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  • 1.
    Beaven, C. Martyn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Electrostimulation's enhancement of recovery during a rugby preseason2013In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 92-98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Born, Dennis
    et al.
    Dept of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Dept of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bringing light into the dark: effects of compression clothing on performance and recovery2013In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 4-18Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess original research addressing the effect of the application of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise, a computer-based literature research was performed in July 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Studies examining the effect of compression clothing on endurance, strength and power, motor control, and physiological, psychological, and biomechanical parameters during or after exercise were included, and means and measures of variability of the outcome measures were recorded to estimate the effect size (Hedges g) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of experimental (compression) and control trials (noncompression). The characteristics of the compression clothing, participants, and study design were also extracted. The original research from peer-reviewed journals was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Results indicated small effect sizes for the application of compression clothing during exercise for shortduration sprints (10-60 m), vertical-jump height, extending time to exhaustion (such as running at VO2maxor during incremental tests), and time-trial performance (3-60 min). When compression clothing was applied for recovery purposes after exercise, small to moderate effect sizes were observed in recovery of maximal strength and power, especially vertical-jump exercise; reductions in muscle swelling and perceived muscle pain; blood lactate removal; and increases in body temperature. These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may assist athletic performance and recovery in given situations with consideration of the effects magnitude and practical relevance.

  • 3.
    Born, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Würzburg.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Swarén, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: More Accurate Than Heart Rate for Monitoring Intensity in Running in Hilly Terrain2017In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 440-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    To 1) investigate the cardiorespiratory and metabolic response of trail running and 2) evaluate whether heart rate (HR) adequately reflects the exercise intensity or whether the tissue saturation index (TSI) could provide a more accurate measure when running in hilly terrain.

    Methods:

    Seventeen competitive runners (female: n=4, V’O2max: 55±6 mL·kg−1·min−1; male: n=13, V’O2max: 68±6 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed a time trial on an off-road trail course. The course was made up of two laps covering a total distance of 7 km and included six steep up- and downhill sections with an elevation gain of 486 m. All runners were equipped with a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer, HR belt, global positioning system receiver and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device to measure the TSI.

    Results:

    During the trail run, the exercise intensity within the uphill and downhill sections was 94±2% and 91±3% of HRmax, 84±8% and 68±7% of V’O2max, respectively. The oxygen uptake (V’O2) increased within the uphill and decreased within the downhill sections (P< .01). While HR was unaffected by the altering slope conditions, the TSI was inversely correlated to the changes in V’O2 (r = - .70, P< .05).

    Conclusions:

    The HR was unaffected by the continuously changing exercise intensity, however, the TSI reflected the alternations in V’O2. Recently used exclusively for scientific purpose, this NIRS based variable may offer a more accurate alternative to HR to monitor running intensity in the future, especially for training and competition in hilly terrain.

  • 4.
    Born, Dennis
    et al.
    Dept. of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany .
    Zinner, Christoph
    Inst. of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany .
    Herlitz, B
    Dept. of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany .
    Richter, K
    Dept. of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Dept. of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany .
    Muscle oxygenation asymmetry in ice speed skaters is not compensated by compression2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The present investigation assessed tissue oxygenation and local blood volume in both vastus lateralis muscles during 3000 m race simulations in elite speed skaters on ice and the effects of leg compression on physiological, perceptual and performance measures.

    METHODS:

    Ten (6 female) elite ice speed skaters completed two on-ice trials with and without leg compression. Tissue oxygenation and local blood volume in both vastus lateralis muscles was assessed by applying near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Continuous measures of oxygen uptake, ventilation, heart rate and velocity were conducted throughout the race simulations as well as blood lactate concentration and ratings of perceived exertion before and after the trials. In addition, lap times were assessed.

