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  • 1.
    Große, Christine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Blind spots in interaction between actors in Swedish planning for critical infrastructure protection2019In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, p. 424-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Failures in the power supply threaten the safety of developed countries, as they are increasingly dependent on electricity to maintain important societal functions through critical infrastructure. To protect electricity-dependent critical infrastructure, Sweden has implemented a multi-level planning, called Styrel, which involves national-, regional- and local-level actors. This study focuses on interactions among key actors and their roles in the planning as well as the Swedish crisis management system. With evidence from interviews and a survey among the actors, analyses indicate blind spots in the current proceeding, such as the reliance of the outcome of the process on the actors’ commitment to achieve a common understanding of the importance of infrastructure assets and participate in collaborations. This paper reveals that actors lack awareness, knowledge, capability and resources to fulfil their roles in the national planning for critical infrastructure protection. By highlighting interrelations, this study contributes to the international discussion of identification, prioritisation and protection of critical infrastructure to mitigate consequences of power failures for a depending society.

  • 2.
    Schagatay, Erika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Åman, Pontus Albertsson
    Umeå University Hospital, Umeå; Country Council for Health Care, Region Norrbotten, Gällivare.
    Repeated freediving – An efficient and safe method to rescue subjects trapped in cars underwater2019In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, p. 752-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method based on repeated freediving was developed to rescue subjects trapped in cars underwater – a scenario leading to 5–6 annual deaths in Sweden, and thousands globally. We determined rescue time and whether the divers were at risk of hypoxic blackout. Cars containing 5 kg negatively buoyant rescue-dummies strapped with seatbelts were placed on 5 m and 8 m depth. Eight freediving-instructors made 230 freedives, working in pairs with one diver always at the surface. For each rescue, two freedivers, equipped with mask, snorkel, fins, weight-belt, wetsuit and a buoy with belt-cutter and glass-breaker freedived alternating in turns between the divers. They accomplished a maximum of one of the following tasks per dive; (1) Finding the car; (2) Marking car with buoy; (3) Opening door/crushing window. (4) Opening/cutting belt; (5) Retrieving dummy to surface; (6) Transporting dummy to shore. Dummies were retrieved to shore from 5 m depth within a mean (SD) duration of 4 min 16 s (1 min 36 s) and from 8 m within 6 min 22 s (2 min 13 s; P < 0.05). Mean dive duration was 28(7)s (14–46 s), with 3 dives over 40 s duration. Freedivers arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels were measured in dives of 30, 35, 40 and 45 s using pulse oximetry. Mean (SD) SaO2 at 20 s after surfacing was 90% for 45 s dives. This allows rapid recovery and gives a safety margin to the 50% SaO2 level when divers may risk blackout. We concluded that repeated freediving is efficient for rescuing victims trapped in cars underwater within their survival time, and following recommended methods and dive durations, rescue divers are not exposed to risk. 

  • 3.
    Sparf, Jörgen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Interfaces in temporary multi-organizations in routine emergency management: The case of Stockholm2019In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, no October 2019, p. 702-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address increasingly complex social problems and provide more effective public goods, governments turn to multi-organizational arrangements, often with a limited life span. Carrying out work in project form allows public bureaucracies flexibility and gives space for innovative and experimental solutions to long-standing problems. Temporary multi-organizations (TMOs) are common in the construction and building industries but more opaque are the mechanisms governing them in the public sector. This is a case study of such a TMO in the broader Stockholm region in the field of emergency management. The research questions guiding this study are: (i) what added value does the TMO contribute to the provision of routine emergency management; and (ii) what are the organizational consequences for each constituent member of the TMO? Finally, (iii) how do participants organizations balance the collective benefit of the TMO vs the costs individually incurring to each of them? I construct an analytical framework of perceived added value of the TMO on the one hand and organizational consequences on the other. Findings suggest that the TMO is insulated, with the knowledge produced in it staying within the confines of the project. The participating organizations, though recognizing the high normative value of collaboration, tend to focus more on the consequences the TMO has on each of them, rather than the added value it conveys to them and the provision of emergency management as a whole. 

  • 4.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Electronic government: Towards e-democracy or democracy at risk?2019In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 118, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic government (e-Government) is a research field that studies the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the public sector. Such initiatives are often associated with promises of transformational government, which is more efficient and utilizes modern technology to increase democratic engagement. However, research shows that several e-Government initiatives fail to deliver the promised benefits and attract a large portion of citizens. Some researchers argue that many initiatives have been driven by technology rather than by the core values of government, which has resulted in weakened democracy. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this paper is to achieve a greater understanding of risk in the e-Government field. Through a literature study, research papers were analyzed and divided into categories based on their unit of analysis, and ontological and epistemological properties. Four themes were identified in the material: IT security, user adoption, implementation barriers, and policy and democracy. This paper concludes by suggesting these themes would provide a suitable point of departure for a risk management framework in e-Government. Thus, future research should explore ways to converge these different strands of literature in multi-disciplinary research.

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