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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Gender as a determinant of informal capital in the financing of small firms' start-ups: Swedish data2015In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 249-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the differences in informal capital acquisition between female- and male-owned firms in the start-up stage in Sweden. A binary logistic regression model is used to analyse a sample including 836 female- and 1928 male-owned firms in 2008, providing 47,022 observations. The results indicate that the main explanatory variable, gender, is significant in distinguishing between female- and male-owned firms with regards to the use of informal capital in terms of loans from family members. Thus, female-owned firms tend to rely more on loans from family members than male-owned firms. The findings also indicate that one control variable, namely owners previous experience of starting up a company, negatively influences the use of loans from family members as a financing source in the start-up stage. This study is based on a unique and large sample including many different variables compared with previous research. Knowledge on the differences between Swedish female- and male-owned firms in using informal capital in the start-up stage is limited and ambiguous. The presented results contribute to research into small firm financing by adding insight into the relationships between informal capital acquisition, gender, and other relevant variables.

  • 2.
    Kremel, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University College, School of Business, Society and Engineering, P.O. Box 883, SE- 721 23 Västerås, Sweden .
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Business Networks at Start-up: Swedish Native-Owned and Immigrant-Owned Companies2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 307-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the differences between native Swedish and immigrant entrepreneurs' business networks at start-up stage. The study is based on a database consisting of 261 immigrant- and 2,463 native-owned companies, applying several univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Immigrant entrepreneurs' business networks are less likely to include mainstream contacts at the start-up stage than native born entrepreneurs. Thus, ethnicity is an important variable explaining differences in such networks at the start-up stage. A combination of both mainstream and immigrant networks has the potential to give rise to more growth for immigrant-owned businesses. As a result, these businesses may have potential to create new jobs for unemployed immigrants. This study provides a deeper understanding of how ethnicity may influence the entrepreneurs' use of business networks. It may lead to policy makers considering access to mainstreaming networks as an important issue in the social and economic integration.

  • 3.
    Lundberg, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Rehnfors, Anneli
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    The immigrant effect from employer and employee perspectives in a Swedish context2019In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 36, no 1-2, p. 126-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This explorative study addresses the immigrant effect. Not only is the employer perspective considered, but employed immigrants also share their experiences. We report a multi-case comparative study of two immigrant-employing SMEs in Vasternorrland, a peripheral and sparsely populated region located in Mid Sweden, in northern Europe. The employment of immigrants reportedly had several advantages as well as disadvantages. Both employers and immigrant employees agreed that the immigrants' language and cultural competences reduced psychic distances between the company and the export market represented by the immigrant's country of origin. Employers reported a generally increased awareness of psychic distance among markets resulting from the employment of immigrants, though employing immigrants resulted in increased psychic distance within the companies. 

  • 4.
    Sörensson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Sustainable tourism among swedish tourism service providers: easy to say but difficult to implement2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 309-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research objective of this study was to investigate and analyse how Swedish tourism service providers present their work with sustainability. Data was collected from 48 randomly selected tourism service providers in Sweden, ranging from micro and small to medium-sized tourism service providers. The 48 different tourism service providers also offer different types of tourism services (e.g. tourist agency, stay, do and travel). The results show that the issues of sustainable tourism are present but that the scope is fairly small; focus is mainly on economic sustainability. There are some micro tourism service providers that are strongly focused on all three dimensions of sustainably, often offering some kind of nature-based tourism attraction. The medium-sized and small tourism service providers address the issues of environmental sustainability but in reality there is little action; sustainable tourism is more of a buzzword for the Swedish tourism service providers than concrete action.

  • 5.
    von Friedrichs, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Wahlberg, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Social entrepreneurship in rural areas: a sports club’s mobilisation of people, money and social Capital2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 199-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the growth, roots and concerns of social entrepreneurship in a small, peripheral society, where the sports club has taken over common public responsibilities and become a change agent for the community development. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge about the conditions and challenges of social entrepreneurship when the voluntary sector in the form of a sports club takes over traditional public commitments in small, rural societies. An exploratory case study approach is used. The clubs social embeddedness is found to have given it credibility in the local society, and its geographical proximity has turned it into a bricoleur, while its ability to mobilize critical resources has been key to its success as a social entrepreneur. The study contributes to the growing field of social entrepreneurship with empirical evidence on how volunteers can serve as important change agents in rural local societies.