    RESULTS:

    The investigation of tissue oxygenation in both vastus lateralis muscles revealed an asymmetry (P<0.00; effect size=1.81) throughout the 3000 m race simulation. The application of leg compression did not affect oxygenation asymmetry (smallest P=0.99; largest effect size=0.31) or local blood volume (P=0.33; 0.95). Lap times (P=0.88; 0.43), velocity (P=0.24; 0.84), oxygen uptake (P=0.79; 0.10), ventilation (P=0.11; 0.59), heart rate (P=0.21; 0.89), blood lactate concentration (P=0.82; 0.59) and ratings of perceived exertion (P=0.19; 1.01) were also unaffected by the different types of clothing.

    CONCLUSION:

    Elite ice speed skaters show an asymmetry in tissue oxygenation of both vastus lateralis muscles during 3000 m events remaining during the long gliding phases along the straight sections of the track. Based on our data, we conclude no performance enhancing benefits from wearing leg compression under a normal racing suit.

  • 5.
    Cook, C. J.
    et al.
    United Kingdom Sports Council, London, United Kingdom .
    Kilduff, L. P.
    Exercise and Medicine Research Centre, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom .
    Beaven, C. Martyn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Improving strength and power in trained athletes with 3 weeks of occlusion training2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine the effects of moderate-load exercise with and without blood-flow restriction (BFR) on strength, power, and repeated-sprint ability, along with acute and chronic salivary hormonal parameters. Methods: Twenty male semiprofessional rugby union athletes were randomized to a lower-body BFR intervention (an occlusion cuff inflated to 180 mmHg worn intermittently on the proximal thighs) or a control intervention that trained without occlusion in a crossover design. Experimental sessions were performed 3 times a week for 3 wk with 5 sets of 5 repetitions of bench press, leg squat, and pull-ups performed at 70% of 1-repetition maximum. Results: Greater improvements were observed (occlusion training vs control) in bench press (5.4 ± 2.6 vs 3.3 ± 1.4 kg), squat (7.8 ± 2.1 vs 4.3 ± 1.4 kg), maximum sprint time (-0.03 ± 0.03 vs -0.01 ± 0.02 s), and leg power (168 ± 105 vs 68 ± 50 W). Greater exercise-induced salivary testosterone (ES 0.84-0.61) and cortisol responses (ES 0.65-0.20) were observed after the occlusion intervention sessions compared with the nonoccluded controls; however, the acute cortisol increases were attenuated across the training block. Conclusions: Occlusion training can potentially improve the rate of strength-training gains and fatigue resistance in trained athletes, possibly allowing greater gains from lower loading that could be of benefit during high training loads, in competitive seasons, or in a rehabilitative setting. The clear improvement in bench-press strength resulting from lower-body occlusion suggests a systemic effect of BFR training. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 6.
    Fabré, Nicolas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mourot, L
    Exercise Performance Health Innovation Platform, Clinical Investigation Center, Franche-Comté University, Besançon, France.
    Zerbini, L
    Research Center for Mountain, Sport, and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Pellegrini, B
    Research Center for Mountain, Sport, and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Bortolan, L
    Research Center for Mountain, Sport, and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Schena, F
    Research Center for Mountain, Sport, and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    A novel approach for lactate threshold assessment based on rating of perceived exertion2013In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, ISSN ISSN 1555-0265, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the hypothesis that the DMAX (for maximal distance) method could be applied to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), to propose a novel method for individual detection of the lactate threshold (LT) using RPE alone during an incremental test to exhaustion. Twenty-one participants performed an incremental test on a cycle ergometer. At the end of each stage, lactate concentration was measured and the participants estimated RPE using the Borg CR100 scale. The intensity corresponding to the fixed lactate values of 2 or 4 mmol • L-1 (2mM and 4mM), the ventilatory threshold (VT), the respiratory-compensation point (RCP), and the instant of equality of pulmonary gas exchange (RER=1.00) were determined. Lactate (DMAX La) and RPE (DMAX RPE) thresholds were determined using the DMAX method. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate, and power output measured at DMAX RPE and at D MAX La were not statistically different. Bland-Altman plots showed small bias and good agreements when DMAX RPE was compared with the DMAX La and RER=1.00 methods (bias = -0.05% and -2% of VO2max, respectively). Conversely, VO2 from the D MAX RPE method was lower than VO2 at 4 mM and at RCP and was higher than VO2 at 2 mM and at VT. VO2 at D MAX RPE was strongly correlated with VO2 at D MAX La (r = .97), at RER=1.00 (r = .97), at 2 mM (r = .85), at 4 mM (r = .93), at VT (r = .95), and at RCP (r = .95). The combination of the DMAX method with the RPE responses permitted precise and individualized estimates of LT using the DMAX method.

