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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Impact of Owner and Firm Characteristics on External Capital Acquisition at Start-up: Empirical Evidences from Swedish Data2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates whether owner and firm characteristics influence the use of external financing sources among Swedish small-owned firms at start-up stage. Several methods, including multinomial binary logistic regression have been employed to analyse a unique and comprehensive firm-level database, consisting of 2,814 firms gathered through interviews. The results show that three variables, i.e., loans from family members and friends, bank debt and funding from angel investors, are significant in distinguishing between Swedish native and immigrant-owned firms in the acquisition of financial sources in start-up. In addition, immigrant-owned firms tend to relay more on informal financial sources e.g. loan from family member, friends and angel investors, and less on bank loan. Furthermore, whereas, ethnicity influences the change of all these four variables significantly, gender merely affects loans from family members. Other variables, such as the owners’ age, prior experience in business, education, having an additional job beside one’s own business, the amount of personal start-up capital and firm size, as well as legal form and industry affiliation are partly important to explain the acquisition use of external capital at start-up stage.

  • 2.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Testing the Causal Nexus between output and unemployment: Swedish data2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 29-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we aim at testing for the Granger causality test between real GDP and unemployment in Sweden. We model a VAR (4) model on Swedish two macro-economic variables, namely, the gross domestic product (GDP) and unemployment (Un) for the period 1993:Q1 – 2011:Q2. Our main aim is to supporting further empirical evidence so as to identify the relationship between the GDP and unemployment in terms of females, males and total unemployment, with special reference to Sweden. A Granger causality test is used. The test shows that it is the GDP Granger that causes unemployment but not the other way around. An econometric model is deployed and developed on the basis of Okun’s Law. Total unemployment, male unemployment and female unemployment coefficients of the relationship between the GDP and unemployment coefficients are diverted from Okun’s coefficient and they are found to be approximately 8 per cent and statistically significant for Sweden. This stayed almost steady over time. This result also has important implications for determining macroeconomic policy.

  • 3.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Profitability in Swedish Micro-Firms: a quantile regression approach2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify a function for the profitability of Swedish micro firms in the sectors of health, transport, trade and metal. In order to understand how micro firms relate to key variables, such as firm size, growth of sales, productivities, lagged profits, asset turnover and firm’s age, OLS (Ordinary Least Squares), and the more robust quantile regression techniques, are used to estimate micro-firm profitability. Data from 2007 is used for this purpose. The results show that growth (competitive condition) and total factor productivity (comparative advantage) have a significant positive effect on micro-firm profitability, and that size (diminishing returns states) is found to have a rather significant negative effect on micro-firm profitability. The results also indicate a strong relationship between microeconomic theory suggestions and micro-firm profitability for the all micro firms except those in the metal sector. Moreover, the quantile regression approach provided a better understanding, regarding the dynamics of the factors that affect profitability, and provided more interesting results than OLS normally do.

  • 4.
    Salman, Khalik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Shukur, Ghazi
    Jönköping University.
    The Determinants of Failure of Small Manufacturing Firms: Assessing the Macroeconomic Factors2011In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Impact of Financing Pattern on Firm Growth: Evidence fromSwedish Micro Firms2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the impact of financial structures on the growth of micro firms in Sweden. The objective of

    this paper is to explore whether firms’ growth can be associated with patterns of financial acquisition and

    whether these patterns influence firms’ growth differently when the source is either internal or external. Based

    on agency cost theory, hypotheses were formulated and tested with panel data consisting of 12 101 micro firms,

    using 84 707 observations for the period 2006–2007. The data were analysed using the seemingly unrelated

    regression (SUR) model. The empirical results reveal that internal financial sources – retained profit –

    significantly influence firm growth. Similarly, short-term debt and growth are positively related. However, firm

    growth is generally more sensitive to retained profit than short-term debt. Interestingly, long-term debt generally

    has no effect on growth. The findings also indicate that size, age, and industry affiliation influence firm growth. Finally, agency cost theory is relevant in explaining the relationship between financing pattern and growth.

  • 6.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Life Cycle of Growth Path among Micro Firms: Swedish Data2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether the implications of the life cycle model hold on the growth path of a sample of Swedish micro firms. The study is based on a sample containing 22001 Swedish micro firms across six industries for the year 2007. Several methods are used to analyse the impact of the life stage and two control variables, size and industry, to analyse the impact on firm growth. The empirical results of the study confirm a clear pattern of the growth life-cycle process among Swedish micro firms. Young micro firms, generally, grow on average more than their older counterparts and as they age and develop, their growth rate decreases. Additionally, firm growth among firms of different sizes and in various industries still follows the general pattern of the total sample. Thus, it appears from the results that the growth rate of Swedish micro firms included in the sample follows a systematic and predictable pattern associated mainly with the life stage.

1 - 6 of 6
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