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  • 1. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Regional Production and Utilization of Biomass in Sweden1996In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 747-764Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Dai, X W
    et al.
    Yin, X L
    Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Wu, C Z
    Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Zhang, W N
    Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Chen, Y
    Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Pyrolysis of waste tires in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor2001In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 385-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) as the main reactor, an integrated process development unit was operated aiming at the pyrolysis of waste tires. The main chemical processes in the CFB can be divided into two zones corresponding to pyrolysis and secondary reactions. The pyrolysis of tire powder was carried out at various pyrolysis temperatures, particle sizes of tire powder and feed positions. The effects of temperature, residence time and heating rate on pyrolysis were analyzed based on the experimental data. The main trends are that (1) a long residence time contributes to secondary reactions and (2) lower temperature and heating rate favor carbonization, which reduces the oil yield. Analysis of the pyrolytic oil shows that the predominant components are aromatics, followed by alkanes, non-hydrocarbons and asphalt.

  • 3.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    District Heating Systems and Energy Conservation: Part I1994In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    District Heating Systems and Energy Conservation: Part II1994In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Madlener, R
    CEPE—Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH-Zentrum WEC, CH-8092, Zurich, Switzerland.
    CO2 Mitigation Costs of Large-scale Bioenergy Technologies in Competitive Electricity Markets2003In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 28, no 14, p. 1405-1425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO2 mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO2 mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO2 mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the socio-political will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO2 mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural-gas-fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost-competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $ 150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $ 90/t C.

  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, S-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden..
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Coproduction of district heat and electricity or biomotor fuels2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 6263-6277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of a district heating system depends on the heat load demand, which varies throughout the year. In this paper, we analyze the coproduction of district heat and electricity or biomotor fuels. We demonstrate how three different taxation scenarios and two crude oil price levels influence the selection of production units to minimize the district heat production cost and calculate the resulting primary energy use. Our analysis is based on the annual measured heat load of a district heating system. The minimum-cost district heat production system comprises different production units that meet the district heat demand and simultaneously minimize the district heat production cost. First, we optimize the cost of a district heat production system based on the cogeneration of electricity and heat with and without biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle technology. We considered cogenerated electricity as a byproduct with the value of that produced by a condensing power plant. Next, we integrate and optimize different biomotor fuel production units into the district heat production system by considering biomotor fuels as byproducts that can substitute for fossil motor fuels. We demonstrate that in district heating systems, the strengthening of environmental taxation reduces the dependence on fossil fuels. However, increases in environmental taxation and the crude oil price do not necessarily influence the production cost of district heat as long as biomass price is not driven by policy measures. Biomotor fuel production in a district heating system is typically not cost-efficient. The biomotor fuels produced from the district heating system have to compete with those from standalone biomotor fuel plants and also with its fossil-based counterparts. This is also true for high oil prices. A carbon tax on fossil CO2 emissions based on social cost damage will increase the competitiveness of biomass-based combined heat and power plants, especially for BIGCC technology with its high electricity-to-heat ratio.

  • 7.
    Joelsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, SE-351 95 Växjö, Sweden.
    Swedish biomass strategies to reduce CO 2 emission and oil use in an EU context2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 448-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish energy strategies for transportation, space heating and pulp industries were evaluated with a focus on bioenergy use. The aims were to 1) study trade-offs between reductions in CO 2 emission and oil use and between Swedish reductions and EU reductions, 2) compare the potential contributions of individual reduction measures, 3) quantify the total CO 2 emission and oil use reduction potentials. Swedish energy efficiency measures reduced EU CO 2 emission by 45-59 Mt CO 2/a, at current biomass use and constant oil use. Doubling Swedish bioenergy use yielded an additional 40 Mt CO 2/a reduction. Oil use could be reduced, but 36-81 kt of reductions in CO 2 emission would be lost per PJ of oil use reduction. Swedish fossil fuel use within the studied sectors could be nearly eliminated. The expansion of district heating and cogeneration of heat with a high electricity yield were important measures. Plug-in hybrid electric cars reduced CO 2 emission compared with conventional cars, and the difference was larger with increasing oil scarcity. The introduction of black liquor gasification in pulp mills also gave large CO 2 emission reduction. Motor fuel from biomass was found to be a feasible option when coal is the marginal fuel for fossil motor fuel production. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 8.
    Joelsson, Jonas M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, L
    Linnaeus Univ, SE-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and oil use by DME (di-methyl ether) and FT (Fischer-Tropsch) diesel production in chemical pulp mills2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 363-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using energy systems analysis, we examine the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions and oil use by integrating motor biofuel production with pulp mills. BLG-DME (black liquor gasification with di-methyl ether production) is compared with solid biomass gasification with BIG-FT (solid biomass gasification with Fischer-Tropsch fuel production). The studied systems are expanded with stand-alone production of biomass-based electricity and motor fuel so that they yield the same functional unit in terms of motor fuel and electricity as well as pulp or paper product, in order to facilitate comparison. More motor biofuel can be produced in integration with the studied mills with BLG-DME than with BIG-FT because the black liquor flow is large compared with other fuel streams in the mill and the integration potential for BIG-FT is limited by the mill’s heat demand. When both systems are required to produce the same functional unit, the BLG-DME system achieves higher system efficiency and larger reductions in CO 2 emissions and oil use per unit of biomass consumed. In general, integration of motor biofuel production with a pulp mill is more efficient than stand-alone motor biofuel production. Larger reductions in CO 2 emissions or oil use can, however, be achieved if biomass replaces coal or oil in stationary applications. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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