  • 7.
    Fullagar, Hugh H. K.
    et al.
    Univ Oregon, Dept Athlet Football, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hanisch, James
    Philadelphia Eagles, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Murray, Andrew
    Univ Oregon, Dept Athlet Football, Eugene, OR, USA.
    The Time Course of Perceptual Recovery Markers After Match Play in Division I-A College American Football2017In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1264-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the recovery time course of customized wellness markers (sleep, soreness, energy, and overall wellness) in response to match play in American Division I-A college football players. Methods: A retrospective research design was used. Wellness data were collected and analyzed for 2 American college football seasons. Perceptions of soreness, sleep, energy, and overall wellness were obtained for the day before each game (GD-1) and the days after each game (GD+2, GD+3, and GD+4). Standardized effect-size (ES) analyses +/- 90% confidence intervals were used to interpret the magnitude of the mean differences between all time points for the start, middle, and finish of the season, using the following qualitative descriptors: 0-0.19 trivial, 0.2-0.59 small, 0.6-1.19 moderate, 1.2-1.99 large, <2.0 very large. Results: Overall wellness showed small ES reductions on GD+2 (d = 0.22 +/- 0.09, likely [94.8%]), GD+3 (d = 0.37 +/- 0.15, very likely), and GD+4 (d = 0.29 +/- 0.12, very likely) compared with GD-1. There were small ES reductions for soreness between GD-1 and GD+2, GD+3, and GD+4 (d = 0.21 +/- 0.09, likely, d = 0.29 +/- 0.12, very likely, and 0.30 +/- 0.12, very likely, respectively). Small ES reductions were also evident between GD-1 and GD+3 (d = 0.21 +/- 0.09, likely) for sleep. Feelings of energy showed small ESs on GD+3 (d = 0.27 +/- 0.11, very likely) and GD+4 (d = 0.22 +/- 0.09, likely) compared with GD-1. Conclusion: All wellness markers were likely to very likely worse on GD+3 and GD+4 than on GD-1. These findings show that perceptual wellness takes longer than 4 d to return to pregame levels and thus should be considered when prescribing training and/or recovery.

  • 8.
    Govus, Andrew D.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Coutts, Aaron
    University of Technology (UTS), Sydney, Australia.
    Duffield, Rob
    University of Technology (UTS), Sydney, Australia.
    Murray, Andrew
    University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States.
    Fullagar, Hugh
    University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States.
    Relationship between pretraining subjective wellness measures, player load, and rating-of-perceived-exertion training load in American college football2018In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. Purpose: To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Methods: Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. Results: A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI ?8.4, ?0.3; SMD ?0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Conclusion: Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players’ capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  • 9.
    Hébert-Losier, Kim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jensen, Kurt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Univ Southern Denmark, Inst Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Odense, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jumping and hopping in elite and amateur orienteering athletes and correlations to sprinting and running2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 993-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening-cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlations with sprinting and/or running have been examined in orienteering athletes.

    METHODS:

    The authors investigated squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), and hopping performed by 8 elite and 8 amateur male foot-orienteering athletes (29 ± 7 y, 183 ± 5 cm, 73 ± 7 kg) and possible correlations to road, path, and forest running and sprinting performance, as well as running economy, velocity at anaerobic threshold, and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) from treadmill assessments.

