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  • 1.
    Aranda, Jesus Javier Lechuga
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    An Apparatus For The Performance Estimation Of Pressure Fluctuation Energy Harvesters2018Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 67, nr 11, s. 2705-2713Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic pressure fluctuation energy harvesters are promising alternatives to power up wireless sensor nodes in hydraulic systems. The characterization of these harvesters under dynamic and band-limited pressure signals is imperative for the research and development of novel concepts. To generate and control these signals in a hydraulic medium, a versatile apparatus capable of reproducing pressure signals is proposed. In this paper, a comprehensive discussion of the design considerations for this apparatus and its performance is given. The suggested setup enables the investigation of devices tailored for the harvesting of energy in conventional hydraulic systems. To mimic these systems, static pressures can be tuned up to 300 bar, and the pressure amplitudes with a maximum of 28 Bar at 40 Hz and 0.5 bar at 1000 Hz can be generated. In addition, pressure signals found in commercial hydraulic systems can be reproduced with good accuracy. This apparatus proves to be an accessible, robust, and versatile experimental setup to create environments for the complete performance estimation of pressure fluctuation energy harvesters. 

  • 2.
    Ascorti, Leonardo
    et al.
    Pepperl+Fuchs, Sulbiate, Italy.
    Savazzi, Stefano
    Institute of Electronics, Computer and Telecommunication Engineering, Milano, Italy.
    Soatti, Gloria
    Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Nicoli, Monica
    Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Galimberti, Stefano
    Pepperl+Fuchs, Sulbiate, Italy.
    A Wireless Cloud Network Platform for Industrial Process Automation: Critical Data Publishing and Distributed Sensing2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, nr 4, s. 592-603, artikkel-id 7851047Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless technologies combined with advanced computing are changing industrial communications. Industrial wireless networks can improve the monitoring and the control of the entire system by jointly exploiting massively interacting communication and distributed computing paradigms. In this paper, we develop a wireless cloud platform for supporting critical data publishing and distributed sensing of the surrounding environment. The cloud system is designed as a self-contained network that interacts with devices exploiting the time synchronized channel hopping protocol (TSCH), supported by WirelessHART (IEC 62591). The cloud platform augments industry-standard networking functions as it handles the delivery (or publishing) of latency and throughput-critical data by implementing a cooperative-multihop forwarding scheme. In addition, it supports distributed sensing functions through consensus-based algorithms. Experimental activities are presented to show the feasibility of the approach in two real industrial plant sites representative of typical indoor and outdoor environments. Validation of cooperative forwarding schemes shows substantial improvements compared with standard industrial solutions. Distributed sensing functions are developed to enable the autonomous identification of recurring cochannel interference patterns.

  • 3.
    Barac, Filip
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem. ABB Corp Res, S-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Scrutinizing Bit- and Symbol-Errors of IEEE 802.15.4 Communication in Industrial Environments2014Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 63, nr 7, s. 1783-1794Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of error nature in wireless channels is an essential constituent of efficient communication protocol design. To this end, this paper is the first comprehensive bit- and symbol-level analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 transmission errors in industrial environments. The intention with this paper is to extract the error properties relevant for future improvements of wireless communication reliability and coexistence of radio systems in these harsh conditions. An extensive set of bit-error traces was collected in a variety of scenarios and industrial environments, showing that error behavior is highly dependent on the cause of packet corruption. It is shown that errors inflicted by multipath fading and attenuation exhibit different properties than those imposed by IEEE 802.11 interference. The statistical behavior of these two patterns is concurrently investigated in terms of differences in bit-error distribution, error burst length, channel memory length, and the scale of packet corruption. With these conclusions at hand, abiding to the computational constraints of embedded sensors and the statistical properties of bit-errors, a Reed-Solomon $(15,k)$ block code is chosen to investigate the implications of bit-error nature on practical aspects of channel coding and interleaving. This paper is concluded by a number of findings of high practical relevance, concerning the optimal type, depth, and meaningfulness of interleaving.

  • 4.
    Caro, D. Di
    et al.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Liguori, Consolatina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Univ. of Salerno.
    Pietrosanto, A.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Sommella, P.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Hazelnut Oil Classification by NMR Techniques2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, nr 5, s. 928-934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in chemical analysis and medical diagnosis. In recent years, thanks to the development of the NMR instrumentation and the software for data analysis, it is becoming a useful tool for quality control in the food industry. In this field, several applications have been developed related to the compositional and structural analysis, authentication, packaging, and on-line monitoring. This paper highlights the capability of NMR to discern between the oil extracted from healthy and unhealthy hazelnuts, as a preliminary step toward the automatic detection of the hidden defects in full hazelnuts. Different processing techniques are analyzed on the CPMG response in order to set up the final measurement system.