  • 6.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Impact of capital structure on micro firm productivity: Empirical evidence from Swedish firm-level data2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 223-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the impact of key productivity determinants at the firm level using data on 24,257 Swedish micro firms, including approximately 194,000 observations for the 2007-2008 period. The regression model includes a firm-level measure of total factor productivity as the dependent variable and capital structure and other relevant control variables as independent variables. Analysis reveals that firm-level variables, such as lagged productivity, size, age, profitability, short-term debt ratio, and industry affiliation, significantly affect firm productivity. Agency cost theory seems applicable in partly explaining the relationship between capital structure and productivity. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 7.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Information asymmetry and capital structure: An empirical study of micro firms in Sweden2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically examines the capital structure determinants of

    Swedish micro companies by testing hypotheses based on information

    asymmetry theory. The study sample contains 20,270 micro firms for which

    complete 2007 to 2008 financial information is available, giving a total of

    182,430 observations. The empirical results indicate that six explanatory

    variables, that is, lagged long-term debt, size, age, profitability, tangibility, and

    industry affiliation, are related to capital structure to various extents. The

    results suggest that information asymmetry theory is relevant in explaining the

    financial behaviour of micro firms in Sweden. These findings can help SMEs to

    improve their awareness of financial management and to use resources more

    effectively.

  • 8.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Predicting bankruptcy among SMEs, Evidence from Swedish firm-level data2011In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 551-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The failure rate of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Sweden is high, with about 6,000 SMEs claiming bankruptcy every year. This paper attempts to identify the main prediction variables that are believed to forecast the failure of Swedish SMEs. The research is principally based on an analysis of a panel data sample consisting of 1,412 bankrupt and 3,084 non-bankrupt Swedish SMEs for the period 2004 to 2006. The statistical technique of logistic regression model is employed to analyse the data. The results, which have a high rate of accuracy, indicate that a set of six variables are significant as bankruptcy predictors: the ratio of short-term debt to total assets, total leverage (the ratio of short- and long-term debt to total assets), change in total assets from the previous year, firm size (natural logarithm of sales), financial expenses to total debt, and return on assets.

  • 9.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Jahandar, S.
    Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, Chaucer 4711, Nottingham NG1 4BU, United Kingdom.
    Acquisition of external capital at start-up stage: Differences between Swedish female- and male-owned firms2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 435-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores differences in external capital acquisition between female- and male-owned firms at start-up stage in Sweden. The study sample is taken from a unique and large database including 836 female- and 1928 male-owned firms in 2008, giving a total of 47,022 observations. ANOVA, multinomial logistic regression, and other robust statistical tests are employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that two variables, i.e., loans from family members and government grants, are significant in distinguishing between female- and male-owned firms in terms of external start-up capital. The findings also indicate that owners' previous experience and having an additional job outside one's own business influence the use of external capital at start-up stage. Knowledge of the difference between female- and maleowned firms' use external capital at start-up stage is limited and ambiguous. The present results contribute to research into small firm financing by adding insight into the relationships between capital acquisition, gender, and other variables. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 10.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Turner, S.
    School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, United Kingdom .
    The impact of internal finance on growth empirical evidence from Swedish firm level data2013In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of firms' internal liquidity access and related firm characteristics on the growth of Swedish micro firms across six industry sectors, based on a database of over 62,000 observations covering 10,383 Swedish micro firms over the 2007-2008 period. Using a seemingly unrelated regression model with four explanatory variables (i.e., liquidity access, size, age, and industry affiliation), this study found a significant relationship between growth and the explanatory variables. Consistent with much previous research, this paper demonstrates that liquidity access positively affects firm growth. Furthermore, other firm-level variables, such as size, age, and industry affiliation, significantly affect firm growth. This article contributes to the literature by employing a seemingly unrelated regression model to analyse a comprehensive, cross-sectoral sample. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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