    RESULTS:

    During SJs and CMJs, elites demonstrated superior relative peak forces, times to peak force, and prestretch augmentation, albeit lower SJ heights and peak powers. Between-groups differences were unclear for CMJ heights, hopping stiffness, and most SLJ parameters. Large pairwise correlations were observed between relative peak and time to peak forces and sprinting velocities; time to peak forces and running velocities; and prestretch augmentation and forest-running velocities. Prestretch augmentation and time to peak forces were moderately correlated to VO(2peak). Correlations between running economy and jumping or hopping were small or trivial.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Overall, the elites exhibited superior stretch-shortening-cycle utilization and rapid generation of high relative maximal forces, especially vertically. These functional measures were more closely related to sprinting and/or running abilities, indicating benefits of lower-body training in orienteering.

  • 10.
    McGawley, Kerry
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Aerobic and anaerobic contributions to energy production among junior male and female cross-country skiers during diagonal skiing2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Cross-country-ski races place complex demands on athletes, with events lasting between approximately 3 min and 2 h. The aim of the current study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic measures derived from a short time trial (TT) between male and female skiers using diagonal cross-country skiing. Methods: Twenty-four highly trained cross-country skiers (12 male and 12 female, age 17.4 ± 1.4 y, body mass 68.2 ± 8.9 kg, height 174 ± 8 cm) participated. The submaximal VO2–speed relationship and VO2max were derived from an incremental ramp test to exhaustion (RAMP), while the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), peak VO2, and performance time were measured during a 600-m TT. Results: The female skiers took longer to complete the TT than the males (209 ± 9 s vs 166 ± 7 s, P < .001) and exhibited a lower relative anaerobic contribution (20% ± 4% vs 24% ± 3%, P = .015) and a higher fractional utilization of VO2max (84% ± 4% vs 79% ± 5%, P = .007) than males. Although there was no significant difference in AOD between the sexes (40.9 ± 9.5 and 47.3 ± 7.4 mL/kg for females and males, respectively; P = .079), the mean difference ± 90% confidence intervals of 6.4 ± 6.0 mL/kg reflected a likely practical difference (ES = 0.72). The peak VO2 during the TT was significantly higher than VO2max during the RAMP for all participants combined (62.3 ± 6.8 vs 60.5 ± 7.2 mL/kg/min, P = .011), and the mean difference ± 90% confidence intervals of 1.8 ± 1.1 mL/kg reflected a possible practical difference (ES = 0.25). Conclusions: These results show that performance and physiological responses to a self-paced TT lasting approximately 3 min differ between sexes. In addition, a TT may provide a valid measure of VO2max.

  • 11.
    Mourot, Laurent
    et al.
    EA4660 and Exercise Performance, Health, Innovation Platform, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.
    Fabre, Nicolas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Buchheit, Martin
    Dept of Sport Science, Myorobie Association, Montvalezan, France .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cross-Country Skiing and Postexercise Heart-Rate Recovery2015In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postexercise heart-rate (HR) recovery (HRR) indices have been associated with running and cycling endurance-exercise performance. The current study was designed (1) to test whether such a relationship also exists in the case of cross-country skiing (XCS) and (2) to determine whether the magnitude of any such relationship is related to the intensity of exercise before obtaining HRR indices. Ten elite male cross-country skiers (mean +/- SD; 28.2 +/- 5.4 y, 181 +/- 8 cm, 77.9 +/- 9.4 kg, 69.5 +/- 4.3 mL.min(-1) . kg(-1) maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) performed 2 sessions of roller-skiing on a treadmill: a 2 x 3-km time trial and the same 6-km at an imposed submaximal speed followed by a final 800-m time trial. VO2 and HR were monitored continuously, while HRR and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed during 2 min immediately after each 6-km and the 800-m time trial. The 6-km time-trial time was largely negatively correlated with VO2max and BLa. On the contrary, there was no clear correlation between the 800-m time-trial time and VO2, HR, or BLa. In addition, in no case was any clear correlation between any of the HRR indices and performance time or VO2max observed. These findings confirm that XCS performance is largely correlated with VO2max and the ability to tolerate high levels of BLa; however, postexercise HRR showed no clear association with performance. The homogeneity of the group of athletes involved and the contribution of the arms and upper body to the exercise preceding determination of HRR may explain this absence of a relationship.