  • 5.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Joint-angle Measurement Using Accelerometers and Gyroscopes: A Survey2010Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 404-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of rigid-body joint-angle measurement based on microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) biaxial accelerometers and uniaxial gyroscopes. In comparison to conventional magnetic and optical joint angular sensors, this new inertial sensing principle has the advantages of flexible installation and true contactless sensing. This paper focuses on the comparison of four different inertial-sensor combination methods that are reported in reference papers and utilizes the theory of rigid-body kinematics to explain and analyze their advantages and weaknesses. Experiments have also been conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the analysis. All experiments in this paper took place on a custom-built rigid-body robot arm model that can be manipulated by hand. Sensor calibration and accelerometer alignment issues are also described, and their details are discussed. The experiment results presented in this paper show significant differences with reference to the achieved angular accuracy for various situations when using the four different sensor combination methods. In some cases, the angular error based on one method is more than 0.04 rad, while that from another method is within +/-0.005 rad. The noise levels of angular readings from different methods are also experimentally compared and analyzed. The conclusion drawn serves to guide readers toward a suitable method for their particular application.

  • 6.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Linnarsson, Fredrik
    Cargotec Sweden AB, S-82450 Hudiksvall, Sweden.
    A Local Positioning System for Loader Cranes Based on Wireless Sensors-A Feasibility Study2011Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, nr 8, s. 2881-2893Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a feasibility study that deals with a local positioning system for a loader crane based on battery-powered wireless sensors and consists of two joint angular sensors and one telescopic boom length ranger. The practical challenges associated with using conventional sensors are described in order to provide the motivation behind the choice to use the sensing methods proposed in this paper. A novel method is tested using microelectromechanical system inertial sensors mounted around the crane joints to indirectly measure the joint angles, as well as an ultrasound time-of-flight ranging method to measure the telescopic boom length. The local positioning system's wireless sensor prototype designs are described in detail. Data from the angular sensor experiments conducted on a loader crane and the ultrasound ranging experiments conducted both in the laboratory and on the loader crane are presented and analyzed. The preliminary results from these experiments show that the performance of the new sensors is promising. The conclusion is drawn from the experimental results, and future work for this local positioning system is also described.

  • 7.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Sobh, Mohamed
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Contactless Rotor RPM Measurement Using Laser Mouse Sensors2012Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 740-748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study using laser mouse sensors for the contactless revolutions per minute (RPM) measurement of a rotating shaft. The sensor performance characterization experiment is firstly conducted under different parameter setups. After the optimal parameter value has been found, the rotor RPM experiment is then conducted with a speed sweep from 500 to 3800 rpm, and data are gathered at 30 different speeds and processed using two different methods to convert the sensor readings into the RPM of the rotating shaft; the results are then displayed. The performance differences between the two methods are compared, and the observation is that both the linearity and the signal-to-noise ratio of the frequency correlation method are several times better than those for the amplitude correlation method. The conclusion summarizes the experimental results and the advantage associated with this new RPM sensing method and provides the motivation for its potential applications and its future works.

  • 8.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Yang, Yan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Design and Implementation of a Stator-Free RPM Sensor Prototype Based on MEMS Accelerometers2012Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 775-785Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a prototype of a stator-free revolutions-per-minute (RPM) sensor based on two microelectromechanical-system uniaxial accelerometers. This paper first introduces the operating principle of the stator-free RPM sensor. It then discusses the associated architecture and design issues of this new sensing method. It then describes the detail of the prototype sensor hardware and software design of the common-mode rejection method and its signal processing. Experiments using the prototype sensor have been also conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the previous discussion. All experiments in this paper took place on a lathe machine in a laboratory. Sensor calibration under a MATLAB environment is also described. Experimental results confirm the interesting property of this sensor, namely, that it provides higher precision at higher RPM. The conclusion summarizes the design considerations, the experimental results, and the motivation in relation to future works for this stator-free RPM sensing method.

  • 9.
    Crema, Claudio
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Depari, Alessandro
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Vezzoli, Angelo
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Bellagente, Paolo
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Virtual Respiratory Rate Sensors: An Example of A Smartphone-Based Integrated and Multiparametric mHealth Gateway2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, nr 9, s. 2456-2463, artikkel-id 7949106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, several wearables appeared in the market, for fitness and healthcare applications. Such smart devices have been proposed as a possible solution for lowering the costs of healthcare, leading to the mHealth revolution. In the typical scenario, each wearable, embedding sensors, processing units and communication modules, adopts a smartphone for data collection, data displaying, and remote communication. In this paper, authors modify this paradigm simplifying the wearables (e.g., relying only on simple analog front ends and communication interfaces) and exploiting the (relatively large) computational capability of the smartphone, not only for implementing gateway features but also for processing raw biosignals as well. Several experiments verify the feasibility of the proposed approach and demonstrate that 'local' biosensor virtualization is possible, expanding possibilities of mHealth. In particular, tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance of hearth rate computation and respiratory rate virtual sensor, starting from a single-lead electrocardiogram signal. 

