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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Exploring the financing gap between native born women- and immigrant women-owned firms at the start-up stage: Empirical evidence from Swedish data2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 157-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence which identifies the impact of ethnicity and other relevant variables on external capital acquisition among Swedish women-owned businesses at start-up. Design/methodology/approach: Several methods have been employed to analyze the sample including a binary logistic regression model. The sample consists of 836 women-owned businesses in southeast Sweden; 97 immigrant-owned, 739 native born-owned. Findings: The results indicate that there are partly significant differences between native women-owned firms and immigrant woman-owned businesses at start-up. Unlike the native-owned firms, the immigrant woman-owned businesses rely more on loans from family members and less on bank loans. Practical implications: The results reveal that age has a positive impact on loans from family members, while the additional job outside one's own business, the amount of the owner's personal start-up capital and firm size positively influenced access to capital from banks. The owners' level of education, previous business experience, the legal form taken by the firm and the industry affiliation conversely played no significant role in explaining the women owners' attitudes toward loans from either friends or the bank. Originality/value: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first empirical investigation addressing this issue in the Swedish context. 

  • 2.
    Berggren, C.
    et al.
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Self-employment and field of education understood from current entrepreneurship research2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 291-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at how results from a large-scale study can be understood in the context of contemporary gender and entrepreneurship research. Design/methodology/approach – Thisstudyisinspiredbyamixedmethodsmethodology.Togain a qualitative understanding of the general patterns in a large-scale study, research results in articles from the International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship (IJGE) were used. To make such a heterogeneousresearchfieldasappearsinIJGEcomparable,amodelwascreatedthathelpedustofocus our attention when reading the articles. The core of each article was identified. Findings – The categorisation of the articles in IJGE resulted in three perspectives: liberal, functional and structural. The liberal and functional perspectives improved our understanding only partially because these perspectives usually focused on a certain aspect in the society. The structural perspective more readily lent itself for interpretation of our large-scale results. Research limitations/implications – The dissonance between our perspective and the perspective of others has been a challenge; it has been a delicate task. Originality/value – This could be a way to improve communication of research not only within a perspective, but also between perspectives. It is important that scholarly journals provide the possibility to express different perspectives on, as in this example, gender and entrepreneurship. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 3.
    Bogren, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Rennemo, Øystein
    Högskolan i Nord Tröndelag, Norway.
    Widding, Lars Øystein
    Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Norway.
    Networking women entrepreneurs: fruitful for business growth2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 60-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the kinds of contacts and networks women find supportive in their role as business leaders, and which also support their willingness to grow their business. The approach is to investigate the context of women entrepreneurs and the kinds of supporting social networks of which they are part. This is seen in relation to their willingness to grow.

    Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaires were sent to women entrepreneurs in mid-Sweden and mid-Norway, relating to supportive assets and willingness for growth.

    Findings – The results show: that personal networks are seen as a more supportive asset than business networks; that personal contacts with other entrepreneurs are regarded as valuable; and that women entrepreneurs who are positive towards new networks already have a more heterogenic network than those who do not express this willingness.

    Practical implications – Without a relational attitude and a willingness to put oneself into a relational interplay, women entrepreneurs will have a hard time succeeding in growing their businesses.

    Originality/value – This study is unique in three ways: first, it combines different theoretical perspectives, above all a variety of network perspectives seen in an entrepreneurial context. Second, from a huge set of data containing women entrepreneurs, the paper presents valid findings about social network configurations among this group. Third, it introduces the term “willingness”, and discusses the effects related to this and to network expansion and business growth. These dimensions help us to increase the understanding of networking and growth in women-owned enterprises.

