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  • 1.
    Jonsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Köhler, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Stenmark, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Oxygen Plasma Wafer Bonding Evaluated by the Weibull Fracture Probability Method2001In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 364-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the oxygen plasma bonding process for fusion bonded silicon wafers has been characterized by a new approach. The mechanical reliability of bonded microstructures was determined using burst tests and Weibull statistic analyses. The fracture characteristic of the bonded system is considered to depend on the stress distribution, the defect distribution and the fracture surface energy at the bond. Using Weibull theory, it is possible to extract the Weibull modulus m and the mean fracture uniform tensile stress per unit length, σfc, from the measured data. These quantities make it possible to compare the joint defect distribution and the fracture surface energy at the bonded interface for the processing conditions under observation. These experiments also demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish between these quantities under certain conditions.

    The fracture probability for different annealing temperatures has been evaluated and found to agree with previous results from surface energy measurements. It is shown that the bond fracture probability increases with annealing times in the range of 10-100 h. The saturated bond strength value is considerably enhanced by oxygen plasma activation prior to bonding. In this study, plasma activations at room temperature and 300 °C compare to chemical activations in hot nitric acid annealed at 120 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The tendency to form voids at elevated temperatures, e.g. 300 °C, is increased by the oxygen plasma treatment.

    If the surface energy is considered to be homogeneous over the bonded interface, the Weibull modulus m is an indirect measure of the defect distribution, low m values indicate a wide spectrum of defect types, whereas a high m value narrows the defect distribution responsible for fracture. The Weibull modulus m is shown to be valuable for evaluation of the bonded interface. It is demonstrated that a more scattered defect distribution emerges for in situ bonded wafers as compared to ex situ, and annealing at 300 °C for 90 h as compared to room-temperature storage. However, the defect distribution becomes increasingly more narrow with storage time. These variations may be due to either changes in microcracks or void configuration or inhomogeneities in the fracture surface energy over the bond interface.

  • 2.
    Köhler, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Strandman, Carola
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Bäcklund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Silicon fusion bond interfaces resilient to wet anisotropic etchants2001In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 11, p. 359-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bond interface in silicon microsystems is sensitive to the subjection to wet anisotropic etchants. Fusion bond interfaces of bonded wafers resilient to potassium hydroxide or tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide etching are obtained using wafers of oxidized silicon bonded to oxidized silicon, where the bond oxide is removed by trifluoromethane plasma etching. Other investigated bond configurations initiate severe damages during etching.

  • 3.
    Mattsson, Claes
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Martin, Hans
    SenseAir.
    Thermal simulation and design optimization of a thermopile infrared detector with SU-8 membrane2009In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 055016-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation and optimization tools are commonly used in the design phase of advanced electronics devices. In this work, we present a thermal simulation and design optimization tool for infrared thermopile detectors based on a closed membrane structure. The tool can be used to simulate and optimize thermopile detectors with an arbitrary number of design parameters. The optimization utilizes the Nelder–Mead and the adaptive simulated annealing optimization algorithms to maximize the system performance. A thermopile detector with an SU-8-based closed membrane and metal–metal thermocouples has been simulated and optimized. Based on the results generated by the tool, an optimized detector has been fabricated and characterized. The results from the measurements presented are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  • 4.
    Rangsten, Pelle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Backlund, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Etch rates of crystallographic planes in Z-cut quartz - experiments and simulation1998In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anisotropic etching behaviour of monocrystalline quartz is studied both experimentally and with computer simulations. The etch rate minima were identified as the crystal planes mrs and . Various shapes and initial structures, both concave and convex, have been produced by etching quartz wafers in an HF:F solution. These have been subsequently analysed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Etch rates of both slow- and fast-etching crystal planes have been measured. The data thus obtained were fed into topography evolution software and a number of experimental profiles were compared with the simulated ones. To verify the work, a 3.5 m thick membrane was manufactured in a two-step double-sided etching process. This illustrates the usefulness of the data obtained, as well as the power of the simulations.

  • 5.
    Rosén, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Christer
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för materialvetenskap.
    Membrane Covered Electrically Isolated Through-Wafer Via Holes2001In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 344-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrically isolated through-wafer via hole, covered by a membrane, has been realized by standard integrated circuits processes together with deep silicon etching. The deep silicon etching was performed by the Bosch silicon etch process in a Plasma-Therm etch system. The via structures were made in double-sided polished 300 µm thick silicon wafers and had widths down to 20 µm, which correspond to an aspect ratio of 15. The fact that the via structures are electrically isolated makes them a suitable start-point to realize interconnections through a wafer. Furthermore, the application field of the via structure is broadened by the flexibility in the design of the structure, which makes it possible to apply an almost arbitrary membrane material onto the via structure at the end of the process.

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