethernet links. The report also describes the software architecture for detector data processing and the tools we have developed, which have proven very useful for efficient early experimentation, and can be run on a single laptop. Processing requirements for the SoNDe, Multi-Grid, Multi-Blade and Ge-GEM detectors are presented and compared to event processing rates archived so far.

  • 14.
    Correa, J.
    et al.
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Bayer, M.
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Göttlicher, P.
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Niemann, M.
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Reza, Salim
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Shevyakov, I
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Smoljanin, S
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Tennert, M
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Viti, M
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Wunderer, C
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Characterisation of a PERCIVAL monolithic active pixel prototype using synchrotron radiation2016Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikkel-id C02090Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PERCIVAL ("Pixelated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile And Large") is a monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) based on CMOS technology. Is being developed by DESY, RAL/STFC, Elettra, DLS, and PAL to address the various requirements of detectors at synchrotron radiation sources and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) in the soft X-ray regime. These requirements include high frame rates and FELs base-rate compatibility, large dynamic range, single-photon counting capability with low probability of false positives, high quantum efficiency (QE), and (multi-)megapixel arrangements with good spatial resolution. Small-scale back-side-illuminated (BSI) prototype systems are undergoing detailed testing with X-rays and optical photons, in preparation of submission of a larger sensor. A first BSI processed prototype was tested in 2014 and a preliminary result—first detection of 350eV photons with some pixel types of PERCIVAL—reported at this meeting a year ago. Subsequent more detailed analysis revealed a very low QE and pointed to contamination as a possible cause. In the past year, BSI-processed chips on two more wafers were tested and their response to soft X-ray evaluated. We report here the improved charge collection efficiency (CCE) of different PERCIVAL pixel types for 400eV soft X-rays together with Airy patterns, response to a flat field, and noise performance for such a newly BSI-processed prototype sensor.

  • 15.
    Correa, J.
    et al.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Wunderer, C.B.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Göttlicher, P.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Reza, Salim
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Shevyakov, I.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Tennert, M.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Niemann, M.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Hirsemann, H.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Smoljanin, S.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Supra, J.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Allahgholi, A.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Germany.
    Gloskovskii, A.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Viefhaus, J.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Scholz, F.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Seltmann, J.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Klumpp, S.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    Cautero, G.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Giuressi, D.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Khromova, A.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy; Università degli Studi di Trieste, Italy.
    Menk, R.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Pinaroli, G.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy; Università degli Studi di Udine, Italy.
    Stebel, L.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Rinaldi, S.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Zema, N.
    Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Italy.
    Catone, D.
    Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Italy.
    Pedersen, U.
    DLS (Diamond Light Source), U.K..
    Tartoni, N.
    DLS (Diamond Light Source), U.K..
    Guerrini, N.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), U.K..
    Marsh, B.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), U.K..
    Sedgwick, I.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), U.K..
    Nicholls, T.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), U.K..
    Turchetta, R.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory), U.K..
    Hyun, H.J.
    PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory), Korea.
    Kim, K.S.
    PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory), Korea.
    Rah, S.Y.
    PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory), Korea.
    Hoenk, M.E.
    Jet Prop Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, U.S.A..
    Jewell, A.D.
    Jet Prop Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, U.S.A..
    Jones, T.J.
    Jet Prop Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, U.S.A..
    Nikzad, .
    Jet Prop Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, U.S.A..
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Germany.
    On the Charge Collection Efficiency of the PERCIVAL Detector2016Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, nr 12, artikkel-id C12032Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The PERCIVAL soft X-ray imager is being developed by DESY, RAL, Elettra, DLS, and PAL to address the challenges at high brilliance Light Sources such as new-generation Synchrotrons and Free Electron Lasers. Typical requirements for detector systems at these sources are high frame rates, large dynamic range, single-photon counting capability with low probability of false positives, high quantum efficiency, and (multi)-mega-pixel arrangements. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active pixel sensor, based on CMOS technology. It is designed for the soft X-ray regime and, therefore, it is post-processed in order to achieve high quantum efficiency in its primary energy range (250 eV to 1 keV) . This work will report on the latest experimental results on charge collection efficiency obtained for multiple back-side-illuminated test sensors during two campaigns, at the P04 beam-line at PETRA III, and the CiPo beam-line at Elettra, spanning most of the primary energy range as well as testing the performance for photon-energies below 250 eV . In addition, XPS surface analysis was used to cross-check the obtained results.

  • 16.
    De Gaspari, Massimiliano
    et al.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Alozy, Jerome
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Ballabriga, Rafael
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Campbell, Michael
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Idarraga, John
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Kulis, S
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Llopart, Xavier
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Poikela, Toumas
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Valerio, P
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Wong, Winnie
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Design of the analog front-end for the Timepix3 and Smallpix hybrid pixel detectors in 130 nm CMOS technology2014Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, s. Art. no. C01037-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a front-end for hybrid pixel readout chips, which was developed for the Timepix3 and Smallpix ASICs. The front-end contains a single-ended preamplifier with a structure for leakage current compensation which can handle both signal polarities, and a single-threshold discriminator with compensation for pixel-to-pixel mismatch. Preamplifier and discriminator are required to be fast, to allow a Time-Of-Arrival (TOA) measurement with a resolution of 1.56 ns. Time-Over-Threshold (TOT) is also measured; the monotonicity of TOT with respect to the input charge is greatly improved as compared to the previous Timepix chip. The analog area is only 55 μm × 13.5 μm. Timepix3 has already been fabricated and the first test results are also presented in this paper.

  • 17.
    Dian, E.
    et al.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Zagyvai, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Suppression of intrinsic neutron background in the Multi-Grid detector2019Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, artikkel-id P01021Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key requirements for neutron scattering instruments is the Signal-toBackground ratio (SBR). This is as well a design driving requirement for many instruments at the European Spallation Source (ESS), which aspires to be the brightest neutron source of the world. The SBR can be effectively improved with background reduction. The Multi-Grid, a large-area thermal neutron detector with a solid boron carbide converter, is a novel solution for chopper spectrometers. This detector will be installed for the three prospective chopper spectrometers at the ESS. As the Multi-Grid detector is a large area detector with a complex structure, its intrinsic background and its suppression via advanced shielding design should be investigated in its complexity, as it cannot be naively calculated. The intrinsic scattered neutron background and its effect on the SBR is determined via a detailed Monte Carlo simulation for the Multi-Grid detector module, designed for the CSPEC instrument at the ESS. The impact of the detector vessel and the neutron entrance window on scattering is determined, revealing the importance of an optimised internal detector shielding. The background-reducing capacity of common shielding geometries, like side-shielding and end-shielding is determined by using perfect absorber as shielding material, and common shielding materials, like B4C and Cd are also tested. On the basis of the comparison of the effectiveness of the different shielding topologies and materials, recommendations are given for a combined shielding of the Multi-Grid detector module, optimised for increased SBR.