  • 4.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The life cycle in women-owned businesses: From a qualitative growth perspective2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 126-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate women-owned businesses from a life cycle perspective and with a qualitative growth approach. Building on previous research that has identified qualitative growth platforms, this paper takes into account the time aspect and investigates perceived barriers and support needs inside different qualitative growth platforms. Design/methodology/approach – The study took place in Sweden and is based on 191 women entrepreneurs in a first survey and 101 women entrepreneurs in a follow-up questionnaire three years later. Toanswer the research questions, descriptive frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis techniques have been used. Findings – The motivation of growth changes throughout the life cycle, and women entrepreneurs move between different qualitative growth platforms when required building blocks of previous platforms have been established and secured. In this transfer of growth ambition, a significant correlation between business age and intrinsic growth aspiration was identified. Initially, growth is extrinsically motivated and later on in the life cycle, it is intrinsically motivated. In the late life cycle, the motivation is extrinsically motivated again. The results discern barriers to growth that hinder movement from extrinsic to intrinsic business platforms, and the author argues that the transfer of growth ambition from one growing platform to another requires different types of advice and support from the surrounding community. Research limitations/implications – By broadening the view of growth to include both a quantitative and qualitative approach, it is possible to identify a widespread growth ambition in women-owned businesses which experience various barriers and supportive needs. Business programs that encourage exchange of experience among entrepreneurs in various growth platforms might be a way to overcome the perceived barriers. As women's businesses only receive a low proportion of the government funding, they are prevented from developing their growth ambitions. To ensure that all forms of growth are stimulated, different measures are required depending on which stage in their life cycle the women-owned businesses belong to. Originality/value – By considering business growth from a qualitative perspective, barriers and needs that the traditional approach may overlook can be highlighted. For example, growth aspiration in terms of more employees will not be considered until the previously, qualitative growth platforms are established and secured. The support system, however, is designed to only favor growth in terms of employment, which results in difficulties to qualify for financial support.

  • 5.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Beyond the numbers: qualitative growth in women's businesses2012In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 289-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the growth of women's businesses from a qualitative perspective. The paper identifies strategic building blocks for defining a set of different growth platforms. Moreover, the paper investigates growth ambitions for women inside each identified "type" of growth platform and identifies critical motivation variables that can influence the decision to move from growing one business platform to growing another platform. Design/methodology/approach: The results are based on 191 women entrepreneurs. Data were analyzed by coding narrative statements from the survey into overarching themes for business platforms, descriptive frequency analysis and logistic regression analysis techniques. Findings: The paper discerned five different growth platforms and noticed intrinsic or extrinsic growth ambitions for platform growth. The extrinsic platforms are the most common, but all platforms can be characterized by equally high growth aspirations. Each of the identified platforms is associated with distinct and unique blocks that the women entrepreneurs try to put together and resolve in order to grow their companies. Women entrepreneurs move between the different platforms when the building blocks of previous platforms have been established and secured. Variables such as profits and ownership may explain such transfers of growth ambitions. Research limitations/implications: While acknowledging the qualitative growth of business platforms, the paper takes an approach that goes against the traditional view of quantitative growth. Originality/value: This study is a response to the lack of research on qualitative growth and women's entrepreneurship and suggests that the manifested qualitative growth can be in order to secure blocks on different business platforms.

  • 6.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Risk perception matters: why women's passion may not lead to a business start-up2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 87-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore whether nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men, and to determine how higher risk perceptions might limit start-up decisions by mediating the potential influence of passion and self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach – This study surveyed 103 participants in Sweden – both women and men – who, in the period 2008 through 2011, intended to start a business. ANOVA tests and binominal logistic regression models were conducted to test hypothesized framework. Findings – The authors found that nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risk than nascent male entrepreneurs, that risk perceptions influence start-up decisions and that risk preferences partial out the otherwise identified influence of passion on start-up decisions. Research limitations/implications – The authors reveal a consequence of gender socialization and how it impacts the start-up decisions of nascent women entrepreneurs. Support systems should consider developing activities that change the public's perception of who is an entrepreneur and seek ways to balance risk perceptions between men and women. Originality/value – The authors argue here that risk perceptions play a prominent role in start-up decisions. Specifically, they consider that nascent women entrepreneurs perceive more risks than men, and that their view of risk partials out any potential influence of their perceived passion and self-efficacy on their start-up decision.