  • 12.
    Mourot, Laurent
    et al.
    Univ Franche Comte, F-25030 Besancon, France.
    Fabre, Nicolas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Savoldelli, Aldo
    Univ Verona, Ctr Res Mt Sport & Hlth, Rovereto, Italy.
    Schena, Federico
    Univ Verona, Ctr Res Mt Sport & Hlth, Rovereto, Italy.
    Second Ventilatory Threshold From Heart-Rate Variability: Valid When the Upper Body Is Involved?2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 695-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the most accurate method based on spectral analysis of heart-rate variability (SA-HRV) during an incremental and continuous maximal test involving the upper body, the authors tested 4 different methods to obtain the heart rate (HR) at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). Sixteen ski mountaineers (mean +/- SD; age 25 +/- 3 y, height 177 +/- 8 cm, mass 69 +/- 10 kg) performed a roller-ski test on a treadmill. Respiratory variables and HR were continuously recorded, and the 4 SA-HRV methods were compared with the gas-exchange method through Bland and Altman analyses. The best method was the one based on a time-varying spectral analysis with high frequency ranging from 0.15 Hz to a cutoff point relative to the individual's respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The HR values were significantly correlated (r(2) = .903), with a mean HR difference with the respiratory method of 0.1 +/- 3.0 beats/min and low limits of agreements (around -6 /+ 6 beats/min). The 3 other methods led to larger errors and lower agreements (up to 5 beats/min and around -23/+ 20 beats/min). It is possible to accurately determine VT2 with an HR monitor during an incremental test involving the upper body if the appropriate HRV method is used.

  • 13.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A Reappraisal of Success Factors for Olympic Cross-Country Skiing.2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 117-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-country skiing has been an Olympic event since the first Winter Games in Chamonix in 1924. Due to more effective training and tremendous improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of Olympic cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other Olympic endurance sport. Moreover, pursuit, mass-start and sprint races have been introduced. Indeed, ten of the twelve current Olympic competitions in cross-country skiing involve mass-starts, in which tactics play a major role and the outcome is often decided in the final sprint. Accordingly, reappraisal of the success factors for performance in this context is required. The very high aerobic capacity (VO2max) of many of today's world-class skiers is similar that of their predecessors. At the same time, the new events provide more opportunities to profit from anaerobic capacity, upper-body power, high-speed techniques and "tactical flexibility". The wide range of speeds and slopes involved in cross-country skiing require skiers to continuously alternate between and adapt different sub-techniques during a race. This technical complexity places a premium on efficiency. The relative amounts of endurance training performed at different levels of intensity have remained essentially constant during the past four decades. However, in preparation for the Sochi Olympics in 2014 cross-country skiers are performing more endurance training on roller skis on competition-specific terrain, placing greater focus on upper-body power and more systematically perform strength training and skiing at high speeds than previously.

  • 14.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Solli, Guro Strom
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sex Differences in World Record Performance: The Influence of Sport Discipline and Competition Duration2018In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 2-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, we discuss how physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990’s, sex differences between the world’s best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 12%, and ultra-endurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%. The physiological advantages in men include a larger body size with more skeletal muscle mass, a lower percentage of body fat, as well as greater maximal delivery of anaerobic and aerobic energy. The greater strength and anaerobic capacity in men normally disappears when normalized for fat-free body mass, whereas the higher hemoglobin concentrations leads to 5-10% greater maximal oxygen uptakes in men also with such normalization. The higher percentage of muscle mass in the upper-body of men results in a particularly large sex difference in power production during upper-body exercise. While the exercise efficiency of men and women is usually similar, women have a better capacity to metabolize fat and demonstrate better hydrodynamics and more even pacing, which may be advantageous in particular during long-lasting swimming competitions.