  • 18.
    Dreier, Till
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Krapohl, David
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Maneuski, Dzimitry
    School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Schöwerling, Jan Oliver
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences, Osnabrück, Germany.
    O'Shea, Val
    School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    A USB 3.0 readout system for Timepix3 detectors with on-board processing capabilities2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, artikkel-id C11017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Timepix3 is a high-speed hybrid pixel detector consisting of a 256 x 256 pixel matrix with a maximum data rate of up to 5.12 Gbps (80 MHit/s). The ASIC is equipped with eight data channels that are data driven and zero suppressed making it suitable for particle tracking and spectral imaging.

    In this paper, we present a USB 3.0-based programmable readout system with online preprocessing capabilities. USB 3.0 is present on all modern computers and can, under real-world conditions, achieve around 320MB/s, which allows up to 40 MHit/s of raw pixel data. With on-line processing, the proposed readout system is capable of achieving higher transfer rate (approaching Timepix4) since only relevant information rather than raw data will be transmitted. The system is based on an Opal Kelly development board with a Spartan 6 FPGA providing a USB 3.0 interface between FPGA and PC via an FX3 chip. It connects to a CERN T imepix 3 chipboard with standard VHDCI connector via a custom designed mezzanine card. The firmware is structured into blocks such as detector interface, USB interface and system control and an interface for data pre-processing. On the PC side, a Qt/C++ multi-platformsoftware library is implemented to control the readout system, providing access to detector functions and handling high-speed USB 3.0 streaming of data from the detector.

    We demonstrate equalisation, calibration and data acquisition using a Cadmium Telluride sensor and optimise imaging data using simultaneous ToT (Time-over-Threshold) and ToA (Timeof- Arrival) information. The presented readout system is capable of other on-line processing such as analysis and classification of nuclear particles with current or larger FPGAs.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2019-12-11 15:36
  • 19.
    Esebamen, Omeime
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Surface State Effects on N+P Doped Electron Detector2011Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. Art. no. C12019-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface states and interface recombination velocity that exist between detector interfaces have always been known to affect the performance of a detector. This article describes how the detector performance varies when the doping profile is altered. When irradiated with electrons, the results show that while changes in the doping profile have an effect of the detector responsivity with respect to the interface recombination velocity

    Vs, there is no visible effect with respect tofixed oxide charge

    Qfotherwise known as interface fixed charge density.

  • 20.
    Esebamen, Omeime X.
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Krapohl, David
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    High resolution, low energy electron detector2011Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. Art. no. P01001-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron detection at low energy range for scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron capture detector and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) applications, require detectors with high sensitivity and accuracy for low energy range. Such detectors must therefore have a thin entrance window and low recombination at the Si-SiO2 interface. An electron detector with 100 photons to electron-hole pair production rate having a 10 nm SiO2 passivating layer reveals a responsivity of approximately 0.25 A/W when irradiated. Simulations results showing the responsivity of electron interaction between detectors of varied interface fixed oxide charge density Qf show that there is an appreciable difference with the responsivity of a p +n detector and that of an n+p. The simulation results also show the significance of the effect of the minority carriers transport velocity Sn,p on the responsivity of the detector. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

  • 21.
    Fröjdh, Anna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Thungstrom, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Frojdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    An optimized system for measurement of radon levels in buildings by spectroscopic measurement of radon progeny2011Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, nr 12, s. art. no. C12018-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radon gas, Rn-222, is a problem in many buildings. The radon gas is not harmful in itself, but the decay chain contains charged elements such as Po-218, and Po-214 ions which have a tendency to stick to the lungs when inhaled. Alpha particles from the decay of these ions cause damages to the lungs and increase the risk of lung cancer. The recent reduction in the limits for radon levels in buildings call for new simple and efficient measurement tools [1]. The system has been optimized through modifications of the detector size, changes to the filters and the design of the chamber. These changes increase the electric field in the chamber and the detection efficiency.

  • 22.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, Geneva, Switzerland .
    Ballabriga, R.
    CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, Geneva, Switzerland .
    Campbell, M.
    CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, Geneva, Switzerland .
    Fiederle, M.
    Institute of Photon Science and Synchrotrom Radiation, ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility Karlsruhe, Institute of Technology KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany .
    Hamann, E.
    Institute of Photon Science and Synchrotrom Radiation, ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility Karlsruhe, Institute of Technology KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany .
    Koenig, T.
    Institute of Photon Science and Synchrotrom Radiation, ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility Karlsruhe, Institute of Technology KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany .
    Llopart, X.
    Institute of Photon Science and Synchrotrom Radiation, ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility Karlsruhe, Institute of Technology KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany .
    Magalhaes, D. D. P.
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory LNLS, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas - SP, Brazil .
    Zuber, M.
    Institute of Photon Science and Synchrotrom Radiation, ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility Karlsruhe, Institute of Technology KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany .
    Count rate linearity and spectral response of the Medipix3RX chip coupled to a 300μm silicon sensor under high flux conditions2014Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. Art. no. C04028-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For clinical X-ray imaging, the detector performance under high flux conditions is very important, with typical flux rates for modern CT systems reaching 109 photons s-1 mm-2 in the direct beam. In addition, for spectral imaging a good energy resolution under these conditions is needed. This poses difficulties, since pulse pileup in the pixel electronics does not only affect the count rate, leading to a deviation from the otherwise linear behavior, but also degrades the spectral response of the detector, making k-edge subtraction and other contrast enhancement techniques less efficient. In this paper, we investigate the count rate capabilities and the energy response of the Medipix3RX chip under high flux conditions using 10 keV monochromatic photons. © CERN 2014.

