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  • 1.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    LoRa beyond ALOHA: An Investigation of Alternative Random Access Protocols2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a stochastic geometry-based model to investigate alternative medium access choices for LoRaWAN a widely adopted low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) technology for the Internet-of-things (IoT). LoRaWAN adoption is driven by its simplified network architecture, air interface, and medium access. The physical layer, known as LoRa, provides quasi-orthogonal virtual channels through spreading factors (SFs) and time-power capture gains. However, the adopted pure ALOHA access mechanism suffers, in terms of scalability, under the same-channel same-SF transmissions from a large number of devices. In this paper, our objective is to explore access mechanisms beyond-ALOHA for LoRaWAN. Using recent results on time- and power-capture effects of LoRa, we develop a unified model for the comparative study of other choices, i.e., slotted ALOHA and carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA). The model includes the necessary design parameters of these access mechanisms, such as guard time and synchronization accuracy for slotted ALOHA, carrier sensing threshold for CSMA. It also accounts for the spatial interaction of devices in annular shaped regions, characteristic of LoRa, for CSMA. The performance derived from the model in terms of coverage probability, throughput, and energy efficiency are validated using Monte-Carlo simulations. Our analysis shows that slotted ALOHA indeed has higher reliability than pure ALOHA but at the cost of lower energy efficiency for low device densities. Whereas, CSMA outperforms slotted ALOHA at smaller SFs in terms of reliability and energy efficiency, with its performance degrading to pure ALOHA at higher SFs.

  • 2.
    Dobslaw, Felix
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    End-to-End Reliability-aware Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 758-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are gaining popularity as a flexible and economical alternative to field-bus installations for monitoring and control applications. For missioncritical applications, communication networks must provide endto- end reliability guarantees, posing substantial challenges for WSN. Reliability can be improved by redundancy, and is often addressed on the MAC layer by re-submission of lost packets, usually applying slotted scheduling. Recently, researchers have proposed a strategy to optimally improve the reliability of a given schedule by repeating the most rewarding slots in a schedule incrementally until a deadline. This Incrementer can be used with most scheduling algorithms but has scalability issues which narrows its usability to offline calculations of schedules, for networks that are rather static. In this paper, we introduce SchedEx, a generic heuristic scheduling algorithm extension which guarantees a user-defined end-to-end reliability. SchedEx produces competitive schedules to the existing approach, and it does that consistently more than an order of magnitude faster. The harsher the end-to-end reliability demand of the network, the better SchedEx performs compared to the Incrementer. We further show that SchedEx has a more evenly distributed improvement impact on the scheduling algorithms, whereas the Incrementer favors schedules created by certain scheduling algorithms.

  • 3.
    Dobslaw, Felix
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    QoS-Aware Cross-layer Configuration for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1679-1691, article id 7485858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications of Industrial Sensor Networks, stringentreliability and maximum delay constraints paired with priority demands ona sensor-basis are present. These QoS requirements pose tough challenges forIndustrial Wireless Sensor Networks that are deployed to an ever largerextent due to their flexibility and extendibility.In this paper, we introduce an integrated cross-layer framework, SchedEx-GA, spanning MAC layer and networklayer. SchedEx-GA attempts to identify a network configuration that fulfills all application-specific process requirements over a topology including the sensorpublish rates, maximum acceptable delay, service differentiation, and eventtransport reliabilities. The network configuration comprisesthe decision for routing, as well as scheduling.

    For many of the evaluatedtopologies it is not possible to find a valid configuration due to the physicalconditions of the environment. We therefore introduce a converging algorithm on top of the frameworkwhich configures a given topology by additional sink positioning in order tobuild a backbone with the gateway that guaranteesthe application specific constraints.The results show that, in order to guarantee a high end-to-end reliability of 99.999% for all flows in a network containing emergency, control loop, andmonitoring traffic, a backbone with multiple sinks is often required for thetested topologies. Additional features, such as multi-channel utilization andaggregation, though, can substantially reduce the demand for required sinks.In its present version, the framework is used for centralized control, butwith the potential to be extended for de-centralized control in future work.

  • 4.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Han, Song
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saifullah, Abusayeed
    Wayne State University, USA.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Guest Editorial From Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks to Industrial Internet of Things2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 2194-2198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hancke, Gerhard P. Jr
    City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Eldefrawy, Mohamed
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Guest Editorial: Security, Privacy, and Trust for Industrial Internet of Things2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 625-628, article id 8952830Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University.
    Guest Editorial Special Section on New Perspectives on Wireless Communications in Automation: From Industrial Monitoring and Control to Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1393-1397, article id 7938563Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Guntupalli, Lakshmikanth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Rondón, Raúl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hassan, Syed Ali
    National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Scalability Analysis of a LoRa Network under Imperfect Orthogonality2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1425-1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies are gaining momentum for internet-of-things (IoT) applications since they promise wide coverage to a massive number of battery-operated devices using grant-free medium access. LoRaWAN, with its physical (PHY) layer design and regulatory efforts, has emerged as the widely adopted LPWAN solution. By using chirp spread spectrum modulation with qausi-orthogonal spreading factors (SFs), LoRa PHY offers coverage to wide-area applications while supporting high-density of devices. However, thus far its scalability performance has been inadequately modeled and the effect of interference resulting from the imperfect orthogonality of the SFs has not been considered. In this paper, we present an analytical model of a single-cell LoRa system that accounts for the impact of interference among transmissions over the same SF (co-SF) as well as different SFs (inter-SF). By modeling the interference field as Poisson point process under duty-cycled ALOHA, we derive the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) distributions for several interference conditions. Results show that, for a duty cycle as low as 0.33%, the network performance under co-SF interference alone is considerably optimistic as the inclusion of inter-SF interference unveils a further drop in the success probability and the coverage probability of approximately 10% and 15%, respectively for 1500 devices in a LoRa channel. Finally, we illustrate how our analysis can characterize the critical device density with respect to cell size for a given reliability target.