  • 15.
    Sandbakk, Ø.
    et al.
    Dept. of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway .
    Sandbakk, S. B.
    Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway .
    Supej, M.
    Dept. of Biomechanics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The velocity and energy profiles of elite cross-country skiers executing downhill turns with different radii2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the influence of turn radius on velocity and energy profiles when skidding and step turning during more and less effective downhill turns while cross-country skiing. Thirteen elite female cross-country skiers performed single turns with a 9- or 12-m radius using the skidding technique and a 12- or 15-m radius with step turning. Mechanical parameters were monitored using a real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System and video analysis. Step turning was more effective during all phases of a turn, leading to higher velocities than skidding (P < .05). With both techniques, a greater radius was associated with higher velocity (P < .05), but the quality of turning, as assessed on the basis of energy characteristics, was the same. More effective skidding turns involved more pronounced deceleration early in the turn and maintenance of higher velocity thereafter, while more effective step turning involved lower energy dissipation during the latter half of the turn. In conclusion, the single-turn analysis employed here reveals differences in the various techniques chosen by elite cross-country skiers when executing downhill turns of varying radii and can be used to assess the quality of such turns. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 16.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Ctr Elite Sports Res, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Physiological Capacity and Training Routines of Elite Cross-Country Skiers: Approaching the Upper Limits of Human Endurance2017In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 1003-1011Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-country (XC) skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport, and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win, and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly. The long-standing tradition of researchers working closely with XC-ski coaches and athletes to monitor progress, improve training, and refine skiing techniques has provided unique physiological insights revealing how these athletes are approaching the upper limits of human endurance. This review summarizes current scientific knowledge concerning the demands involved in elite XC skiing, as well as the physiological capacity and training routines of the best athletes.