  • 23.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland..
    Campbell, M.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland..
    De Gaspari, M.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland..
    Kulis, S.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland..
    Llopart, X.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland..
    Poikela, T.
    Turku Cerntre Comp Sci, Turku 20520, Finland.
    Tlustos, L.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.;Univ Freiburg, D-79098 Freiburg, Germany..
    Timepix3: first measurements and characterization of a hybrid-pixel detector working in event driven mode2015Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, artikkel-id C01039Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Timepix3 is a hybrid pixel detector readout chip. It features a data driven readout mode where the chip sends out a data packet containing pixel coordinate, time over threshold and time of arrival immediately after the hit is processed by the pixel. The maximum hit rate is 40 Mhits/cm(2)/s with a minimum time step in the arrival time measurement of 1.56 ns. The pixel matrix consist of 256 x 256 square pixels at a 55 m m pitch and the pixel front end noise is 61 e(-) RMS. In this paper we present the first radiation measurements with Timepix3 bump bonded to a 300 m m thick silicon sensor. The chip is calibrated per pixel, using internal test pulses and the calibration is verified using X-ray fluorescence. The energy resolution, threshold dispersion and gain dispersion is measured. The energy resolution in time over threshold mode under normal operation conditions is 4.07 keV FWHM at 59.5 keV. At 10.5 keV an energy resolution of 0.72 keV FWHM was achieved in photon counting mode and in time over threshold mode, by optimizing the energy response, we achieved a 1.38 keV FWHM. We also investigate the time walk and present first results on using the time information for track reconstruction.

  • 24.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Gimenez, E
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.
    Maneuski, D
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Marchal, J
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    O'Shea, V
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Stewart, G
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Wilhelm, H
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.
    Modh Zain, R
    University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Depth of interaction and bias voltage dependence of the spectral response in a pixellated CdTe detector operating in time-over-threshold mode subjected to monochromatic X-rays2012Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. Art. no. C03002-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High stopping power is one of the most important figures of merit for X-ray detectors. CdTe is a promising material but suffers from: material defects, non-ideal charge transport and long range X-ray fluorescence. Those factors reduce the image quality and deteriorate spectral information. In this project we used a monochromatic pencil beam collimated through a 20Όm pinhole to measure the detector spectral response in dependance on the depth of interaction. The sensor was a 1mm thick CdTe detector with a pixel pitch of 110Όm, bump bonded to a Timepix readout chip operating in Time-Over-Threshold mode. The measurements were carried out at the Extreme Conditions beamline I15 of the Diamond Light Source. The beam was entering the sensor at an angle of ∌20 degrees to the surface and then passed through ∌25 pixels before leaving through the bottom of the sensor. The photon energy was tuned to 77keV giving a variation in the beam intensity of about three orders of magnitude along the beam path. Spectra in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode were recorded showing each individual interaction. The bias voltage was varied between -30V and -300V to investigate how the electric field affected the spectral information. For this setup it is worth noticing the large impact of fluorescence. At -300V the photo peak and escape peak are of similar height. For high bias voltages the spectra remains clear throughout the whole depth but for lower voltages as -50V, only the bottom part of the sensor carries spectral information. This is an effect of the low hole mobility and the longer range the electrons have to travel in a low field. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

  • 25.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    X-ray absorption and charge transport in a pixellated CdTe detector with single photon processing readout2011Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. Art. no. P02012-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The image forming process in a CdTe detector is both a function of the X-ray interaction in the material, including scattering and fluorescence, and the charge transport in the material [2-4]. The response to individual photons has been investigated using a CdTe detector with a pixel size of 110 m m, bonded to a TIMEPIX [5] readout chip operating in time over threshold mode. The device has been illuminated with mono-energetic photons generated by fluorescence in different metals and by gamma emission from Am-241 and Cs-137. Each interaction will result in charge distributed in a cluster of pixels where the total charge in the cluster should sum up to the initial photon energy. By looking at the individual clusters the response from shared photons as well as fluorescence photons can be identified and separated. By using energies below and above the K-edges of Cd and Te the contribution from fluorescence can be further isolated. The response is analyzed to investigate the effects of both charge diffusion and fluorescence on the spectral response in the detector.

  • 26.
    Galgoczi, G.
    et al.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Budapest, Hungary; Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Varga, D.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Investigation of neutron scattering in the Multi-Blade detector with Geant4 simulations2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, artikkel-id P12031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is the world's next generation spallation-based neutron source. The research conducted at ESS will yield in the discovery and development of new materials including the fields of manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, engines, plastics, energy, telecommunications, transportation, information technology and biotechnology. The spallation source will deliver an unprecedented neutron flux. In particular, the reflectometers selected for construction, ESTIA and FREIA, have to fulfill challenging requirements. Local incident peak rate can reach 10(5) Hz/mm(2). For new science to be addressed, the spatial resolution is aimed to be less than 1 mm with a desired scattering of 10(-4) (peak-to-tail ratio). The latter requirement is approximately two orders of magnitude better than the current state-of-the-art detectors. The main aim of this work is to quantify the cumulative contribution of various detector components to the scattering of neutrons and to prove that the respective effect is within the requirements set for the Multi-Blade detector by the ESS reflectometers. To this end, different sets of geometry and beam parameters are investigated, with primary focus on the cathode coating and the detector window thickness.

  • 27.
    George, S. P.
    et al.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Severino, C. T.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Murtas, F.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Silari, M.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Measurement of an accelerator based mixed field with a Timepix detector2015Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, artikkel-id P03005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of a high energy mixed field taken with a Timepix chip at the CERF facility at CERN. The Timepix is an active array of 65K energy measuring pixels which allows visualization and energy measurement of the tracks created by individual particles. This allows characteristics of interest such as the LET and angular distributions of the incoming tracks to be calculated, as well as broad morphological track categories based on pattern recognition techniques. We compute and compare LET-like and angular information for different morphological track categories. Morphological track categories are found to possess overlapping LET and energy spectra, however the approaches are found to be complementary with morphological clustering yielding information which is indistinguishable on the basis of LET alone. The use of the Timepix as an indirect monitoring device outside of the primary beam at CERF is briefly discussed.