  • 10.
    De Angelis, Alessio
    et al.
    University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Carbone, Paolo
    University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Performance Assessment of Chirp-Based Time Dissemination and Data Communications in Inductively Coupled Links2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, nr 9, s. 2474-2482, artikkel-id 7930481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advantages of inductively coupled links for short-range communications are well known. Recently, they gained popularity as a viable solution for wireless power transmission. Interesting to notice that data communication capability is required as well, mainly for coordinating the transfer process. In this paper, the authors address the use of chirp signaling over inductively coupled links for both time dissemination and data communications. Such an approach extends field of applications, including data acquisition and instrumentation that are used in industrial automation. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified with extensive simulations and using a proof-of-concept prototype. Despite the prototype simplicity, jitter on the synchronizing reference signal is in the order of few microseconds and the bit error rate, over a short distance, is negligible.

  • 11. Liguori, Consolatina
    et al.
    Paolillo, Alfredo
    Ruggiero, Alessandro
    Russo, Domenico
    Outlier Detection for the Evaluation of the Measurement Uncertainty of Environmental Acoustic Noise2016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 234-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Liguori, Consolatina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. Univ. of Salerno.
    Ruggiero, A.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Sommella, P.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Russo, D.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Choosing Bootstrap Method for the Estimation of the Uncertainty of Traffic Noise Measurements2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, nr 5, s. 869-878Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental acoustic noise is considered as a big risk for today's population health. Consequently, the regulations in many countries commit themselves to control the exposition of people, imposing limits to the noise level. In the comparison between the measured value and the threshold, the uncertainty of the measured value has to be taken into account. In this paper, a procedure for the evaluation of the uncertainty of traffic noise measurements due to the variability of the measurand is proposed. A deep analysis of five bootstrap (normal, basic percentile, t-student, bias corrected percentile, and bias corrected and accelerated percentile) methods is performed to obtain accurate confidence intervals for the indicator L<sub>eq</sub>.Awithout necessity to make normal theory assumptions. From the comparison with the classical method (according to Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (ISO GUM)), the novel approach reveals to be more effective for estimating both the expected value and the uncertainty of the short-term equivalent sound pressure level when a large data set is not available.

  • 13.
    Mustafa, Mohamed Sobh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Cheng, Peng
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Stator-Free Low Angular Speed Sensor Based on a MEMS Gyroscope2014Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 63, nr 11, s. 2591-2598Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the implementation and tests the performance of a low angular speed sensor for rotary machinery based on a microelectromechanical system gyroscope. First, an experimental test setup is presented that features a top-of-the-line optical absolute angle encoder as a reference for characterizing the proposed sensor in a controlled environment chamber. A prototype of the proposed sensor has been designed and implemented with its architecture and hardware design described in detail. For the experimental purposes, a wireless synchronization scheme between the reference and the gyroscopic sensor is also discussed. The experimental measurement has taken place to benchmark the performance of the realized sensor. The experimental data have been processed and analyzed, and the results have been presented. The gyroscopic sensor has shown satisfactory results. The sensor has an accuracy of 0.06 degrees/s, standard deviation of 0.45 degrees/s, and hysteresis of 0.08 degrees/s.

  • 14.
    Nazar Ul Islam, Muhammad
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Cheng, Peng
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    High performance reference setup for characterization and calibration of low-range differential pressure sensors2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, nr 1, s. 154-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The calibration of sensors is one of the most frequently carried out maintenance operations on sensor networks. This paper presents the design of a reference instrument for the static calibration of low-range (up to ±320 Pa) differential pressure sensors. A method is proposed for the calibration setup and the design issues are discussed in addition to a complete error analysis. An experimental setup is also proposed. From the conducted experiments, it is verified that the sensitivity of the reference setup is at least 0.032 Pa with the achievable resolution of 0.001% of full scale. This paper also presents an embedded electronics design for both the calibration and the characterization profile handling. A full performance characterization of a sample differential pressure sensor is also presented in terms of sensitivity, linearity, hysteresis, and temperature dependency. A comprehensive discussion involving the design parameters analysis and the worst case performance is also included. In conclusion, it is summarized that the proposed design out performs the conventional reference instruments, so that it can be used for the calibration and characterization of a wide variety of low-range differential pressure sensors.