  • 17.
    Sperlich, B.
    et al.
    Inst. of Sport Science, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany .
    Born, D. -P
    Dept. of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Zinner, C.
    Inst. of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany .
    Hauser, A.
    Swiss Federal Inst of Sports, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Does upper-body compression improve 3 × 3-min double-poling sprint performance?2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate whether upper-body compression affects power output and selected metabolic, cardiorespiratory, hemodynamic, and perceptual responses during three 3-min sessions of double-poling (DP) sprint. Method: Ten well-trained male athletes (25 ± 4 y, 180 ± 4 cm, 74.6 ± 3.2 kg) performed such sprints on a DP ski ergometer with and without a long-sleeved compression garment. Result: Mean power output was not affected by such compression (216 ± 25 W in both cases; P = 1.00, effect size [ES] = 0.00), although blood lactate concentration was lowered (P < .05, ES = 0.50-1.02). Blood gases (ES = 0.07-0.50), oxygen uptake (ES = 0.04-0.28), production of carbon dioxide (ES = 0.01-0.46), heart rate (ES = 0.00-0.21), stroke volume (ES = 0.33-0.81), and cardiac output (ES = 0.20-0.91) were also all unaffected by upper-body compression (best P = 1.00). This was also the case for changes in the tissue saturation index (ES = 0.45-1.17) and total blood content of hemoglobin (ES = 0.09-0.85), as well as ratings of perceived exertion (ES = 0.15-0.88; best P = .96). Conclusion: The authors conclude that the performance of well-trained athletes during 3 × 3-min DP sprints will not be enhanced by upper-body compression. © 2014 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 18.
    Sperlich, Billy
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Achtzehn, S
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Köln, Germany.
    Buhr, M
    Institute of Health Promotion and Clinical Movement Science, Köln, Germany.
    Zinner, C
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Köln, Germany.
    Zelle, S
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Köln, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Salivary Cortisol, Heart Rate and Blood Lactate Responses During Elite Downhill Mountain Bike Racing2012In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 47-52Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the intensity profile of elite downhill mountain bike races during competitions. Methods: Seventeen maledownhill racers (22 ± 5 y; 185.1 ± 5.3 cm; 68.0 ± 3.9 kg; VO 2peak: 59.4 ± 4.1 mL min kg -1) participated in the International German DownhillChampionships in 2010. The racers' peak oxygen uptake and heart rate (HR) at 2 and 4 mmol L -1 blood lactate (HR2 and HR 4), were assessed during an incremental laboratory step test (100 W, increase 40 W every 5 min). During the races, the HR was recorded and pre- and postrace bloodlactate concentrations as well as salivary cortisol levels were obtained. Results: During the race, the absolute time spent in the "easy" intensity zone was 23.3 ± 6.8 s, 24.2 ± 12.8 s (HR 2-HR 4) in the "moderate" zone, and 151.6 ± 18.3 s (>HR 4) in the "hard" zone. Eighty percent of the entire race was accomplished at intensities >90% HRpeak. Blood lactate concentrations postrace were higher than those obtained after the qualification heat (8.0 ± 2.5 mmol L -1 vs 6.7 ± 1.8 mmol L -1, P < .01). Salivary levels of cortisol before the competition and the qualification heat were twice as high as at resting state (P < .01). Conclusions: This study shows that mountain bike downhill races are conducted at high heart rates and levels of blood lactate as well as increased concentration of salivary cortisol as marker for psycho-physiological stress. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 19.
    Sperlich, Billy
    et al.
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sports University, Cologne, Germany.
    Koehler, Karsten
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sports University, Cologne, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Zinner, Christof
    German Sports Univ Cologne, Inst Training Sci & Sport Informat, Cologne, Germany.
    Mester, Joachim
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sports University, Cologne, Germany.
    Table tennis: Cardio-respiratory and metabolic analysis of match and exercise in elite junior national players2011In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 234-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the cardiorespiratory and metabolic characteristics during intense and moderate table tennis (TT) training, as well as during actual match play conditions. Methods: Blood lactate concentration (Lac), heart rate (HR, beats per minute [bpm]), oxygen uptake (VO(2)), and energy expenditure (EE) in 7 male participants of the German junior national team (age: 14 +/- 1 y, weight: 60.5 +/- 5.6 kg height; 165 +/- 8 cm) were examined during six training sessions (TS) and during an international match. The VO(2) was measured continuously with portable gas analyzers. Lac was assessed every 1 to 3 min during short breaks. Results: Mean (peak) values for Lac, HR, VO(2), and EE during the TS were 1.2 +/- 0.7 (4.5) mmol.L(-1), 135 +/- 18 (184) bpm, 23.5 +/- 7.3 (43.0) mL.kg(-1).min-(1), and 6.8 +/- 2.0 (11.2) METs, respectively. During match play, mean (peak) values were 1.1 +/- 0.2 (1.6) mmol.L(-1), 126 +/- 22 (189) bpm, 25.6 +/- 10.1 (45.9) mL.kg(-1).min(-1), and 4.8 +/- 1.4 (9.6) METs, respectively. Conclusions: For the first time, cardiorespiratory and metabolic data in elite junior table tennis have been documented demonstrating low cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands during TT training and match play in internationally competing juniors.

  • 20.
    Sperlich, Billy
    et al.
    Inst of Sport Science, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Zinner, Christoph
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Köln, Germany.
    Trenk, David
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Köln, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Does a 3-minute all-out test provide suitable measures of exercise intensity at the maximal lactate steady state or peak oxygen uptake for well-trained runners?2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 807-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    To examine whether a 3-min all-out test can be used to obtain accurate values for the maximal lactate steady state (vMLSS) and/or peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) of well-trained runners.