  • 28.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    et al.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Becker, J.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Bianco, L.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Goettlicher, P.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, S.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, R.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany .
    Krüger, H.
    University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany .
    Marras, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany .
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Rah, S.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany .
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Schwandt, J.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany .
    Shi, X.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland .
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany .
    Zhang, J.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany .
    Optimization of the noise performance of the AGIPD prototype chips2013Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, nr 10, s. Art. no. P10022-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The charge integrating readout electronics AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) is a hybrid detector system developed for the European XFEL. It features a threefold dynamic gain switching to be able to resolve single photons and to cover a dynamic range of 104·12.4 keV photons. As a result of dynamic gain switching, single photon resolution will be achieved in the high gain stage, while the maximum dynamic range will be reached in the low gain stage. The specification to resolve single photons requires a signal-over-noise ratio of at least 10 for a single incoming photon with an energy of 12.4 keV. When using a silicon sensor, that translates to an equivalent noise charge of less than 343 e-. Several AGIPD prototype chips have been designed and characterized, particularly focusing on the noise performance. During the testing phase, the dominant noise sources were identified and the corresponding circuit blocks were improved in the subsequent ASICs. This paper reports on the procedures to identify the dominating noise sources, the optimization process of the circuit blocks and discusses the effect of the optimization on the noise performance.© 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

  • 29.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    et al.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLB/006, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland .
    Becker, J.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Bianco, L.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLB/006, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland .
    Goettlicher, P.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Jack, S.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Klanner, R.
    University of Hamburg, Mittelweg 177, 20148 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Krüger, H.
    University of Bonn, Regina-Pacis-Weg 3, 53012 Bonn, Germany .
    Lange, S.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Marras, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLB/006, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland .
    Rah, S.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLB/006, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland .
    Schwandt, J.
    University of Hamburg, Mittelweg 177, 20148 Hamburg, Germany .
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Shi, X.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLB/006, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland .
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Zhang, J.
    University of Hamburg, Mittelweg 177, 20148 Hamburg, Germany .
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Mezza, D.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLB/006, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland .
    Allahgholi, A.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLB/006, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland .
    Xia, Q.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Towards AGIPD1.0: Optimization of the dynamic range and investigation of a pixel input protection2014Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. Art. no. P06001-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AGIPD is a charge integrating, hybrid pixel readout ASIC, which is under development for the European XFEL [1,2]. A dynamic gain switching logic at the output of the preamplifier (preamp) is used to provide single photon resolution as well as covering a dynamic range of at least 104·12.4 keV photons [3,4]. Moreover, at each point of the dynamic range the electronics noise should be lower than the Poisson fluctuations, which is especially challenging at the points of gain switching. This paper reports on the progress of the chip design on the way to the first full-scale chip AGIPD1.0, focusing on the optimization of the dynamic range and the implementation of protection circuits at the preamplifier input to avoid pixel destruction due to high intense spots. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

  • 30.
    Kanaki, K.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Klausz, M.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Albani, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Cippo, E. Perelli
    Assoc EURATOM ENEA CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Jackson, A.
    European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Lund Univ, Lund.
    Jaksch, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum, Garching, Germany.
    Nielsen, T.
    European Spallation Source ERIC, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zagyvai, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Detector rates for the Small Angle Neutron Scattering instruments at the European Spallation Source2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, artikkel-id P07016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building the European Spallation Source (ESS), the most powerful neutron source in the world, requires significant technological advances at most fronts of instrument component design. Detectors are not an exception. The existing implementations at current neutron scattering facilities are at their performance limits and sometimes barely cover the scientific needs. At full operation the ESS will yield unprecedented neutron brilliance. This means that one of the most challenging aspects for the new detector designs is the increased rate capability and in particular the peak instantaneous rate capability, i.e. the number of neutrons hitting the detector per channel, pixel or cm(2) at the peak of the neutron pulse. This paper focuses on estimating the incident and detection rates that are anticipated for the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) instruments planned for ESS. Various approaches are applied and the results thereof are presented.

  • 31.
    Khromova, A.
    et al.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy; Università degli Studi di Trieste, Piazzale Europa, 1, 34128 Trieste, Italy .
    Cautero, G.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.
    Giuressi, D.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.
    Menk, R.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.
    Pinaroli, G.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.
    Stebel, L.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.
    Correa, J.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Luruper Ch. 149, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Luruper Ch. 149, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Wunderer, C.B.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Luruper Ch. 149, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Luruper Ch. 149, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Tennert, M.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Luruper Ch. 149, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Niemann, M.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Luruper Ch. 149, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Hirsemann, H.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Luruper Ch. 149, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Smoljanin, S.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Luruper Ch. 149, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Reza, Salim
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Göttlicher, P.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Shevyakov, I.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Supra, J.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Guerrini, N.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)/STFC, Didcot OX 11 OQX, U.K..
    Marsh, B.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)/STFC, Didcot OX 11 OQX, U.K..
    Sedgwick, I.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)/STFC, Didcot OX 11 OQX, U.K..
    Nicholls, .
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)/STFC, Didcot OX 11 OQX, U.K..
    Turchetta, R.
    RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)/STFC, Didcot OX 11 OQX, U.K..
    Pedersen, U.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste,Trieste, Italy; Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Università degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy; DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Hamburg, Germany; DLS (Diamond Light Source), Didcot OX 11 ODE, U.K.; RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)/STFC, Didcot OX 11 OQX, U.K.; PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory), Jigokro-127-beongil, 790 834 Pohang, Korea; j CALTECH, NASA Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91125 U.S.A. .
    Tartoni, N.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste,Trieste, Italy; Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Università degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy; DESY (Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron), Hamburg, Germany; CFEL (Center for Free-Electron Laser Science), Hamburg, Germany; DLS (Diamond Light Source), Didcot OX 11 ODE, U.K.; RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)/STFC, Didcot OX 11 OQX, U.K.; PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory), Jigokro-127-beongil, 790 834 Pohang, Korea; j CALTECH, NASA Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91125 U.S.A. .
    Hyun, H.J.
    PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory), Jigokro-127-beongil, 790 834 Pohang, Korea.
    Kim, K.S.
    PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory), Jigokro-127-beongil, 790 834 Pohang, Korea.
    Rah, S.Y.
    PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory), Jigokro-127-beongil, 790 834 Pohang, Korea.
    Hoenk, M.E.
    CALTECH, NASA Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91125 U.S.A..
    Jewell, A.D.
    CALTECH, NASA Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91125 U.S.A..
    Jones, T.J.
    CALTECH, NASA Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91125 U.S.A..
    Nikzad, J.
    CALTECH, NASA Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91125 U.S.A..
    Report on recent results of the PERCIVAL soft X-ray imager2016Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, nr November, artikkel-id C11020Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The PERCIVAL (Pixelated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile And Large) soft X-ray 2D imaging detector is based on stitched, wafer-scale sensors possessing a thick epi-layer, which together with back-thinning and back-side illumination yields elevated quantum efficiency in the photon energy range of 125–1000 eV. Main application fields of PERCIVAL are foreseen in photon science with FELs and synchrotron radiation. This requires high dynamic range up to 105 ph @ 250 eV paired with single photon sensitivity with high confidence at moderate frame rates in the range of 10–120 Hz. These figures imply the availability of dynamic gain switching on a pixel-by-pixel basis and a highly parallel, low noise analog and digital readout, which has been realized in the PERCIVAL sensor layout. Different aspects of the detector performance have been assessed using prototype sensors with different pixel and ADC types. This work will report on the recent test results performed on the newest chip prototypes with the improved pixel and ADC architecture. For the target frame rates in the 10–120 Hz range an average noise floor of 14e− has been determined, indicating the ability of detecting single photons with energies above 250 eV. Owing to the successfully implemented adaptive 3-stage multiple-gain switching, the integrated charge level exceeds 4 centerdot 106 e− or 57000 X-ray photons at 250 eV per frame at 120 Hz. For all gains the noise level remains below the Poisson limit also in high-flux conditions. Additionally, a short overview over the updates on an oncoming 2 Mpixel (P2M) detector system (expected at the end of 2016) will be reported.