  • 8.
    Shen, Wei
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Barac, Filip
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science. ABB Corporate Research, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    PriorityMAC: A Priority-Enhanced MAC Protocol for Critical Traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2014In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 824-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes PriorityMAC, a priority-enhanced medium access control protocol, designed for critical traffic in industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN). A notable trend in industrial automation in recent years has been the replacement of wired communication by IWSANs. Exceeding the required delay bound for unpredictable and emergency traffic could lead to system instability, economic and material losses, system failure, and, ultimately, a threat to human safety. Guaranteeing the timely delivery of the IWSAN critical traffic and its prioritization over regular traffic (e.g., noncritical monitoring traffic) is a significant challenge. Therefore, we present the design, implementation, performance analysis, and evaluation of PriorityMAC. A series of novel mechanisms (e.g., high priority indication space) are proposed to enable high-priority traffic to hijack the transmission bandwidth of the low-priority traffic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first priority-enhanced MAC protocol compatible with industrial standards for IWSAN. PriorityMAC is implemented in TinyOS and evaluated on a testbed of Telosb motes. The experimental results indicate that PriorityMAC efficiently handles different traffic categories with different latency requirements, thereby achieving a significant improvement in the delivery latency compared with the current industrial standards. © 2005-2012 IEEE.

  • 9.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    et al.
    University of Brescia.
    Saifullah, Abusayed
    Wayne State University, USA.
    Han, Song
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Industrial Internet of Things: Challenges, Opportunities, and Directions2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 11, p. 4724-4734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging domain that promises ubiquitous connection to the Internet, turning common objects into connected devices. The IoT paradigm is changing the way people interact with things around them. It paves the way to creating pervasively connected infrastructures to support innovative services and promises better flexibility and efficiency. Such advantages are attractive not only for consumer applications, but also for the industrial domain. Over the last few years, we have been witnessing the IoT paradigm making its way into the industry marketplace with purposely designed solutions. In this paper, we clarify the concepts of IoT, Industrial IoT, and Industry 4.0. We highlight the opportunities brought in by this paradigm shift as well as the challenges for its realization. In particular, we focus on the challenges associated with the need of energy efficiency, real-time performance, coexistence, interoperability, and security and privacy. We also provide a systematic overview of the state-of-the-art research efforts and potential research directions to solve Industrial IoT challenges.

  • 10.
    Tsang, Kim Fung
    et al.
    City Univ Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corp Res, S-72226 Västerås, Sweden.
    Guest Editorial Industrial Wireless Networks: Applications, Challenges, and Future Directions2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 755-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yhe papers in this special section focus on industrial wireless networks. With the rapid advance of wireless technologies, numerous emerging solutions and applications of industrial wireless systems have been developed. The present development of communication in industrial environments drives the need for ubiquitous access to distributed resources and services that are connected to things, devices, and systems. Service completions are typically perfected through smart APPS on wireless data delivery, such as WiFi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and 5G. The occurrence of Internet of Things (IoT) further catalyzes the advent of the wireless era. These papers cover the comprehensive solutions of wireless network developments, industrial applications, and wireless prototype designs.

  • 11.
    Yang, Dong
    et al.
    Beijing Jiatong University, China.
    Ma, Jian
    Beijing Jiatong Univeristy, China.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Safe-WirelessHART: A Novel Framework Enabling Safety-Critical Applications Over Industrial WSNs2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 3513-3523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) have mainly been used to monitor applications, but recently an interest in control and safety applications has emerged. Functional safety and communication in open transmission systems have been laid down in the IEC 61784-3-3 standard. The standard is based on a cyclic polling mechanism, which consumes a considerable amount of bandwidth; since existing IWSNs are very resource-constrained, this becomes a major challenge. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel framework that uses an event-triggered failsafe mechanism based on synchronous wired polling and wireless time-slotted time division multiple access. We analytically derive the minimum and maximum bound for the most important metric for safety-critical applications, safety function response time (SFRT). A new metric, normal state interrupt time (NSIT), is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, we also implement the proposed framework by using the WirelessHART standard. The results are compared to the classical time-triggered approach used in the IEC 61784-3-3 standard. The obtained results show that the proposed framework can reduce the bandwidth usage by 90% and support safety-critical applications that require a SFRT less or equal to 150 ms.

  • 12.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1410-1420, article id 7506102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSANs) offer significant advantages to industria lautomation. However, high-reliability demands and hard communication deadlines pose challenges to its practical applications. To achieve this goal, flooding is considered as a promising approach due to multipath diversity and simplicity. In this paper, an enhanced version of REALFLOW, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSANs is presented. Compared to the original REALFLOW, network management and network stability are improved. REALFLOW is compared with four other flooding protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that REALFLOW has better performance in terms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors when considering deadlines. Compared with normal flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparable reliability performance with decreased redundancy. Measurements from a prototype implementation conducted in an industrial manufacturing workshop reveal that high-reliability and low-application failure rates can be achieved, giving more confidence in providing reliable wireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation.

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