    METHODS:

    The 15 male volunteers (25 ± 5 y, 181 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 7 kg, VO2peak 69.3 ± 9.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1) performed a ramp test, a 3-min all-out test, and several submaximal 30-min runs at constant paces of vEND (mean velocity during the last 30 s of the 3-min all-out test) itself and vEND +0.2, +0.1, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, or -0.4 m/s.

    RESULTS:

    vMLSS and vEND were correlated (r = .69, P = .004), although vMLSS was lower (mean difference: 0.26 ± 0.32 m/s, 95% CI -.44 to -.08 m/s, P = .007, effect size = 0.65). The VO2peak values derived from the ramp and 3-min all-out tests were not correlated (r = .41, P = .12), with a mean difference of 523 ± 1002 mL (95% CI 31 to 1077 mL).

    CONCLUSION:

    A 3-min all-out test does not provide a suitable measure of vMLSS or VO2peak for well-trained runners.

  • 21.
    Supej, Matej
    et al.
    Univ Ljubljana, Dept Biomech, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hebert-Losier, Kim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Impact of the Steepness of the Slope on the Biomechanics of World Cup Slalom Skiers2015In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 361-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Numerous environmental factors can affect alpine-ski-racing performance, including the steepness of the slope. However, little research has focused on this factor. Accordingly, the authors' aim was to determine the impact of the steepness of the slope on the biomechanics of World Cup slalom ski racers. Methods: The authors collected 3-dimensional kinematic data during a World Cup race from 10 male slalom skiers throughout turns performed on a relatively flat (19.8 degrees) and steep (25.2 degrees) slope under otherwise similar course conditions. Results: Kinematic data revealed differences between the 2 slopes regarding the turn radii of the skis and center of gravity, velocity, acceleration, and differential specific mechanical energy (all P < .001). Ground-reaction forces (GRFs) also tended toward differences (P = .06). Examining the time-course behaviors of variables during turn cycles indicated that steeper slopes were associated with slower velocities but greater accelerations during turn initiation, narrower turns with peak GRFs concentrated at the midpoint of steering, more pronounced lateral angulations of the knees and hips at the start of steering that later became less pronounced, and overall slower turns that involved deceleration at completion. Consequently, distinct energy-dissipation-patterns were apparent on the 2 slope inclines, with greater pregate and lesser postgate dissipation on the steeper slope. The steepness of the slope also affected the relationships between mechanical skiing variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that specific considerations during training and preparation would benefit the race performance of slalom skiers on courses involving sections of varying steepness.

  • 22.
    Watkins, Jonathan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Platt, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pacing Strategies and Metabolic Responses During 4-Minute Running Time-Trials2017In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1143-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the current study was to investigate pacing strategies and the distributionof physiological resources in best versus worst performances during a series of 4-minute, self-paced running time-trials (RunTTs). Methods: Five male and five female recreational runners(age 32 ± 7 years) completed a sub-maximal ramp test and five RunTTs on a motor-driventreadmill fitted with a speed-controlling laser system. The supramaximal V̇ O2 demand wasestimated by linear extrapolation from the sub-maximal relationship between V̇ O2 and speed,enabling computation of the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD). Results: There were nosignificant differences between the five RunTTs for any of the performance, physiological orsubjective responses (P > 0.05). The trial-to-trial variability in pacing (i.e., separate quarters)was typically low, with an average within-athlete CV of 3.3%, being highest at the start andend of the 4 minutes. Total distance covered and distance covered over the first and last 2minutes for best and worst performances were 1137 ± 94 and 1090 ± 89 m (P < 0.001), 565 ±53 and 526 ± 40 m (P = 0.002), and 572 ± 47 and 565 ± 54 m (P = 0.346), respectively.Conclusions: Negative pacing strategies were evident during both the best and worstperformances of the RunTT. Best performances were characterised by more aggressive pacingover the first 2 minutes compared with worst performances. In addition, the relatively low trial-to-trial variability in running speed suggests that pacing strategies are similar during a seriesof 4-minute, self-paced running time-trials.

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