  • 32.
    Kok, A.
    et al.
    SINTEF ICT, Dept Microsyst & Nanotechnol, Oslo, Norway.
    Kohout, Z.
    Czech Tech Univ, Inst Expt & Appl Phys, Prague 12800, Czech Republic.
    Hansen, T. -E
    SINTEF ICT, Dept Microsyst & Nanotechnol, Oslo, Norway.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Czech Tech Univ, Inst Expt & Appl Phys, Prague 12800, Czech Republic.
    Pospisil, S.
    Czech Tech Univ, Inst Expt & Appl Phys, Prague 12800, Czech Republic.
    Rokne, J.
    Oslo & Akershus Univ, Coll Appl Sci, Dept Ind Dev, Oslo, Norway.
    Slavicek, T.
    Czech Tech Univ, Inst Expt & Appl Phys, Prague 12800, Czech Republic.
    Soligard, S.
    Oslo & Akershus Univ, Coll Appl Sci, Dept Ind Dev, Oslo, Norway.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Vykydal, Z.
    Czech Tech Univ, Inst Expt & Appl Phys, Prague 12800, Czech Republic.
    Silicon sensors with pyramidal structures for neutron imaging2014Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, s. Art. no. C04011-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron detection is a valuable tool in nuclear science research, homeland security, quality assurance in nuclear plants and medical applications. Recent developments and near future instrumentations in neutron imaging have a need for sensors with high spatial resolution, dynamic range, sensitivity and background discrimination. Silicon based neutron detectors can potentially fulfil these requirements. In this work, pad and pixel detectors with pyramidal micro-structures have been successfully fabricated that should have an improved detection efficiency when compared to conventional planar devices. Titanium di-boride (TiB2) and lithium fluoride (LiF) were deposited as the neutron converters. Excellent electrical performances were measured on both simple pad and pixel detectors. A selection of pad detectors was examined by alpha spectroscopy. Measurement with thermal neutrons from a 241Am-Be source shows an improvement in relative efficiency of up to 38% when compared to conventional planar devices.

  • 33.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Esebamen, Omeime Xerviar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Simulation and measurement of short infrared pulses on silicon position sensitive device2011Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 6, nr C01036Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral position sensitive devices (PSD) are important for triangulation, alignment and surface measurements as well as for angle measurements. Large PSDs show a delay on rising and falling edges when irradiated with near infra-red light [1]. This delay is also dependent on the spot position relative to the electrodes. It is however desirable in most applications to have a fast response. We investigated the responsiveness of a Sitek PSD in a mixed mode simulation of a two dimensional full sized detector. For simulation and measurement purposes focused light pulses with awavelength of 850 nm, duration of 1 µs and spot size of 280 µm were used. The cause for the slopes of rise and fall time is due to time constants of the device capacitance as well as the photo- generation mechanism itself [1]. To support the simulated results, we conducted measurements of rise and fall times on a physical device. Additionally, we quantified the homogeneity of the device by repositioning a spot of light from a pulsed ir-laser diode on the surface area.

  • 34.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Maneuski, D
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom .
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Investigation of charge collection in a CdTe-Timepix detector2013Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, nr May, s. Art. no. C05003-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy calibration of CdTe detectors is usually done using known reference sources disregarding the exact amount of charge that is collected in the pixels. However, to compare detector and detector model the quantity of charge collected is needed. We characterize the charge collection in a CdTe detector comparing test pulses, measured data and an improved TCAD simulation model [1]. The 1 mm thick detector is bump-bonded to a TIMEPIX chip and operating in Time-over-Threshold (ToT) mode. The resistivity in the simulation was adjusted to match the detector properties setting a deep intrinsic donor level [2]. This way it is possible to adjust properties like trap concentration, electron/hole lifetime and mobility in the simulation characterizing the detector close to measured data cite [3].