  • 7.
    Kremel, A.
    et al.
    The School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Business advisory services and risk among start-ups and young companies: A gender perspective2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 168-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to investigate the demand for business advisory services by owners of start-ups and young companies by taking a gender perspective. The study also examines whether risk-taking is more characteristic of masculine than feminine behaviour in this context. Design/methodology/approach – Aliterature review examines business advisory services and risk aversion from a gender perspective. The empirical data are derived from interviews with owners of more than 2,700 start-ups and young companies in Sweden.Anumber of key variables compare how the company owners (women and men) view business advisory services as a way to overcome risk and to gain access to information in networks. Several statistical tests are used to analyse these data. Findings – Women owners of start-ups and young companies use more and different business advisory services than men owners. There are differences among the men owners and women owners with regard to the amount of start-up capital, company size and industry sector. Given the risks associated with start-up, business advisory services are important to women in helping them reduce their risk in the start-up and early stages of their companies. Research limitations/implications – Companies in Sweden’s largest city, Stockholm, were not included in the sample. Financial data were not used as variables. Practical implications – Policymakers should address women owners’ greater demand for business advisory services in their companies’ early stages. Originality/value – This study’s originality is its gender perspective on the demand for business advisory services by start-ups and young companies and its challenge to previous findings about entrepreneurial behaviour and risk-taking. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 8.
    Rad, Alexander
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Female and male risk aversion: An empirical study of loan officers’ assessment of SME loan applications2014In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 121-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of the paper is to analyse female and male loan officers' (LOs) risk aversion as they assess different types of small- and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs) loan applications.

    Design/methodology/approach – The data were gathered from a sample of 75 Swedish LOs, using the repertory grid technique and related questions. The data were analysed statistically.

    Findings – The findings demonstrate that female LOs focus more on collateral (used as a proxy for risk aversion) in their evaluations of first-time loan applications than male LOs. However, the findings also suggest that there are no significant differences between the two groups as far as risk aversion when they evaluate additional loan applications. The other variables controlled for (age, tenure, insight, education, and location) did not significantly affect the LOs' risk aversion.

    Research limitations/implications – The study might have benefited from the use of complementary data collection approaches. Access to actual assessment and decision-making procedures could have increased the understanding of female and male LOs' attitudes toward risk.

    Practical implications – The findings suggest that by the use of female-male LO teams, banks may achieve more balanced assessments of SMEs' loan applications.

    Originality/value – To the authors' knowledge, the literature has not explicitly addressed risk aversion among female and male LOs with respect to different types of bank loans. Moreover, the authors investigated risk aversion in the context of standardised assessments procedures used to reduce exposure to credit risk.

  • 9.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Gender and the use of external business advice: A Swedish study2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 105-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine whether there are significant differences betweenfemale and male entrepreneurs’ use of consultation during business start-ups.Design/methodology/approach – Using several statistical tools, including ANOVA and seeminglyunrelated regressions, empirical analyses are conducted on a unique and firm-level panel database of837 female- and 1926 male-owned active small firms.Findings – The results indicate that gender may be an important variable in the use of advice amongsmall business owners in Sweden. Female owners in this study are shown to be more eager than maleowners to use external business advice, and do so to a higher extent.Practical implications – One implication of this study is that firms may not be able to use allbusiness advice types simultaneously during their start-up stage, so an ordered list of consultancyservices would help them prioritize and adjust their needs accordingly. Because the use of businessadvice is context-based, the findings of this study may not be generalized to firms in othercountries. This paper shows some gender-based attributes/features relating to the use of businessadvice, which need to be better integrated into policymaking for the future assistance of smallbusinesses.Originality/value – This article focuses on an important issue and is unique partly because fewstudies have examined the relationship between gender and external business advice. By explicitly andempirically examining this issue, this article makes a contribution to the small- and medium-sizedenterprises’ literature.

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