  • 15.
    Nikonowicz, Jakub
    et al.
    Poznań University of Technology, Poland.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Noise Power Estimators in ISM Radio Environments: Performance Comparison and Enhancement Using a Novel Samples Separation Technique2019Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 105-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise power estimation is central to efficient radio resource allocation in modern wireless communication systems. In the literature, there exist many noise power estimation methods that can be classified based on underlying theoretical principle; the most common are spectral averaging, eigenvalues of sample covariance matrix, information theory, and statistical signal analysis. However, how these estimation methods compare against each other in terms of accuracy, stability, and complexity is not well studied, and the focus instead remains on the enhancement of individual methods. In this paper, we adopt a common simulation methodology to perform a detailed performance evaluation of the prominent estimation techniques. The basis of our comparison is the signal-to-noise ratio estimation in the simulated industrial, scientific and medical band transmission, while the reference noise signal is acquired from an industrial production plant using a software-defined radio platform, USRP-2932. In addition, we analyze the impact of different techniques for noise-samples' separation on the estimation process. As a response to defects in the existing techniques, we propose a novel noise-samples' separation algorithm based on the adaptation of rank-order filtering. Our analysis shows that the proposed solution, apart from its low complexity, has a very good root-mean-squared error of 0.5 dB and smaller than 0.1-dB resolution, thus  achieving a performance comparable with the methods exploiting information theory concepts.

  • 16.
    Rizzi, Mattia
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Ferrari, Paolo
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Evaluation of the IoT LoRaWAN Solution for Distributed Measurement Applications2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, nr 12, s. 3340-3349, artikkel-id 8036410Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is based on data collection, where billions of sensors sample the real world; in other words, the IoT includes a giant distributed measurement system (DMS). A question still requiring an answer is: Are the IoT technologies usable to enhance traditional measurement systems, since they have been developed for a very similar objective? In this paper, the use of a long-range (LoRa) technology, originally developed for IoT, is investigated with the aim of implementing DMSs. After the conclusion that LoRa and LoRa wide area network architectures show a good match with measurement systems, this paper focuses on the characterization of time-related performance indicators that are important for distributed systems. The experimental results show the capability of low-cost transceiver to schedule the transmission of frames with a standard uncertainty less than 3 μs; and an acceptable long-term clock stability (Allan Deviation) of commercial available devices (nodes and packet forwarders) for application such as smart metering, smart building, and process industry. 

  • 17.
    Rosa, Pedro J.
    et al.
    ULHT, COPELABS, Sch Psychol & Life Sci, P-1749024 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Arriaga, Patricia
    ISCTE Univ, Inst Lisbon, Dept Psychol, P-1649026 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Beyond Traditional Clinical Measurements for Screening Fears and Phobias2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, nr 12, s. 3396-3404, artikkel-id 7271039Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of eye movements is a usual method of measuring attentional and emotional response in laboratory. However, when it comes to clinical practice, it is seldom applied. Two studies were conducted to examine whether extraocular and intraocular movements can be used as indices of attentional bias and autonomic activation. In the first study, a free-viewing task, combined with subliminal exposure, showed that high-fear individuals tend to orient more their attention toward the visual space where threat-stimuli (snakes) were presented. The findings suggest a reflexive overt attentional orienting bias for subliminal snakes in comparison with subliminal control stimuli. The differentiation between participants with high and low fear of snakes suggested that a disposition to fear snakes affects the initial ocular saccades. In the second study, participants were instructed to discriminate a sign that was randomly displayed at the center of the display while subliminal images were peripherally presented. The results revealed larger pupil dilation for threatening stimuli subliminally presented; again, high-fear individuals showed larger pupillary dilations, independently of the stimulus category. Our results are in line with the assumption that a predisposition to fear is relevant for extraocular and intraocular movements when exposed to threat stimuli. These findings suggest that eye measurements, combined with subliminal exposure techniques, could be a reliable and nonintrusive aid tool to be used for the assessment and treatment of fear and phobias.

  • 18.
    Rydblom, Staffan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Olsson, Esbjörn
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst (SMHI), Sundsvall.
    Field Study of LWC and MVD Using the Droplet Imaging Instrument2019Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 614-622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The droplet imaging instrument (DII) is a new instrument for cost-effective in situ measurements of the size and concentration of water droplets. The droplet size distribution and the concentration of atmospheric liquid water are important for the prediction of icing on structures, such as wind turbines. To improve the predictions of icing, there is a need to explore cost-effective working solutions. Through imaging, a wide range of droplet sizes can be measured. This paper describes a study of the atmospheric liquid water content and the median volume diameter using the DII and a commercial reference instrument--the cloud droplet probe 2 from Droplet Measurement Technologies Inc. The measurement is done at a weather measurement station in mid-Sweden. For a second validation, the result is compared with predictions using a numerical weather prediction model. The size measurement of the DII is verified using polymer microspheres of four known size distributions. The study shows that the DII measurement is precise, but there is a systematic difference between the two compared instruments. It also shows that droplets larger than 50 μm in diameter are occasionally measured, which we believe is important for the prediction of icing.

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