  • 35.
    Krapohl, David
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Petersson, Sture
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Pospisil, S
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP), Czech Technical University, Horskà 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.
    Slavicek, Tomas
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Simulation of a silicon neutron detector coated with TiB 2 absorber2012Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. Art. no. C01096-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron radiation cannot be directly detected in semiconductor detectors and therefore needs converter layers. Planar clean-room processing can be used in the manufacturing process of semiconductor detectors with metal layers to produce a cost-effective device. We used the Geant4 Monte-Carlo toolkit to simulate the performance of a semiconductor neutron detector. A silicon photo-diode was coated with vapour deposited titanium, aluminium thin films and a titaniumdiboride (TiB 2) neutron absorber layer. The neutron capture reaction 10B(n, alpha)7Li is taken advantage of to create charged particles that can be counted. Boron-10 has a natural abundance of about SI 19.8%. The emitted alpha particles are absorbed in the underlying silicon detector. We varied the thickness of the converter layer and ran the simulation with a thermal neutron source in order to find the best efficiency of the TiB 2 converter layer and optimize the clean room process. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

  • 36.
    Maneuski, D.
    et al.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Astromskas, V
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Gimenez, E
    Diamond Light Source Ltd., Oxfordshire, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.
    Marchal, J
    Diamond Light Source Ltd., Oxfordshire, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.
    O'Shea, V
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Stewart, G.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Tartoni, N
    Diamond Light Source Ltd., Oxfordshire, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.
    Wilhelm, H.
    Diamond Light Source Ltd., Oxfordshire, Didcot OX11 0DE, United Kingdom.
    Wraight, K
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Zain, R
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
    Imaging and spectroscopic performance studies of pixellated CdTe Timepix detector2012Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. Art. no. C01038-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the results on imaging and spectroscopic performances of 14 × 14 × 1 mm CdTe detectors with 55 × 55Όm and 110 × 110Όm pixel pitch bump-bonded to a Timepix chip are presented. The performance of the 110 × 110Όm pixel detector was evaluated at the extreme conditions beam line I15 of the Diamond Light Source. The energy of X-rays was set between 25 and 77 keV. The beam was collimated through the edge slits to 20Όm FWHM incident in the middle of the pixel. The detector was operated in the time-over-threshold mode, allowing direct energy measurement. Energy in the neighbouring pixels was summed for spectra reconstruction. Energy resolution at 77 keV was found to be ΔE/E = 3.9%. Comparative imaging and energy resolution studies were carried out between two pixel size detectors with a fluorescence target X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The 110 × 110Όm pixel detector exhibited systematically better energy resolution in comparison to 55 × 55Όm. An imaging performance of 55 × 55Όm pixellated CdTe detector was assessed using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) technique and compared to the larger pixel. A considerable degradation in MTF was observed for bias voltages below -300 V. Significant room for improvement of the detector performance was identified both for imaging and spectroscopy and is discussed. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

  • 37.
    Margato, L. M. S.
    et al.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Fis, LIP Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004516 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Morozov, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Blanco, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Fonte, P.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Coimbra Polytech ISEC, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Fraga, F. A. F.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Guerard, B.
    ILL Inst Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund; Linköping Univ, Linköping.
    Mangiarotti, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund; IHI Ionbond AG, Olten, Switzerland.
    Zeitelhack, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Garching, Germany.
    Boron-10 lined RPCs for sub-millimeter resolution thermal neutron detectors: Feasibility study in a thermal neutron beam2019Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikkel-id P01017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of an experimental feasibility study of a position sensitive thermal neutron detector based on a resistive plate chamber (RPC) are presented. The detector prototype features a thin-gap (0.35 mm) hybrid RPC with an aluminium cathode and a float glass anode. The cathode is lined with a 2 mu m thick (B4C)-B-10 neutron converter enriched in B-10. A detection efficiency of 6.2% is measured at the neutron beam (lambda = 2.5 angstrom) for normal incidence. A spatial resolution better than 0.5 mm FWHM is demonstrated.

  • 38.
    Maslik, Jan
    et al.
    Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    PEDOT:PSS temperature sensor ink-jet printed on paper substrate2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, artikkel-id C12010Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present an ink-jet printed temperature sensor consisting of PEDOT:PSSprinted on paper suitable for packaging, flexible electronics and other printed applications. Thesubstrate showed to have a large influence on both the resistance aswell as the temperature sensitivityof the PEDOT:PSS ink. This effect is most likely due to NaCl content in the photo paper coating,which reacts with the PEDOT:PSS. The temperature coefficient of a prepared device of  α= -0.030 relative to room temperature (22°C) was measured, which is higher than compared to for exampleSilicon α = -0.075.

  • 39.
    Mauri, G.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund; Univ Perugia, Dept Phys, Perugia, Italy.
    Messi, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund; Lund University, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Karnickis, E.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC Lund.
    Fast neutron sensitivity of neutron detectors based on Boron-10 converter layers2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, nr 3, artikkel-id P03004Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years many detector technologies for thermal neutron detection have been developed in order to face the shortage of He-3, which is now much less available and more expensive. Moreover the He-3-based detectors can not fulfil the requirements in performance, e.g. the spatial resolution and the counting rate capability needed for the new instruments. The Boron-10-based gaseous detectors have been proposed as a suitable choice. This and other alternative technologies are being developed at ESS. Higher intensities mean higher signals but higher background as well. The signal-to-background ratio is an important feature to study, in particular the gamma-ray and the fast neutron contributions. This paper investigates, for the first time, the fast neutrons sensitivity of B-10-based thermal neutron detector. It presents the study of the detector response as a function of energy threshold and the underlying physical mechanisms. The latter are explained with the help of theoretical considerations and simulations.

  • 40.
    Mezza, D.
    et al.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLC/001, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Allahgholi, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLC/001, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Goettlicher, P.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLC/001, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Laurus, T.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLC/001, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Perova, I.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Poehlsen, J.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLC/001, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, X.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLC/001, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, J.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), OFLC/001, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron (DESY), Notkestr. 85, Hamburg, Germany.
    New calibration circuitry and concept for AGIPD2016Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikkel-id C11019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) is a detector system developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU), which is currently being constructed in Hamburg, Germany. The XFEL.EU will operate with bunch trains at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Each train consists of 2700 bunches with a temporal separation of 220 ns corresponding to a rate of 4.5 MHz. Each photon pulse has a duration of < 100 fs (rms) and contains up to 1012 photons in an energy range between 0.25 and 25 keV . In order to cope with the large dynamic range, the first stage of each bump-bonded AGIPD ASIC is a charge sensitive preamplifier with three different gain settings that are dynamically switched during the charge integration. Dynamic gain switching allows single photon resolution in the high gain stage and can cover a dynamic range of 104 × 12.4 keV photons in the low gain stage. The burst structure of the bunch trains forces to have an intermediate in-pixel storage of the signals. The full scale chip has 352 in-pixel storage cells inside the pixel area of 200 × 200 μm2. This contribution will report on the measurements done with the new calibration circuitry of the AGIPD1.1 chip (without sensor). These results will be compared with the old version of the chip (AGIPD1.0). A new calibration method (that is not AGIPD specific) will also be shown.

