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  • 1.
    Bayat, Nazlin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Influence of Heat Treatment on the Surface Structure of 6082 Al Alloys2017In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 48A, no 10, p. 5085-5094Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The β-Al5FeSi intermetallic phase and coarse Mg2Si particles have negative effects on extrudability and workability of 6xxx Al alloys billets. To achieve extruded products with a high surface quality, the as-cast billets are heat-treated before extrusion. During heat treatment, the undesired intermetallic particles, i.e., β-AlFeSi platelets are transformed to rounded α-Al(FeMn)Si intermetallic phases. Although the heat treatment of the bulk areas of the 6xxx Al alloys has been the focus of many previous studies, the process of phase transformation at the very surface has not been paid the same attention. In this study, microstructures of a homogenized billet of a 6082 alloy at the area very close to the surface were investigated. By comparing the X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of heat-treated samples as a function of different holding times, the gradual phase transformations could be followed, and using GDOES and map analysis by EDX, the alloying elemental redistribution was analyzed. Partial remelting and porosity growth was detected, and transformation rates were faster than in bulk material and from what is known from industrial processes.

  • 2.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry studies of aluminum 3003 alloys with Zn and Cu additions2007In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 2138-2147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Zn additions in the range of 0 to 5 wt pct and Cu contents of 0.15 to 1.0 wt pct on the solidification and precipitation behavior of aluminum alloys of AA 3003 type was investigated with differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX). The results show that the additions of varying Zn and Cu have significant effects on the crystallization process, phase precipitation, and microstructure formation of the alloys. Phases formed have been identified and morphological differences have been discussed

  • 3.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    DTA and DSC Studies of Aluminium 3003 Alloys with Zn and Cu Additions2007In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 38A, p. 2138-2147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Zn additions in the range of 0-5wt.% and Cu contents of 0.15-1.0 wt.%, on the solidification and precipitation behaviour of aluminium alloys of AA 3003 type was investigated with differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy (OM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The results show that the additions of varying Zn and Cu have significant effects on the crystallization process, phase precipitation and microstructure formation of the alloys. Phases formed have been identified and morphological differences have been discussed.

  • 4.
    Razaz, Ghadir
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hot tearing susceptibility of AA3000 aluminum alloy containing Cu, Ti, and Zr2019In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 50A, no 8, p. 3842-3854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe hot tearing has been observed during DC casting of modified AA3000 alloys with additions of Cu, Ti, and Zr, although these alloys are regarded as rather easy to cast. Extensive studies have been performed on both synthetic and industrial AA2000, AA6000, and AA7000 alloys, but less data are available for AA3000 alloys. This work was thus initiated to investigate the hot tearing susceptibility of AA3000 alloys with varying alloy element content using constrained rod casting molds. The results showed that the Cu and Fe content have a major impact on hot tearing resistance, while the effects of Zr and Ti are minor. Cu in a range from 0.3 to 1.2 wt pct significantly increased the hot tearing tendency. This is due to the existence of high eutectic fractions at low temperatures, as well as porosity formation associated with bad feeding at the end of solidification. A strong cracking tendency was observed below an Fe content 0.2 wt pct owing to decreased precipitation of the Al6(Mn, Fe) phase. It was found that primary Al6(Mn, Fe) phases lead to early bridging between the grains, which reinforces the alloy during the vulnerable temperature range for hot tearing. Zr and Ti additions weakly enhanced or reduced hot tearing severity, respectively.

  • 5.
    Razaz, Ghadir
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    On the dissolution Process of Manganese and Iron in Molten Aluminum2019In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 1873-1887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissolution of Mn and Fe in liquid Al presents a challenge due to their high melting points and low diffusivity. A literature review reveals that the existing knowledge of the processes involved in the dissolution of both Fe and Mn in liquid Al is rather ambiguous. Thus, this work aimed to obtain more detailed insights into the dissolution behavior of Mn and Fe in various Al melts. The results of the Mn dissolution tests showed that three intermediate phases were involved in the dissolution process, all of which exhibited a smooth interface between Mn and the liquid. These three phases were identified as the γ2, Al11Mn4, and µ phases which grow slowly, penetrating the Mn particles. The results of the Fe dissolution tests showed that in pure Al, the Al5Fe2 phase dominates the dissolution process and penetrates the Fe particles. The addition of Ti into the molten Al alters the intermetallic compound formation by replacing Al5Fe2 by Al2Fe. The addition of Si significantly inhibited the Fe dissolution kinetics. A theoretical approach based on Ficks’ law was used to explain the experimentally obtained Mn and Fe dissolution rates. It showed that the surface area and shape of the additives significantly affected the dissolution processes.

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