  • 41.
    Norlin, Börje
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Spectral X-ray imaging with single photon processing detectors2013Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, s. Art. no. C02010-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral X-ray imaging with single photon processing detectors gains substantial interest for many applications. In this paper we discuss fundamental parameters as contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and spectral response as a function of the material in the object. Image properties have been simulated for different photon energies using MCNP5, assuming an ideal detector with 32 x 32 pixels. Simulations are supported by experimental results obtained with detectors from the MEDIPIX family. The CNR is strongly dependent on the number of incident photons and the number of photons absorbed in the object. The requirement for substantial absorption in the object limits the range of useful photon energies. In most cases the CNR is improved when high energy photons are removed from the spectrum. Materials can be uniquely identified or layers of different materials can be separated provided that there is a substantial difference in their spectral X-ray absorption. In most cases an absorption edge in the spectrum is needed to obtain good results. Several examples of material identification and material separation are discussed.

  • 42.
    Norlin, Börje
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Reza, Salim
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Nordin, T.
    Process Technology Department, MoRe Research, Örnsköldsvik.
    Precision scan-imaging for paperboard quality inspection utilizing X-ray fluorescence2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id C01021Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Paperboard is typically made up of a core of cellulose fibers [C6H10O5] and a coating layer of [CaCO3]. The uniformity of these layers is a critical parameter for the printing quality. Current quality control methods include chemistry based visual inspection methods as well as X-ray based methods to measure the coating thickness. In this work we combine the X-ray fluorescence signals from the Ca atoms (3.7 keV) in the coating and from a Cu target (8.0 keV) placed behind the paper to simultaneously measure both the coating and the fibers. Cu was selected as the target material since its fluorescence signal is well separated from the Ca signal while its fluorescence's still are absorbed sufficiently in the paper. A laboratory scale setup is built using stepper motors, a silicon drift detector based spectrometer and a collimated X-ray beam. The spectroscopic image is retrieved by scanning the paperboard surface and registering the fluorescence signals from Ca and Cu. The exposure time for this type of setups can be significantly improved by implementing spectroscopic imaging sensors. The material contents in the layers can then be retrieved from the absolute and relative intensities of these two signals.

  • 43.
    Norlin, Börje
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Reza, Salim
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Krapohl, David
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. CERN, Medipix Consortium, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Readout cross-talk for alpha-particle measurements in a pixelated sensor system2015Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, artikkel-id C05025Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations in Medici are performed to quantify crosstalk and charge sharing in a hybrid pixelated silicon detector. Crosstalk and charge sharing degrades the spatial and spectral resolution of single photon processing X-ray imaging systems. For typical medical X-ray imaging applications, the process is dominated by charge sharing between the pixels in the sensor. For heavier particles each impact generates a large amount of charge and the simulation seems to over predict the charge collection efficiency. This indicates that some type of non modelled degradation of the charge transport efficiency exists, like the plasma effect where the plasma might shield the generated charges from the electric field and hence distorts the charge transport process. Based on the simulations it can be reasoned that saturation of the amplifiers in the Timepix system might generate crosstalk that increases the charge spread measured from ion impact on the sensor.

  • 44.
    Pennicard, David
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Smoljanin, S.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Pithan, F.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Sarajlic, M.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Rothkirch, A.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Yu, Y.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Liermann, H. P.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Morgenroth, W.
    Institute of Geosciences, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Winkler, B.
    Institute of Geosciences, Goethe University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Jenei, Z.
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, United States.
    Stawitz, H.
    X-Spectrum GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, J.
    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States; X-Spectrum GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mittuniversitetet. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    LAMBDA 2M GaAs - A multi-megapixel hard X-ray detector for synchrotrons2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id C01026Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchrotrons can provide very intense and focused X-ray beams, which can be used to study the structure of matter down to the atomic scale. In many experiments, the quality of the results depends strongly on detector performance; in particular, experiments studying dynamics of samples require fast, sensitive X-ray detectors. "LAMBDA" is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector system for experiments at synchrotrons, based on the Medipix3 readout chip. Its main features are a combination of comparatively small pixel size (55 μm), high readout speed at up to 2000 frames per second with no time gap between images, a large tileable module design, and compatibility with high-Z sensors for efficient detection of higher X-ray energies. A large LAMBDA system for hard X-ray detection has been built using Cr-compensated GaAs as a sensor material. The system is composed of 6 GaAs tiles, each of 768 by 512 pixels, giving a system with approximately 2 megapixels and an area of 8.5 by 8.5 cm2. While the sensor uniformity of GaAs is not as high as that of silicon, its behaviour is stable over time, and it is possible to correct nonuniformities effectively by postprocessing of images. By using multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet data links, the system can be read out at the full speed of 2000 frames per second. The system has been used in hard X-ray diffraction experiments studying the structure of samples under extreme pressure in diamond anvil cells. These experiments can provide insight into geological processes. Thanks to the combination of high speed readout, large area and high sensitivity to hard X-rays, it is possible to obtain previously unattainable information in these experiments about atomic-scale structure on a millisecond timescale during rapid changes of pressure or temperature. 

  • 45.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    et al.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Resnati, F.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Birch, J.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Etxegarai, M.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hoglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hultman, L.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Llamas-Jansa, I.
    Inst Energy Technol IFE, NO-2007 Kjeller, Norway.
    Oliveri, E.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Oksanen, E.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Ropelewski, L.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, POB 176, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Streli, C.
    Vienna Univ Technol, A-1040 Vienna, Austria.
    Thuiner, P.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    First measurements with new high-resolution gadolinium-GEM neutron detectors2016Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, artikkel-id P05011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    European Spallation Source instruments like the macromolecular diffractometer (NMX) require an excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities, time resolution, and an unprecedented spatial resolution in the order of a few hundred micrometers over a wide angular range of the incoming neutrons. For these instruments solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are a promising option. A GEM detector with gadolinium converter was tested on a cold neutron beam at the IFE research reactor in Norway. The mu TPC analysis, proven to improve the spatial resolution in the case of B-10 converters, is extended to gadolinium based detectors. For the first time, a Gd-GEM was successfully operated to detect neutrons with a measured efficiency of 11.8% at a wavelength of 2 angstrom and a position resolution better than 250 mu m.

  • 46.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Resnati, F.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Birch, J.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Höglund, C.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, L.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Iakovidis, G.
    CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Oliveri, E.
    CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Oksanen, E.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Ropelewski, L.
    CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Thuiner, P.
    CERN, European Org Nucl Res, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    The mu TPC method: improving the position resolution of neutron detectors based on MPGDs2015Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, artikkel-id P04004Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the He-3 crisis, alternatives to the standard neutron detection techniques are becoming urgent. In addition, the instruments of the European Spallation Source (ESS) require advances in the state of the art of neutron detection. The instruments need detectors with excellent neutron detection efficiency, high rate capabilities and unprecedented spatial resolution. The Macromolecular Crystallography instrument (NMX) requires a position resolution in the order of 200 mu m over a wide angular range of incoming neutrons. Solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are proposed to meet the new requirements. Charged particles rising from the neutron capture have usually ranges larger than several millimetres in gas. This is apparently in contrast with the requirements for the position resolution. In this paper, we present an analysis technique, new in the field of neutron detection, based on the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept. Using a standard Single-GEM with the cathode coated with (B4C)-B-10, we extract the neutron interaction point with a resolution of better than sigma = 200 mu m.

  • 47.
    Piscitelli, F.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Mauri, G.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund; Univ Perugia, Dept Phys, Perugia, Italy.
    Messi, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund; Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund..
    Arnold, T.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Glavic, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Lab Neutron Scattering & Imaging, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hoglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund; Linköping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol, Linköping.
    Ilves, T.
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Higuera, I. Lopez
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Pazmandi, P.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Dept High Energy Phys, Budapest, Hungary.
    Raspino, D.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, Sci & Technol Facil Council, ISIS Neutron & Muon Facil, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund; IHI Ionbond AG, Olten, Switzerland.
    Svensson, P.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Varga, D.
    Wigner Res Ctr Phys, Dept High Energy Phys, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Detector Grp, Lund.
    Characterization of the Multi-Blade 10B-based detector at the CRISP reflectometer at ISIS for neutron reflectometry at ESS2018Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, nr 5, artikkel-id P05009Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Blade is a Boron-10-based gaseous thermal neutron detector developed to face the challenge arising in neutron reflectometry at neutron sources. Neutron reflectometers are challenging instruments in terms of instantaneous counting rate and spatial resolution. This detector has been designed according to the requirements given by the reflectometers at the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Sweden. The Multi-Blade has been installed and tested on the CRISP reflectometer at the ISIS neutron and muon source in U.K.. The results on the detailed detector characterization are discussed in this manuscript.

  • 48.
    Piscitelli, F.
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Messi, F.
    Lund University, Lund.
    Anastasopoulos, M.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Bryś, T.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Chicken, F.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Dian, E.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Fuzi, J.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Kiss, G.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Orban, J.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Pazmandi, P.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Rosta, L.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    Varga, D.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Zsiros, T.
    Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. European Spallation Source ERIC (ESS), Lund.
    The Multi-Blade Boron-10-based neutron detector for high intensity neutron reflectometry at ESS2017Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikkel-id P03013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Blade is a Boron-10-based gaseous detector introduced to face the challenge arising in neutron reflectometry at pulsed neutron sources. Neutron reflectometers are the most challenging instruments in terms of instantaneous counting rate and spatial resolution. This detector has been designed to cope with the requirements set for the reflectometers at the upcoming European Spallation Source (ESS) in Sweden. Based on previous results obtained at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in France, an improved demonstrator has been built at ESS and tested at the Budapest Neutron Centre (BNC) in Hungary and at the Source Testing Facility (STF) at the Lund University in Sweden. A detailed description of the detector and the results of the tests are discussed in this manuscript.

  • 49.
    Reza, Salim
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Pelzer, Georg
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Weber, Thomas
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Bayer, Florian
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Anton, Gisela
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Rieger, Jens
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Thim, Jan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Michel, Thilo
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, ECAP-Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany .
    Norlin, Börje
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Investigation on the directional dark-field signals from paperboards using a grating interferometer2014Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, s. Art. no. C04032-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advancements in the grating interferometer based Phase Contrast X-ray Imag- ing (PCXI) technique enables high quality dark-field images to be obtained using conventional X-ray tubes. The dark-field images map the scattering inhomogeneities inside objects. Since, the dark-field image is constructed by considering only those photons which are scattered while pass- ing through the objects, it can reveal useful information about the object inner structures, such as, the fibre structures inside paperboards.

    The end-use performance of paperboards, such as the printing quality and the stiffness de-pends on the uniformity in the thickness and the structures of the coating layer of the paperboards. The uniformity in the coating layer is determined by the coating techniques, the coating materials and the topography of the base sheet. In this article, the dark-field signals from four paperboard samples with different quality indices are analysed. The isotropic and the anisotropic scattering coefficients for all of the samples have been calculated. Based on the correlation between the isotropic coefficients and the quality indices of the paperboards, a new method for paperboard quality measurement has been suggested.

  • 50.
    Reza, Salim
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Wong, Winnie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Thungstörm, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Thim, Jan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Smart dosimetry by pattern recognition using a single photon counting detector system in time over threshold mode2012Inngår i: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. Art. no. C01027-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The function of a dosimeter is to determine the absorbed dose of radiation, for those cases in which, generally, the particular type of radiation is already known. Lately, a number of applications have emerged in which all kinds of radiation are absorbed and are sorted by pattern recognition, such as the Medipix2 application in [1]. This form of smart dosimetry enables measurements where not only the total dosage is measured, but also the contributions of different types of radiation impacting upon the detector surface. Furthermore, the use of a photon counting system, where the energy deposition can be measured in each individual pixel, ensures measurements with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the pattern recognition. In this article a Timepix [2] detector system has been used in the creation of a smart dosimeter for Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation. When a radioactive particle hits the detector surface it generates charge clusters and those impacting upon the detector surface are read out and image processing algorithms are then used to classify each charge cluster. The individual clusters are calculated and as a result, the dosage for each type of radiation is given. In some cases, several particles can impact in roughly the same place, forming overlapping clusters. In order to handle this problem, a cluster separation method has been added to the pattern recognition algorithm. When the clusters have been separated, they are classified by shape and sorted into the correct type of radiation. The algorithms and methods used in this dosimeter have been developed so as to be simple and computationally effective, in order to enable implementation on a portable device. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

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